Ancient Bone Hidden in a Stone Leads to a Roman Villa of Royal Proportions

Ancient Bone Hidden in a Stone Leads to a Roman Villa of Royal Proportions

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In 1963 in England, Broughton farmer John Taylor was ploughing one of his large fields an hour north-west of London. His plough hit an enormous stone causing a crack which revealed a space below. When he put his hand inside he pulled out a human bone. Nearly five decades later archaeologists know that the stone was actually a Roman sarcophagus belonging to "the second-largest Roman villa in the United Kingdom,” and that bone belonged to an unidentified Roman Britain woman buried around 1,700 years ago.

A Massive Roman Footprint

The Roman villa is located beneath cropland on the estate of Broughton Castle, near Banbury in Oxfordshire, England, on land belonging to Martin Fiennes, the heir of Baron Saye and Sele Fiennes. The vast foundations date back to AD99 and architectural historians celebrate this villa for having been “only just smaller than Buckingham Palace” according to a report in The Times .

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The full extent of the villa is not yet known, but some of the structure can be seen in the dry outline from this aerial shot. (Image: Keith Westcott)

Keith Westcott is the director of the Association of Metal Detectorists and told reporters he was “intrigued by the site after being told by farmer John Taylor of the time he had ploughed into what had appeared to be a large stone on the land in 1963.” Mr Westcott said:

I had been fascinated by the knowledge of this little-known burial and needed to go out to the site because I knew she was there for a reason. Who was this woman of such importance? I started to feel a connection to this person, believing her to have been ‘lost’ from a contextual landscape.

Westcott visited the site in the summer of 2016 and after spending a day inspecting and surveying the whole area he a found “A huge plinth-like setting that was not of natural topography”. Then, he discovered an “1,800-year-old tile from a hypocaust,” which was a Roman central heating system . According to an article in the Banbury Guardian in April this year Mr Westcott and a team of specialists from Oxford Archaeology dug five test trenches and used “specialist technology to gauge how much remained of the villa.”

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A lead-lined stone sarcophagus was found containing the remains of a woman. (Image: Keith Westcott)

Using high-tech methods like “magnetometry” archaeologists have managed to “penetrate the soil” and map out the ancient villa. So far the technology has helped the team discover: “several walls, room outlines, and ditches - all without having set a shovel to soil,” according to an article in IFL Science . Scans have also indicated the presence of “a bath-house, a domed-roof, mosaics, a grand dining room, kitchen, and living room.”

Beneath the Surface

Earlier excavations turned up smaller artifacts like: “coins, trophies, boar tusks and pendants” and this time round the archaeologists have so far recovered “178 items of significance” including “bone china and a Roman coin.” Mr Westcott said: “It truly is a remarkable find . We’ve only uncovered about 1 per cent so the possibilities of what we still might find are endless.”

Romulus and Remus coin found at the site. (Image: Banbury Guardian)

Lady in the Lead Lined Sarcophagus

Every good story has to have a ‘human interest’ and that question remains unanswered: who was the woman the bones belonged to? Nobody really has an answer to this. What is known is that she was just over 5 feet tall and in her 30s when she died. The wealth surrounding her lead-lined tomb informs archaeologists that she was nobility, but the Romans occupied Britain for four hundred years which saw 10s of thousands of nobles’ feet, in ancient time, walk upon England’s mountains green.

The team is trying to raise £2 million funding to fully excavate the plot and Mr Fiennes, who took part in the original dig, said he plans to “reach out to various universities, starting with Oxford, to see if they are interested in leading a project to do a full excavation over a period of years.” If the project fails to find a funder, Mr Fiennes said the villa “stays happily undisturbed for another 50 or 100 years until someone comes up with the money and interest.”

    Hidden History revealed: 7-meter-tall giant skeletons on display

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    Father Carlos Vaca—a Catholic priest— guarded for decades the remains of skeletons of immense size. Most of the bone fragments—of beings that had a height of around 7 meters—were recovered, from a site called “Changaiminas” in Ecuador. Curiously, Changaiminas translated means “Gods cemetery.”

    There are countless stories of incredible discoveries that have been made around the planet. Curiously, Ecuador is home to many strange findings. One of the most popular recent discoveries is the so-called lost city of Giants which was found by a group of explorers in the Ecuadorian jungle.

    In addition to the mysterious city, in the past people have found skeletons of immense size in different parts of Ecuador. In the southern parts of Ecuador, near the border with Peru, people have found all sorts of strange things. According to reports, experts have recovered bones and skeletons which are similar to humans only much larger in size.

    Many of these skeletons and bones remained hidden from the public in private collections around the globe.

    One of the most famous guardians of ‘Giant skeletons’ is believed to have been Father Carlos Miguel Vaca, who guarded until his death in 1999, several bones and fragments unearthed from a site called “Changaiminas” in Ecuador. Curiously, Changaiminas translated means “Gods cemetery.”

    Father Carlos Miguel Vaca Alvarado was born on August 25, 191, in Loja, Ecuador. He was the priest of the parish of Changaimina in Gonzanamá Loja province in Ecuador.

    Father Carlos Vaca was a Catholic priest, musician, and archaeologist who discovered in 1965—coincidentally the same year of Juan Moricz’s expedition in the Tayos cave and the discovery of an underground world—an archaeological settlement of GIANT skeletons which were later exhibited in his museum,located at Changaimina, known as the “Museo del Padre Vaca” where he kept numerous objects which were discovered in the lands owned by Mr. Luis Guamán.

    The collection included bones of giants of supposedly seven meters in height that inhabited Ecuador and other parts of America thousands of years ago.

    The collection was also composed of strange utensils, minerals, and compounds of “magical properties”, which according to many authors would explain numerous archaeological mysteries that have not yet been deciphered.

    Some of the bone fragments were supposedly sent to the Smithsonian institute for further analysis. Reports of the skeletons and their whereabouts were broadcasted on a television program in Ecuador, led by renowned director Alfonso Espinosa De Los Monteros.

    After the death of Father Vaca—curiously as it happened with the museum of Father Crespi—its contents were looted.

    Please note, the images of the standing giant are the reconstruction of the fragments that were found in Ecuador in the 60’s and can be visited in the Mystery Park en Interlaken – Switzerland, since 2004.

    Furthermore, in addition to the skeletons of immense proportions, researchers have discovered many more curious places in Ecuador. The Lost City of Giants is one of them.

    According to an article on the website Earth4All written by Bruce Fenton, one of the discoverers:

    In 2012 a group of Ecuadorian adventurers were led into the jungle to seek out the structure they had seen in an old photograph. On the first attempt they became lost, yet fate took a lucky turn, they actually stumbled on a second megalithic site, a strange stone platform situated on the edge of a small river. Scattered about on the jungle floor and in the water itself were a multitude of artefacts and human engineered stone objects. As yet these artefacts have not been matched to any known culture and even their previous functions remain a mystery for the most part. Soon after this the same group launched a second attempt for the megalithic wall in their photograph, this time successfully reaching the site.

    Thanks to our own efforts to make the public aware of this incredible discovery (or rediscovery even) images and video from the expedition and from others that followed have since sent shock waves through the global archaeological community. No expert has been able to offer an explanation for who might be responsible for this site nor when it could have been constructed. Quite simply it is not reasonable to think these sites were built in the dangerous interior of the Llanganates, rather it only makes sense to assume the structures were built at a time when the jungle was not present and have since been overgrown. The questions is then whether this might be centuries ago, or much more likely many millennia into our past!

    “…the tunnel stretches from the central square…which was…used for human sacrifices…all the way to the Pyramid of the Moon.”
    Blood drainage to a holding cistern under the pyramid for “other” rituals or “baths” .
    Guess it all depends on what was found in these tunnels. Sitchin says these tunnels were used for ore refining purposes. *shrugs*

    Where have you been hiding? Haven’t seen you on an article in…long time.

    Bitten by an online game….yeah, been there…..first was Everquest….
    Then Age of Conan….Almost got into Elite: Dangerous and then MechWarrior Online…
    but thought smoking crack would be much more enjoyable, so I didn’t.
    (Yeah, making myself laugh…that was a joke about the crack)

    The Golden Rule….”He who has the gold….”
    Would it be wise to refine gold and silver where thousands could scoop it up unsupervised?
    Would it be wise to allow the introduction of sticks and bugs and flip-flops into the refining process?…or poo? or little Leandro, the kid who was standing right there a second ago?
    I don’t know, Fuzzy….I’m spit-balling here.

    nope! that’s the false narrative

    the underworld Uh NO! What they found was Liquid Mercury or the evidence that they thousands of years ago were able to do the processes needed to acquire the mineral. They also found a room full of clay balls or dirt balls covered with Pyrite, or fools gold. In other parts they found a chamber filled with Micah on the walls as a insulator. Also there is evidence of an explosion that happened and from what I seen it was an explosion from the use of these items that were found, so No! not usual main stream thinking of rituals and crap but more likely either for use of electricity, or Nuclear.
    Liquid mercury, Gold or fools gold, and Micah are all used for electronics.
    Anyone know or ever hear of the Gap theory?
    Check into it.

    The gate keepers so want to expel any notion that ancient man had advanced technology, but I wont let them. The one main correlation between ancient alien theory and creation, is the fact that other worldly beings helped influence mankind’s advancement. I believe in god however and don’t believe in evolution.
    Two theory’s can easily Neanderthals, and other primate man. 1st is the Gap theory that states between Genesis 1, and genesis two life had already existed which could of been these other man types then. For it does say upon the waters gods spirit passed over. So the question is, if water wasn’t created until later in Genesis how is his spirit passing over the waters?
    The second one, and may actually just be a continuance of the first, but the books of Enoch, Jubilees, and Asher Mainly Asher tell of animal and man experiments. Chimeras, centaurs, mermaids or Nagga are all written in other ancient texts, or sculpted images all around the world.
    The watchers came down mated with earthly women which gave birth to Giants, and taught ancient man metallurgy science and other such things. It’s not a far stretch that they also taught them how to do technology such as electricity and other things. Baghdad battery, a light bulb looking Hieroglyph in Egypt Helicopter images etc… A golden trinket that looks a lot like an airplane etc…
    Neanderthals if the gap theory is true may with Satan’s influence gained technology long before they were ready, and god had to flood the world then. Then he recreated us differently and better the second time but Satan, the watchers, and evil angels once again mucked up his creation and a second flood came.
    Or if the gap theory isn’t correct then when the fallen angels mated with women, they may of either mated with monkeys or did unnatural experiments with them to create what atheists call evolution. or the fossil record .
    Either way Satan says he will be like the most high, and elevate himself above all that is called god. So what better way to make yourself god is to propagate a false narrative of evolution, make people disbelieve in the true god so he can become their god then. Even if people don’t turn from believing in God he still is able to make people believe he’s god by twisting truth jsut enough so people will still follow him even if they don’t know it or realize it.

    Pre-Hellenic Architecture

    There are not much evidences of art and architecture prior to 3000 B.C., except for a few stray statues found scattered on the Cyclades Islands near Athens. The first solid evidence of architecture of the pre-Hellenic phase comes from the Minoan capital of Knossos, located on the island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea. At Knossos, ancient ruins belonging to about 2000 B.C. have been recovered. These include painted palatial structures and a few tombs. However, no traces of religious structures have been found. The Knossos ruins do not point towards a planned settlement. What catches attention, however, is the drainage and plumbing that seems quite advanced for the time. Beautifully frescoed walls have also been found. One of the most important ruins at Knossos is its palace complex , which would have been an out-and-out stone construction. Remnants of rooms, porticoes, and stairways have been found in the complex.

    In about 1500 B.C., the Mycenaeans conquered Crete, and the center of political power moved to mainland Greece, where Mycenae and Tiryns were the most important centers of artistic activity. The location of Crete provided the island with natural defenses, and hence, there was no need to build extra defense mechanisms such as fortification walls. But on the mainland, we have evidences of royal palaces with strong fortification walls constructed out of undressed stones, which were closely fitted together without any gaps in between, and with no use of mortar. These fortification walls, that later came to be known by the Hellenes (ancient Greeks) as the cyclopean walls were robust and sturdy structures, built around royal residences. The fortification wall of the palace at Tiryns is 20 feet thick.

    There are two structures of this period, which are worth a mention. The first and the most important one is the megaron or the great central hall in the palace of Tiryns. Considered to be the prototype of the later Greek temples, it is rectangular on plan and bears an open circular hearth in the center. Four, supposedly wooden, columns supported its roof. According to the theory of architecture, the megaron was a first of its kind structure, wherein purely utilitarian designs used the elements of aesthetics, so that it served its purpose as well as pleased the eye.

    The second important structure is from the citadel of Mycenae. Known as the Lion Gate , it is a monumental entrance to the citadel, constructed sometime around 1250 B.C. It gets its name from the triangular limestone slab placed just above the lintel that bears a relief of two standing lionesses, facing each other on either side of a central pillar. The pillar itself has been depicted on a platform that seems like an altar. The gate could be approached by a ramp of paved stone tiles. Beyond the Lion Gate was a royal citadel, which housed a royal court, a guard post, and a building that was probably a granary.

    The Dorian invasion of the Aegean islands took place in about 1100 B.C. These invaders not only conquered the lands where the preceding civilizations flourished, but they also destroyed their material remnants to a great extent. Whatever survived, contributed to the development of the Hellenic style.


    Architectural advances are an important part of the Neolithic period (10,000-2000 BC), during which some of the major innovations of human history occurred. The domestication of plants and animals, for example, led to both new economics and a new relationship between people and the world, an increase in community size and permanence, a massive development of material culture and new social and ritual solutions to enable people to live together in these communities. New styles of individual structures and their combination into settlements provided the buildings required for the new lifestyle and economy, and were also an essential element of change. [3]

    Although many dwellings belonging to all prehistoric periods and also some clay models of dwellings have been uncovered enabling the creation of faithful reconstructions, they seldom included elements that may relate them to art. Some exceptions are provided by wall decorations and by finds that equally apply to Neolithic and Chalcolithic rites and art.

    In South and Southwest Asia, Neolithic cultures appear soon after 10,000 BC, initially in the Levant (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) and from there spread eastwards and westwards. There are early Neolithic cultures in Southeast Anatolia, Syria and Iraq by 8000 BC, and food-producing societies first appear in southeast Europe by 7000 BC, and Central Europe by c. 5500 BC (of which the earliest cultural complexes include the Starčevo-Koros (Cris), Linearbandkeramic, and Vinča). [4] [5] [6] [7]

      in Turkey, ca. 9,000 BC in the Levant, Neolithic from around 8,350 BC, arising from the earlier EpipaleolithicNatufian culture in Turkey, ca. 8,000 BC in Turkey, 7,500 BC in Pakistan, 7,000 BC and Skara Brae, the Orkney Islands, Scotland, from 3,500 BC
    • over 3,000 settlements of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, some with populations up to 15,000 residents, flourished in present-day Romania, Moldova and Ukraine from 5,400 to 2,800 BC.

    The Neolithic people in the Levant, Anatolia, Syria, northern Mesopotamia and Central Asia were great builders, utilizing mud-brick to construct houses and villages. At Çatalhöyük, houses were plastered and painted with elaborate scenes of humans and animals. The Mediterranean Neolithic cultures of Malta worshiped in megalithic temples.

    In Europe, long houses built from wattle and daub were constructed. Elaborate tombs for the dead were also built. These tombs are particularly numerous in Ireland, where there are many thousands still in existence. Neolithic people in the British Isles built long barrows and chamber tombs for their dead and causewayed camps, henges flint mines and cursus monuments.

    Göbekli Tepe from Turkey, founded in 10th millennium BC and abandoned in 8th millennium BC

    Pottery miniature of a Cucuteni-Trypillian house

    Miniature of a regular Cucuteni-Trypillian house, full of ceramic vessels

    Mesopotamia Edit

    Mesopotamia is most noted for its construction of mud-brick buildings and the construction of ziggurats, occupying a prominent place in each city and consisting of an artificial mound, often rising in huge steps, surmounted by a temple. The mound was no doubt to elevate the temple to a commanding position in what was otherwise a flat river valley. The great city of Uruk had a number of religious precincts, containing many temples larger and more ambitious than any buildings previously known. [8]

    The word ziggurat is an anglicized form of the Akkadian word ziqqurratum, the name given to the solid stepped towers of mud brick. It derives from the verb zaqaru, ("to be high"). The buildings are described as being like mountains linking Earth and heaven. The Ziggurat of Ur, excavated by Leonard Woolley, is 64 by 46 meters at base and originally some 12 meters in height with three stories. It was built under Ur-Nammu (circa 2100 B.C.) and rebuilt under Nabonidus (555–539 B.C.), when it was increased in height to probably seven stories. [9]

    Assyrian palaces had a large public court with a suite of apartments on the east side and a series of large banqueting halls on the south side. This was to become the traditional plan of Assyrian palaces, built and adorned for the glorification of the king. [10] Massive amounts of ivory furniture pieces were found in some palaces.

    Mosaic panel (using stone cones) decorating a wall of one of the temple at the city of Uruk (Iraq), 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC, Iraq Museum (Baghdad)

    Mosaic panel (using stone cones) decorating a wall of one of the temple at the city of Uruk, 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC, Iraq Museum

    Sumerian scene band with milking cows and making dairy products, from the façade of the Temple of Ninhursag (Tell al-'Ubaid, Iraq), 2800-2600 BC, Iraq Museum

    Parts of mosaic columns from the entrance to the Temple of Ninhursag, 2800-2600 BC, Iraq Museum

    Mosaics (using stone cones) from Eanna, an ancient Sumerian temple in Uruk, in the Pergamon Museum (Berlin, Germany)

    Modern reconstruction of columns with mosaics (using stone cones) from the Eanna temple, in the Pergamon Museum

    Ceramic miniature of a house, circa 2600 BC, in the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum (San Jose, California, USA)

    Illustration of a hall in the Assyrian Palace of Ashurnasrirpal II by Austen Henry Layard (1854)

    Assyrian reliefs from the Palace of Sargon II in Khorsabad, 721-705 BC, Oriental Institute Museum (Chicago, USA)

    Reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate (circa 575 BC) in the Pergamon Museum

    Panel of the Ishtar Gate in the Pergamon Museum

    Ancient Egyptian Edit

    Modern imaginings of ancient Egypt are heavily influences by the surviving traces of monumental architecture. Many formal styles and motifs were established at the dawn of the pharaonic state, around 3100 BC. The inspiration for many of these styles lay in the organic elements used in early buildings made from perishable materials. While the original structures are almost totally unknown, stylised motifs of plants continued to be replicated and adapted well into the Roman period. The endurance of forms over such a long period means that pharaonic architecture is easily recognisable today, and has been widely imitated by architects in modern times. [11]

    In Ancient Egypt and other early societies, people believed in the omnipotence of gods, with many aspects of daily life carried out with respect to the idea of the divine or supernatural and the way it was manifest in the mortal cycles of generations, years, seasons, days and nights. Harvests for example were seen as the benevolence of fertility deities. Thus, the founding and ordering of the city and her most important buildings (the palace and temple) were often executed by priests or even the ruler himself and the construction was accompanied by rituals intended to enter human activity into continued divine benediction.

    Ancient architecture is characterized by this tension between the divine and mortal world. Cities would mark a contained sacred space over the wilderness of nature outside, and the temple or palace continued this order by acting as a house for the gods. The architect, be he priest or king, was not the sole important figure, he was merely part of a continuing tradition. [ citation needed ]

    The Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid of Giza, circa 2589-2566 BC, by Hemiunu

    Model of a house, 1750-1700 BC, pottery, 27 x 27 x 17 cm, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

    Osiride pillars of the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut (Deir el-Bahri, Egypt), circa 1473-1458 BC

    Pylon of the Luxor Temple (Luxor, Egypt), with an obelisk in front, circa 1400 BC

    Frescos in the burial chamber of Tutankhamun's Tomb, 14th century BC

    Columns of the Great Hypostyle Hall from the Temple of Karnak (El-Karnak, Egypt), circa 1294-1213 BC

    Frescos in the Tomb of Nefertari, in which appear Khepri sitting on a very colourful square-shaped throne, 13th century BC

    The Temple of Dendur, completed by 10 BC, aeolian sandstone, height: 6.4 m, width: 6.4 m, length: 12.5 m, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art

    Illustrations of various types of capitals, circa 1849–1859, drawn by the egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius

    Illustrations from 1874 of ornaments and patterns used by ancient Egyptians

    Greek Edit

    Pre-classical Edit

    The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age Aegean civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands, flourishing from circa 2700 to circa 1450 BC until a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100 BC. Minoan buildings often had flat, tiled roofs plaster, wood or flagstone floors, and stood two to three stories high. Lower walls were typically constructed of stone and rubble, and the upper walls of mudbrick. Ceiling timbers held up the roofs. The main colors used in Minoan frescos were black (carbonaceous shale), white (hydrate of lime), red (hematite), yellow (ochre), blue (silicate of copper) and green (yellow and blue mixed together). The most iconic Minoan building is the Palace of Knossos, being connected to the mythological story of The Bull of Minos, since it is in this palace where it was written that the labyrinth existed.

    A common characteristic of the Minoan architecture were flat roofs. The rooms of villas didn't have windows to the streets, the light arriving from courtyards. In the 2nd millennium BC, the villas had one or two floors, and the palaces even three. One of the most notable Minoan contributions to architecture is their inverted column, wider at the top than the base (unlike most Greek columns, which are wider at the bottom to give an impression of height). The columns were made of wood (not stone) and were generally painted red. Mounted on a simple stone base, they were topped with a pillow-like, round capital. [12] [13]

    Aegean art reached its peak in circa 1650-1450 BC and was at first dominated by the Minoans. However, at the height of its influence, the Minoan civilization fell and its position was quickly inherited by the Mycenaeans, a race of warriors who flourished in Greece from 1600 to 1200 BC. Although Cretan artisans may have been employed on the reworking of Mycenaean citadels, the two styles remained distinct. Mycenaean buildings were carefully planned and focused on the megaron (central unit), while the Minoans favoured complex, labyrinthine forms. [14] Mycenaean columns, like the Minoan examples, were slender and tapered sharply downwords. [15]

    Queen's Megaron from the Palace of Knossos, with the Dolphin fresco. A common characteristic of Minoan palaces are frescos

    Minoan town house model, circa 1700–1675 BC, terracotta, height: 18 cm, from Archanes (Crete), in Archaeological Museum of Heraklion (Heraklion, Greece) [16]

    Illustration of the upper part of a Mycenaean column, from the Tomb of Agamemnon

    A preserved part of a large Mycenaean mural composition from the Palace of Thebes, circa 14th-13th centuries BC

    Classical and Hellenistic Edit

    The architecture and urbanism of the Greeks and Romans was very different from that of the Egyptians and Persians. Civic life gained importance for all members of the community. In the time of the ancients religious matters were only handled by the ruling class by the time of the Greeks, religious mystery had skipped the confines of the temple-palace compounds and was the subject of the people or polis. Ancient Greek architecture was fundamentally a representation of timber post and lintel, or "trabeated" construction in stone, and most surviving buildings are temples. Rows of tall columns supported a lintel, which in turn supported a pitched roof structure running the length of the building. The triangular gable formed at either end of the pitched roof was often heavily decorated and was a key feature of the style. Today we think of Classical and Hellenist Greek architecture as being characterized by the use of plain white marble, but originally it would have been brightly painted in gaudy colors. For example, Doric order capitals were painted with geometric and egg-and-dart patterns. [17]

    Greek civic life was sustained by new, open spaces called the agora, which were surrounded by public buildings, stores and temples. The agora embodied the newfound respect for social justice received through open debate rather than imperial mandate. Though divine wisdom still presided over human affairs, the living rituals of ancient civilizations had become inscribed in space, in the paths that wound towards the acropolis for example. Each place had its own nature, set within a world refracted through myth, thus temples were sited atop mountains all the better to touch the heavens.

    Greek architecture was typically made of stone. Most surviving buildings are temples, based on strict rules of proportion. These temples typically included a peristyle (outer area with (typically Doric) columns), and three-sections in the middle, being 1. the pronaus (entrance), 2. the main cella or naos chamber (where a statue of the god or goddess and an altar was built), and 3. the opisthodomos behind the cella. [18] The most iconic element of Hellenistic architecture is of course the column. The Doric order, sober and severe, was dominant in Peloponnese and Magna Graecia (Sicily and South Italy), being named the masculine order of Hellenistic architecture. Meanwhile, the Ionic order is graceful and more ornamented, being the feminine order. Because of Ionic's proportions, it is used especially for monumental buildings. The third of the Greek orders was also the last to be developed. The earliest documented examples of the use of the Corinthian order are (internally) at the Temple of Apollo Epicurius, Bassae (429-390 BC) and (externally) at the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates (335-334 BC). Corinthian was not, like the Doric and Ionic orders, a structural system. It was purely decorative, its effect due almost wholly to its elaborate floral capital. This, according to Vitruvius, was designed by the Athenian sculptor Callimachus, and may originally have been worked in bronze. Apart from this capital, all the constituent parts were borrowed from the Ionic order. Gradually, in Hellenistic times (after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC), Corinthian did begin to develop, but it was left to the Romans to blend the elements together and make it perfect. [19]

    The ruins of the Temple of Hera (Paestum, present-day Italy), circa 550-460 BC [20]

    Fragment of carved and painted terracotta revetment, circa 520 BC, from one of the long sides of the roof of the Temple of Hera (Paestum) [21]

    The Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis, made of marble and limestone, 460-406 BC

    Illustrations with the sculptures of the two pediments of the Parthenon, drawn by James Stuart & Nicholas Revett in 1794

    The Temple of Athena Nike on the Athenian Acropolis, 437-432 BC [22]

    The Caryatid porch of the Erechtheion (Athens), 421-406 BC

    Tholos of the Temple of Athena Pronaia (Delphi, Greece), 380-360 BC, by Theodoros of Phocaea [23]

    Illustrations with the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (Halicarnassus, modern-day Bodrum, part of Turkey), circa 350 BC

    The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus (Epidaurus, Greece), greatly lauded in its time for its beauty, symmetry, acoustics, and location, 3rd century BC, attributed to Polykleitos the Younger

    The Temple of Olympian Zeus (Athens), started between 175 and 146 BC, by Antistatis, Kallaischros, Antimachides and Phormos

    Illustration of the altar and statue of the Temple of Asclepius (Epidaurus, Greece), which shows the interior of an Ancient Greek temple

    Mosaic floor with geometric cubic patterns and an edge with wave-shaped volutes of a house from Delos (Greece)

    Illustrations from 1874 of ornaments and patterns used by ancient Greeks and Romans

    Etruscan Edit

    Just as Mycenaean architecture seems to have influenced the classical Greeks, so the structures raised by the Etruscans are important in the evolution of ancient Roman architecture. The Etruscans probably originated in Asia Minor and settled in west-central Italy (Etruria), between the rivers Arno and Tiber. From the late 7th century BC their power grew, and for a while Rome itself was ruled by Etruscan kings. But with the establishment of a republic in 509 BC, Etruscan civilization began to decline and its various city states were conquered. Nonetheless, the Etruscans did not cease their architectural activity, which retained its distinct character until the 1st century BC. Few buildings survived, but those that do are extremely fine, especially the tombs, which were located mainly in specific necropolis sites. [24]

    The Etruscans, as we know from the writings of Vitruvius, a Roman architect and engineer of the 1st century BC, developed a style of temple building which, though inspired by Greek and Oriental examples, was quite distinctive in its own right. It conformed to specific rules, referred to as tuscanicae dispositiones by Vitruvius. Temples were usually of mud-brick and timber, though stone was used later, and seem to have been built to face south. They were placed at the centre of towns and fronted on to squares, in which altars were placed. [25] Temples were lavishly decorated with painted terracotta, which served partly to protect the wooden elements of the structure. For example, the sides of the roof bore ante-fixae (slabs used to close the end of a row of tiles), and there were statues over the pediment and within the pronaos. [26] Many of the temples were divided into three cellas (sanctuaries), the central one being the most important and sometimes the largest. [25]

    Model of a temple, constructed between 1889 and 1890 on the basis of the ruins found in Alatri, now in National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia (Rome)

    Detail of the Etruscan temple reconstruction from, Villa Giulia

    Silenus-head antefix, 5th century BC, in Museo nazionale dell'Agro Falisco (Civita Castellana, Lazio, Italy)

    Achaemenid Edit

    The pre-Islamic styles draw on 3-4 thousand years of architectural development from various civilizations of the Iranian plateau. The Islamic architecture of Iran in turn, draws ideas from its pre-Islamic predecessor, and has geometrical and repetitive forms, as well as surfaces that are richly decorated with glazed tiles, carved stucco, patterned brickwork, floral motifs, and calligraphy. Iran is recognized by UNESCO as being one of the cradles of civilization. [27]

    Each of the periods of Elamites, Achaemenids, Parthians, and Sassanids were creators of great architecture that over the ages has spread wide and far to other cultures being adopted. Although Iran has suffered its share of destruction, including Alexander The Great's decision to burn Persepolis, there are sufficient remains to form a picture of its classical architecture.

    The Achaemenids built on a grand scale. The artists and materials they used were brought in from practically all territories of what was then the largest state in the world. Pasargadae set the standard: its city was laid out in an extensive park with bridges, gardens, colonnaded palaces and open column pavilions. Pasargadae along with Susa and Persepolis expressed the authority of The King of Kings, the staircases of the latter recording in relief sculpture the vast extent of the imperial frontier.

    With the emergence of the Parthians and Sassanids there was an appearance of new forms. Parthian innovations fully flowered during the Sassanid period with massive barrel-vaulted chambers, solid masonry domes, and tall columns. This influence was to remain for years to come. The roundness of the city of Baghdad in the Abbasid era for example, points to its Persian precedents such as Firouzabad in Fars. [28] The two designers who were hired by al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht, a former Persian Zoroastrian who also determined that the date of the foundation of the city would be astrologically auspicious, and Mashallah, a former Jew from Khorasan. The ruins of Persepolis, Ctesiphon, Jiroft, [29] Sialk, Pasargadae, Firouzabad, Arg-é Bam, and thousands of other ruins may give us merely a distant glimpse of what contribution Persians made to the art of building.

    Relief from Persepolis that depicts people who carry bowls and amphoraes

    Decorative panel with sphinxes from the Palace of Darius I at Susa, 522-486 BC, Louvre

    Frieze of archers, circa 510 BC, from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre

    Human-headed sphinx, originally part of the façade of the Palace G from Persepolis, built by Artaxerxes III, 4th century BC, British Museum (London)

    The Tomb of Artaxerxes III from Persepolis

    Illustrations with ornaments, patterns and designs used in Achaemenid architecture

    Roman Edit

    The architecture of ancient Rome has been one of the most influential in the world. Its legacy is evident throughout the medieval and early modern periods, and Roman buildings continue to be reused in the modern era in both traditionalist and Postmodern emulations. Yet Roman architecture encompasses an exceptionally diverse range of styles and historical periods. While the most important works are to be found in Italy, Roman builders also found creative outlets in the western and eastern provinces, of which the best examples preserved are in modern-day North Africa, Turkey, Syria and Jordan.

    The ambition of Rome's builders was already apparent at the end of the 6th century BC in the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill, and the dedication of the temple in 509 BC traditionally marked the start of the Roman Republic. Raised on a high terraced platform, with walls of massive blocks of the local volcanic tuff, the temple was fronted by a portico with columns set widely apart and a roof with overhanging eaves and terracotta decoration, producing an appearance that, according to Vitruvius five centuries later, looked ungainly and old-fashioned. Yet the temple's emphasis on frontal dignity and its imposingly elevated setting not only remained a feature of Roman architecture into the later empire, but also became a substantial influence on building design in subsequent periods.

    Roman architecture was particularly influenced by Greek and Etruscan styles. A range of temple types was developed during the republican years (509–27 BC), modified from Greek and Etruscan prototypes. Of these the pseudoperipterial temple form, with free-standing columns in front of the porch, but half-columns built into the walls behind, giving the illusion of a fully peripterial temple, became typical not only in the West, but also in North Africa and Levant. The full integration of columns into a continuous wall became a hallmark of later classicism, as in the Todmorden Town Hall (Yorkshire, the UK) from 1875, where the half columns wrapped around the building take the form of a Giant order, but the debt to the Roman pseudoperipterial podium temple remains evident.

    Between the 4th and 1st centuries BC, Italian cities also exploited Hellenistic Greek developments in fortification architecture. The voussoir (trapped stone) arch adopted for gate structures in the formerly Greek cities of Poiseidonia (Paestum) and Velia (Elea) in southern Italy and in the northern Italian cities of Falerii and Cosa became a hallmark of the Roman city. The wall of Telesia in northern Campania epitomise the sophistication of late republican city walls, with re-entrant curving wall segments between round and polygonal towers. In these structutes, the use of rubble concrete consisting of lime mortar with a stone aggregate - varying from flint to lightweight volcanic pumice from the area of Pozzuoli - illustrated the most decisive contribution of Roman architecture in giving rise to new ideas of volume and space. Developed in utilitarian structures, such as the Porticus Aemilia in Rome (circa 100-110 AD), it facilitates the volumetric spaciousness of the barrel-vaulted hall at Ferentium, built in circa 100 BC against the hillside below the citadel and flanked by barrel-vaulted rooms in a formula that reached greater sophistication in the main of Trajan's Market in Rome (circa 100-110 AD). The use of concrete also encouraged iventiveness in monumental tomb architecture. The three-tier tomb near Capua known as La Conocchia consists of a tholos (dome-shaped tomb) perched on a reverse-curve pavilion-like form over a podium that prefigures church designs by Francesco Borromini (1599-1667).

    Roman architecture was transformed by the use of Greek marble from the 2nd century BC. Temples in white marble of the Ionic and Corinthian orders challenged the old terracotta forms, and by the 1st century BC coloured marbles from Greece, Asia and North Africa embellished the stage fronts of temporary thatres and the interiors of basilicas, culminating the Basilica Aemilia in Rome (14 AD) with polychrome marbles and caryatid-like support figures. Porticoes of white marble were built to enclose public spaces. The Corinthian order, showcased in Augustus's marble temples and the Forum Augustum (2 BC), became a model for provincial centres, of which the Maison Carrée in Nîmes (present-day France) remains an exceptional example. Theatres were provided with permanent stage buildings adorned with columns of polychrome marble, which derived from Roman tradition of temporary stage buildings in the final decades of the Republic. The Theatre of Pompey (55 BC) was the first permanent theatre in Rome, and its layout influenced provincial versions. In the Roman Theatre of Orange from southern Gaul, the stage building was adorned with three tiers of columns framing statues in niches. [30]

    La Conocchia (Curti, Campania, Italy), 1st century BC

    The bronze door of the Curia Julia (44–29 BC), an example of an ancient door that is still used

    Panorama of the interior of the Pantheon (Rome), 114-123 AD

    The dome of the Pantheon (Rome)

    A Corinthian capital of the Parthenon (Rome)

    The Horrea Epagathiana et Epaphroditiana (Ostia, Rome), 145-150 AD [31]

    A Composite capital from the Temple of Trajan (Pergamon, Turkey), 2nd century AD

    Marine mosaic (central panel of three panels from a floor), 200–230 mosaic (stone and glass tesserae), Museum of Fine Arts (Boston, US)

    The Theseus Mosaic, 300–400, marble and limestone pebbles, Kunsthistorisches Museum (Vienna, Austria)

    Due to the extent of the Islamic conquests, Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of architectural styles from the foundation of Islam (7th century) to the present day. Both the religious and secular designs have influenced the design and construction of buildings and structures within and outside the sphere of Islamic culture. Islamic architecture is typically based on the idea of relating to the secular or the religious. [32] [ clarification needed ] Some distinctive structures in Islamic architecture are mosques, madrasas, tombs, palaces, baths, and forts. [33] [34] [35]

    The wide and long history of Islam has given rise to many local architectural styles, including but not limited to: Umayyad, Abbasid, Persian, Moorish, Fatimid, Mamluk, Ottoman, Indo-Islamic (particularly Mughal), Sino-Islamic and Sahelian architecture. Notable types of Islamic religious architecture include hypostyle mosques, domed mosques and mausoleums, structures with vaulted iwans, and madrasas built around central courtyards. In secular architecture, major examples of preserved historic palaces include the Alhambra and the Topkapi Palace. Islam does not encourage the worship of idols therefore the architecture tends to be decorated with Arabic calligraphy (including Qur'anic verses or other poetry) and with more abstract motifs such as geometric patterns, muqarnas, and arabesques, as opposed to illustrations of scenes and stories. [33] [34] [36]

    Sudano-Sahelian architecture: the Great Mosque of Djenné in present-day Mali, illustrating the mud construction of western Africa

    Mesoamerican Edit

    Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, (such as the Olmec, Maya, and Aztec) traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. The distinctive features of Mesoamerican architecture encompass a number of different regional and historical styles, which however are significantly interrelated. These styles developed throughout the different phases of Mesoamerican history as a result of the intensive cultural exchange between the different cultures of the Mesoamerican culture area through thousands of years. The Mezcala culture (700–200 BC) is known for its temple shaped sculptures, usually with an anthropomorphic person in the middle.

    Mesoamerican architecture is mostly noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt. Stepped pyramids were the predominant form of monumental architecture in Pre-Columbian America. These had few rooms, as interiors mattered less that the ritual presence of these imposing structures and the public ceremonies they hosted so, platforms, altars, processional stairs, statuary, and carving were all important. [37]

    Ceramic house model, probably 200 BC, Los Angeles County Museum of Art

    Mezcala temple model with a figure in centre, 1st–8th centuries AD, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

    Traditional Mayan house at Chichen Itza (Mexico)

    Overview of the central plaza of the Mayan city of Palenque (Chiapas, Mexico), a fine example of Classic period Mesoamerican architecture

    Mayan geometric spiral wall ornamentation on a façade of the Governor's Palace (Uxmal, Yucatán)

    Teotihuacan style architecture displaying decorative ornamentation made of obsidian and shell inlaid

    Inca Edit

    Incan architecture consists of the major construction achievements developed by the Incas. The Incas developed an extensive road system spanning most of the western length of the continent. Inca rope bridges could be considered the world's first suspension bridges. Because the Incas used no wheels (It would have been impractical for the terrain) or horses, they built their roads and bridges for foot and pack-llama traffic. Much of present-day architecture at the former Inca capital Cuzco shows both Incan and Spanish influences. The famous lost city Machu Picchu is the best surviving example of Incan architecture. Another significant site is Ollantaytambo. The Inca were sophisticated stone cutters whose masonry used no mortar.

    View of Machu Picchu in Peru, built in circa 1450 AD

    The Main Temple of Machu Picchu

    The Twelve-angled stone, part of a stone wall of an Inca palace, and a national heritage object

    North America Edit

    Inside what is the present-day United States, the Mississippians [38] and the Pueblo [39] created substantial public architecture. The Mississippian culture was among the mound-building peoples, noted for construction of large earthen platform mounds.

    Impermanent buildings, which were often architecturally unique from region to region, continue to influence American architecture today. In his summary, "The World of Textiles", North Carolina State's Tushar Ghosh provides one example: the Denver International Airport's roof is a fabric structure that was influenced by and/or resembles the tipis of local cultures. In writing about Evergreen State College, Lloyd Vaughn lists an example of very different native architecture that also influenced contemporary building: the Native American Studies program is housed in a modern-day longhouse derived from pre-Columbian Pacific Northwest architecture.

    Cliff Palace of Mesa Verde, in Colorado (USA) created by the Ancestral Puebloans

    Taos Pueblo, an ancient pueblo belonging to a Taos-speaking (Tiwa) Native American tribe of Puebloan people, in Taos Pueblo, (New Mexico, USA)

    A book illustration of an Inuit village, Oopungnewing, near Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island (Canada) in the mid-19th century

    Indian architecture encompasses a wide variety of geographically and historically spread structures, and was transformed by the history of the Indian subcontinent. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that, although it is difficult to identify a single representative style, nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. The diversity of Indian culture is represented in its architecture. It is a blend of ancient and varied native traditions, with building types, forms and technologies from West and Central Asia, as well as Europe. Architectural styles range from Hindu temple architecture to Islamic architecture to western classical architecture to modern and post-modern architecture.

    Ancient Edit

    Harappan Edit

    The first Urban Civilization in the Indian subcontinent is traceable originally to the Indus Valley Civilisation mainly in Mohenjodaro and Harappa, now in modern-day Pakistan as well western states of the Republic of India. From then on, Indian architectural forms and civil engineering continued to develop, manifesting in temples, palaces and forts across the Indian subcontinent and neighbouring regions.

    The civilization's cities were noted for their urban planning with baked brick buildings, elaborate drainage and water systems, and handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). [40] Their urban centres possibly grew to contain between 30,000 and 60,000 individuals, [41] and the civilisation itself may have contained between one and five million individuals. [42]

    The ruins of Harappa (Punjab, present-day Pakistan), a settlement of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, circa 2550 BC

    The ruins of Mohenjo-daro (Sindh), one of the largest settlements of the Indus Valley Civilisation, circa 1700 BC

    Hindu Edit

    This is the traditional system of a lot of Indian architectural styles for structures such as temples, statues, homes, markets, gardens and planning as described in Hindu texts. [43] [44] The architectural guidelines survive in Sanskrit manuscripts and in some cases also in other regional languages. These include the Vastu shastras, Shilpa Shastras, the Brihat Samhita, architectural portions of the Puranas and the Agamas, and regional texts such as the Manasara among others. [45] [46]

    Architecture and civil engineering was known as sthapatya-kala, literally "the art of constructing". The temples of Aihole and Pattadakal are well-known early examples of Hindu temple architecture, when the temple was taking on its final form. This was more or less set out in the Sulbasutras, appendices to the Vedas giving rules for constructing altars, with detailed geometrical and ritual requirements. "They contained quite an amount of geometrical knowledge, but the mathematics was being developed, not for its own sake, but purely for practical religious purposes." [47]

    Hindu architectural forms survived well into the medieval period, evolving into regional forms, from its original Northern heritage, most notably deriving from the Gupta traditions.

    The Vamana Temple (Khajuraho), mid 11 century

    Buddhist Edit

    Three types of structures are associated with the religious architecture of early Buddhism: monasteries (viharas), places to venerate relics (stupas), and shrines or prayer halls (chaityas, also called chaitya grihas), which later came to be called temples in some places.

    Buddhism had a significant influence on Sri Lankan architecture after its introduction, [48] and ancient Sri Lankan architecture was mainly religious, with over 25 styles of Buddhist monasteries. [49] Monasteries were designed using the Manjusri Vasthu Vidya Sastra, which outlines the layout of the structure. The 5th century script is in Sanskrit written in Sinhala script. [49]

    The Great Stupa of Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh, India), possible 100 AD

    The Sanchi Temple 17, 3rd century-550 AD

    Rock-cut style Edit

    This style provides the earliest complete survivals of Buddhist, Jain and Hindu temples and it's found in greater abundance in India (over 1,500 structures) than any other form of rock-cut architecture around the world. [50] Rock-cut architecture is the practice of creating a structure by carving it out of solid natural rock. Indian rock-cut architecture is mostly religious in nature. [51] [52]

    These structures represent significant achievements in structural engineering. [53]

    Caves that were enlarged or man-made, owing to similarities to other natural caves, were believed to be as sacred as natural ones. [54]

    Kailash was the last spectacular rock-cut excavated temple. [55] Numerous rock reliefs, relief sculptures carved into rock faces, have been found outside caves or at other sites. New discoveries of relatively small rock-cut sites, mostly Buddhist, continue to be made in the 21st century, especially in the Deccan. [56]

    Cave 19 of the Ajanta Caves (Maharashtra), a 5th-century chaitya hall

    Medieval Edit

    Dravidian Edit

    This is a temple style emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent and in Sri Lanka. These types of Hindu temples reached their final form by the sixteenth century. The unique style used here involves a shorter and more pyramidal tower over the garbhagriha or sanctuary called a vimana, where the north has taller towers, usually bending inwards as they rise, called shikharas.

    The majority of the existing structures are located in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana. Dravidian architecture takes on distinctive styles through its regional evolution and can be sub-divided:

    The Architecture of Tamil Nadu is a form of Dravidian architecture that is influenced by the Sangam period as well as the styles of the great dynasties that ruled it. This includes Pallava architecture, Pandyan architecture, Cholan architecture, and more.

    Airavatesvara Temple Chariot, Chola architecture

    Stone vel on a brick platform at the entrance to the Murugan Temple, Saluvankuppam, 300 BC [57] [58]

    Marriage of Shiva and Parvati (Meenakshi) witnessed by Vishnu, Meenakshi Temple, Madurai

    The characteristic regional expression of Kerala architecture results from the geographical, climatic and historic factors. History also played its own contributions to the Kerala architecture. While the towering Western Ghats isolated Kerala to a greater extent from South Indian empires, the exposure of Arabian sea on its east brought in close contacts between the ancient people of Kerala with major maritime civilizations like Egyptians, Romans, Arabs etc. The Kerala's rich spice cultivations brought it center of global maritime trade until modern periods, helping several international powers to actively engage with Kerala as a trading partners. This helped in bring in influences of these civilisations into Kerala architecture. [59]

    The entrance of Poornathrayisa temple in Tripunithura, redesigned in 1921 by Sri Eachara Warrier

    Tripunithura Hill Palace, which was the administrative office of Cochin Rajas

    A typical Malabar Thiyyar Tharawad, depicting Malikaveed architecture of ancient Kerala

    Karnata Dravida
    The Architecture of Karnataka involves a Dravidian architectural style that varies a lot from its counterparts in Tamilakam and Andhra Pradesh. The Karnata Dravida style has had an impact on the Deccan as well as Southern India. Over the centuries, architectural monuments within the region displayed a diversity of influences, often relaying much about the artistic trends of the rulers of twelve different dynasties. [60] There is great variety in the details and decoration of regional and period styles, for example in Kadamba architecture, Badami Chalukya architecture, Hoysala architecture, Vijayanagara architecture and Western Chalukya architecture.

    Typical architectural styles seen in Karnataka are shown below.

    Seshadri Iyer Memorial Library in Cubbon Park

    South Indian Dravida style tower

    Dravida articulation and superstructure

    Statue of K.Sheshadri Iyer at Cubbon Park

    Polished and like lath turned pillars

    Bhumija towers on minor shrines

    Nandi (bull) sculpted in black stone

    A carved bracket with an Idol in the roof

    Temple tower (Vijayanaga style)

    Intricate stone sculpture work typical of Hoysala architecture

    Kalinga Edit

    The Kalinga/Odia is an architectural style which flourished in the ancient and medieval Kalinga in Odisha. The style consists of three distinct types of temples: Rekha Deula, Pidha Deula and Khakhara Deula. The former two are associated with Vishnu, Surya and Shiva temples while the third is mainly with Chamunda and Durga temples.

    The Jagannath Temple, one of the four holiest places (Dhamas) of Hinduism, [61] in the coastal town of Puri in Odisha.

    Maru Gurjara Edit

    Also known as the Chaulukya style or Solaṅkī style, [62] which is a style of north Indian temple architecture that originated in Gujarat and Rajasthan from the 11th to 13th centuries, under the Chaulukya dynasty (Solaṅkī). [63] It eventually became popular in Jain temples and, and under their patronage, later spread across the greater region and the world. [64]

    Compared to other North Indian styles, what makes it unique is "that the external walls of the temples have been structured by increasing numbers of projections and recesses, accommodating sharply carved statues in niches. These are normally positioned in superimposed registers, above the lower bands of moldings. The latter display continuous lines of horse riders, elephants, and kīrttimukhas. Hardly any segment of the surface is left unadorned." The main shikhara tower usually has many urushringa subsidiary spirelets on it, and two smaller side-entrances with porches are common in larger temples. [65]

    The style also involves large pillared halls, with many of them open at the sides. [66]

    By the 13th century, it mostly fell from use as a Hindu temple style but was used by Jains with a notable "revival" in the 15th century. [67]

    Interior of Jain Luna Vasahi temple at Dilwara, Mount Abu, 1230 and later, with typical "flying arches".

    Indo-Islamic Edit

    The rule of the Delhi Sultanate, Deccan Sultanates and Mughal Empire led to the development of Indo-Islamic architecture which commenced with the establishment of Delhi as the capital of the Ghurid dynasty in 1193. [68] The dynasties that ruled the Gangetic plains, being mostly of Central Asian origin brought Persianate architecture and art styles from Western Eurasia into the Indian subcontinent. [69]

    In contrast to most of the Islamic world dominated by brick Indian regions mostly had produced stone masonry finished structures of high quality. [70] Various regional Islamic styles developed beyond Delhi.

    The Taj Mahal (Agra, Uttar Pradesh), the most well-known example of Mughal architecture, circa 1649

    The Badshahi Mosque (Punjab, Pakistan), another example of Mughal architecture, 1673

    Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (built 1320 to 1324) in Multan, Pakistan

    The Buland Darwaza gateway to Fatehpur Sikri, built by Akbar in 1601

    Deccan Edit

    Being at the crossroads of Northern India, Arabian Sea, Dravidian heartland, as well as the Kalingan zone, Deccan architecture has had multiple influences. The Karnata Dravida style, Hemadpanti architecture, Indo-Islamic architecture with its Deccan variant, and other styles have all influenced Deccan architecture.

    Amruteshwar temple, Ratangad- an example of Hemadpanthi architecture

    The Charminar in Hyderabad was built by the Golconda Sultanate, 1591

    Bengali Edit

    Bengali architecture, which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam's Barak Valley, has a long and rich history, with influences from different parts of the world. The corner towers of Bengali religious buildings were replicated in medieval Southeast Asia. Bengali curved roofs, suitable for the very heavy rains, were adopted into a distinct local style of Indo-Islamic architecture, and used decoratively elsewhere in north India in Mughal architecture. Since Bengal is not rich in good stone for building, and traditional Bengali architecture mostly uses brick and wood, often reflecting the styles of the wood, bamboo and thatch styles of local vernacular architecture for houses.

    Nilacha Edit

    This is a style of Hindu temple architecture in Assam, that is characterized by a bulbous polygonal dome over a cruciform ratha type bada. [71] This hybrid style developed first in the Kamakhya temple on the Nilachal hills under the Koch kingdom and became popular as a style later under the Ahom kingdom. [72]

    Himalayan Edit

    The Himalayas are inhabited by various people groups including the Paharis, Sino-Tibetans, Kashmiris, and many more. Being from different religious and ethnic backgrounds, the architecture has also had multiple influences.

    Nyatapola Temple located in Bhaktapur, Nepal, built in 1701–1702 CE

    The Great Drigung Kagyud Lotus Stupa in Lumbini, Nepal

    Traditional architecture of Kathmandu

    The courtyard of the Jama Masjid, Srinagar. Hari Parbat is visible in the background.

    Meitei Edit

    This is also known as Manipuri architecture which is produced by the Meitei speaking people. This style is best known for its temples (Laishang, Kiyong, Thellon), found scattered in the Kangleipak (present day Manipur). Other architectural forms that are still in existence are the grand gates (Hojang), Traditional houses (Yumjao), Public houses (Sanglen), Official buildings (Loishang), etc. [73] [74]

    Early Modern Edit

    Indo-Saracenic Edit

    During the British Raj, this new style (also known as Indo-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, Neo-Mughal, or Hindoo style) was getting developed, which incorporated varying degrees of Indian elements into the Western European style. The Churches and convents of Goa are another example of the blending of traditional Indian styles with western European architectural styles. Most Indo-Saracenic public buildings were constructed between 1858 and 1947, with the peaking at 1880. [75] The style has been described as "part of a 19th-century movement to project themselves as the natural successors of the Mughals". [76] They were often built for modern functions such as transport stations, government offices, and law courts. It is much more evident in British power centres in the subcontinent like Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. [77]

    Madras High Court buildings are a prime example of Indo-Saracenic architecture, designed by J. W. Brassington under the guidance of British architect Henry Irwin, 1892.

    The Victoria Memorial, Kolkata, has very discreet Indo-Saracenic touches, such as the corner chatris, in the Raj metropolis least touched by the style.

    The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus (previously Victoria Terminus) in Mumbai, 1878–88. A mixture of Romanesque, Gothic and Indian elements

    Sikh Edit

    This is an architectural style that was developed under the Sikh Empire in the Punjab region. It is used in religious as well as public spaces. Sikh Architecture is heavily influenced by Islamic styles as well as a few elements of Rajput architecture. Their place of worship is called gurdwara. The word gurdwara derives from guru (master) and dwara (gateway) which gives it an architectural connotation. Some examples are shown below:

    Sarovar (sacred pool) at Fatehgarh Sahib Gurdwara, Punjab, India.

    Map of the Harmandir Sahib Complex

    Chinese Edit

    The structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Since the Tang Dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.

    From the Neolithic era Longshan Culture and Bronze Age era Erlitou culture, the earliest rammed earth fortifications exist, with evidence of timber architecture. The subterranean ruins of the palace at Yinxu dates back to the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 BC–1046 BC). In historic China, architectural emphasis was laid upon the horizontal axis, in particular the construction of a heavy platform and a large roof that floats over this base, with the vertical walls not as well emphasized. This contrasts Western architecture, which tends to grow in height and depth. Chinese architecture stresses the visual impact of the width of the buildings. The deviation from this standard is the tower architecture of the Chinese tradition, which began as a native tradition [ citation needed ] and was eventually influenced by the Buddhist building for housing religious sutras — the stupa — which came from Nepal. Ancient Chinese tomb model representations of multiple story residential towers and watchtowers date to the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD). However, the earliest extant Buddhist Chinese pagoda is the Songyue Pagoda, a 40 m (131 ft) tall circular-based brick tower built in Henan province in the year 523 AD. From the 6th century onwards, stone-based structures become more common, while the earliest are from stone and brick arches found in Han Dynasty tombs. The Zhaozhou Bridge built from 595 to 605 AD is China's oldest extant stone bridge, as well as the world's oldest fully stone open-spandrel segmental arch bridge.

    The vocational trade of architect, craftsman, and engineer was not as highly respected in premodern Chinese society as the scholar-bureaucrats who were drafted into the government by the civil service examination system. Much of the knowledge about early Chinese architecture was passed on from one tradesman to his son or associative apprentice. However, there were several early treatises on architecture in China, with encyclopedic information on architecture dating back to the Han Dynasty. The height of the classical Chinese architectural tradition in writing and illustration can be found in the Yingzao Fashi, a building manual written by 1100 and published by Li Jie (1065–1110) in 1103. In it there are numerous and meticulous illustrations and diagrams showing the assembly of halls and building components, as well as classifying structure types and building components.

    There were certain architectural features that were reserved solely for buildings built for the Emperor of China. One example is the use of yellow roof tiles yellow having been the Imperial color, yellow roof tiles still adorn most of the buildings within the Forbidden City. The Temple of Heaven, however, uses blue roof tiles to symbolize the sky. The roofs are almost invariably supported by brackets, a feature shared only with the largest of religious buildings. The wooden columns of the buildings, as well as the surface of the walls, tend to be red in colour.

    Many current Chinese architectural designs follow post-modern and western styles.

    Relief from the Wu Family Shrines (Jiaxiang, Shandong, China) that shows Han dynasty architecture, 151 AD

    The main hall of the Nanchan Monastery (Wutai, Xinzhou, Shanxi, China), renovated in 782

    The Guanyian Pavilion of the Dule Monastery (Jixian, China), 984

    Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, the main building of the Temple of Heaven (Beijing), 1703-1790

    The Dacheng Hall of the Temple of Confucius (Qufu, Shandong, China), 1499

    Japanese Edit

    Japanese architecture has as long a history as any other aspect of Japanese culture. It also shows a number of important differences and aspects which are uniquely Japanese.

    Two new forms of architecture were developed in medieval Japan in response to the militaristic climate of the times: the castle (城, shiro), a defensive structure built to house a feudal lord and his soldiers in times of trouble and the shoin, a reception hall and private study area designed to reflect the relationships of lord and vassal within a feudal society.

    Because of the need to rebuild Japan after World War II, major Japanese cities contain numerous examples of modern architecture. Japan played some role in modern skyscraper design, because of its long familiarity with the cantilever principle to support the weight of heavy tiled temple roofs. New city planning ideas based on the principle of layering or cocooning around an inner space (oku), a Japanese spatial concept that was adapted to urban needs, were adapted during reconstruction.

    Pagoda at Hōryū-ji (literally Temple of the Flourishing Law), a Buddhist temple in Ikaruga (Nara Prefecture), 607

    The garden of the Ninna-ji temple in Kyoto (Kyoto Prefecture), an example of a Japanese garden, 888

    A gilded Buddha statue from Byōdō-in (Temple of Equality) (Uji, Kyoto Prefecture), 1053

    Interior of the Kumamoto Castle in Kumamoto (Kumamoto Prefecture), built in 1467, demolished in 1877 and rebuilt in 1960

    Ginkaku-ji (Temple of the Silver Pavilion) (Kyoto, Japan), 1490

    Ryōan-ji (Kyoto), a famous example of a zen garden, late 16th century

    The Katsura Imperial Villa (Kyoto), 17th century with later modifications

    Korean Edit

    The basic construction form is more or less similar to Eastern Asian building system. From a technical point of view, buildings are structured vertically and horizontally. A construction usually rises from a stone subfoundation to a curved roof covered with tiles, held by a console structure and supported on posts walls are made of earth (adobe) or are sometimes totally composed of movable wooden doors. Architecture is built according to the k'an unit, the distance between two posts (about 3.7 meters), and is designed so that there is always a transitional space between the "inside" and the "outside."

    The console, or bracket structure, is a specific architectonic element that has been designed in various ways through time. If the simple bracket system was already in use under the Goguryeo kingdom (37 BCE–668 CE)—in palaces in Pyongyang, for instance—a curved version, with brackets placed only on the column heads of the building, was elaborated during the early Koryo dynasty (918–1392). The Amita Hall of the Pusok temple in Antong is a good example. Later on (from the mid-Koryo period to the early Choson dynasty), a multiple-bracket system, or an inter-columnar-bracket set system, was developed under the influence of Mongol's Yuan dynasty (1279–1368). In this system, the consoles were also placed on the transverse horizontal beams. Seoul's Namtaemun Gate Namdaemun, Korea's foremost national treasure, is perhaps the most symbolic example of this type of structure.

    In the mid-Choson period, the winglike bracket form appeared (one example is the Yongnyongjon Hall of Jongmyo, Seoul), which is interpreted by many scholars as an example of heavy Confucian influence in Joseon Korea, which emphasized simplicity and modesty in such shrine buildings. Only in buildings of importance like palaces or sometimes temples (Tongdosa, for instance) were the multicluster brackets still used. Confucianism also led to more sober and simple solutions.

    The Dabo Pagoda in Bulguksa, circa 751

    The Throne Hall of the Gyeongbokgung Palace (Seoul, South Korea)

    South-east Asian Edit

    The main evidence of Khmer architecture and ultimately for Khmer civilization, however, remains the religious buildings, considerable in number and extremely varied in size. They were destined for immortal gods and as they were built of durable materials of brick, laterite and sandstone, many have survived to the present day. They were usually surrounded by enclosures to protect them from evil powers but confusion has often arisen as to which is a temple enclosure and which is that of the town of which the temple was a part. [79]

    Angkor Wat temple is a great example of Khmer architectural masterpiece, was built by king Suryavarman II in the 12th century. Despite the fact that it is over 800 years old, it has still maintained its top rank to be the world's largest religious structure.

    The architecture of Indonesia reflects both the cultural diversity of the region and its rich historical inheritance. The geographic position of Indonesia means a transition between the culture of Asian Hindu-Buddhism architecture and animistic architecture of Oceania. Indonesian wide range of vernacular styles is the legacy of an Austronesian architectural tradition characterized by wooden pile dwellings, high pitched roofs and extended roof ridges. The temples of Java, on the other hand, share an Indian Hindu-Buddhist ancestry, typical of Southeast Asia though indigenous influences have led to the creation of a distinctly Indonesian style of monumental architecture.

    Gradual spread of Islam through the region from the 12th century onwards creates an Islamic architecture which betray a mixture of local and exotic elements. Arrival of the European merchant, especially the Dutch, shows incorporation of many Indonesian features into the architecture of the native Netherlands to produce an eclectic synthesis of Eastern and Western forms apparent in the early 18th-century Indies Style and modern New Indies Style. The years that followed independence saw the adoption of Modernist agenda on the part of Indonesian architects apparent in the architecture of the 1970s and 1980s.

    The Bakong is the earliest surviving Temple Mountain at Angkor, completed in 881 AD

    Pre Rup at Angkor, completed between 961 or early 962, dedicated to Shiva

    Cruciform gallery separates the courtyards at Angkor Wat

    Khmer pediment, from 976, made of pink sandstone, dimensions: 196 x 269 cm, in Musée Guimet (Paris)

    The Buddhist Borobudur temple, an elaborate stupa arranged in a grand mandala

    The Prambanan temple complex dedicated to Trimurti Hindu gods

    Hòa Lai Towers in Ninh Thuận province, Vietnam

    Ethiopian architecture (including modern-day Eritrea) expanded from the Aksumite style and incorporated new traditions with the expansion of the Ethiopian state. Styles incorporated more wood and rounder structures in domestic architecture in the center of the country and the south, and these stylistic influences were manifested in the construction of churches and monasteries. Throughout the medieval period, Aksumite architecture and influences and its monolithic tradition persisted, with its influence strongest in the early medieval (Late Aksumite) and Zagwe periods (when the rock-cut monolithic churches of Lalibela were carved). Throughout the medieval period, and especially from the 10th to 12th centuries, churches were hewn out of rock throughout Ethiopia, especially during the northernmost region of Tigray, which was the heart of the Aksumite Empire. However, rock-hewn churches have been found as far south as Adadi Maryam (15th century), about 100 km south of Addis Abeba. The most famous example of Ethiopian rock-hewn architecture are the eleven monolithic churches of Lalibela, carved out of the red volcanic tuff found around the town. Though later medieval hagiographies attribute all eleven structures to the eponymous King Lalibela (the town was called Roha and Adefa before his reign), new evidence indicates that they may have been built separately over a period of a few centuries, with only a few of the more recent churches having been built under his reign. Archaeologist and Ethiopisant David Phillipson postulates, for instance, that Bete Gebriel-Rufa'el was actually built in the very early medieval period, some time between 600 and 800 A.D., originally as a fortress but was later turned into a church. [80]

    During the early modern period, the absorption of new diverse influences such as Baroque, Arab, Turkish and Gujarati Indian style began with the arrival of Portuguese Jesuit missionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries. Portuguese soldiers had initially come in the mid-16th century as allies to aid Ethiopia in its fight against Adal, and later Jesuits came hoping to convert the country. Some Turkish influence may have entered the country during the late 16th century during its war with the Ottoman Empire (see Habesh), which resulted in an increased building of fortresses and castles. Ethiopia, naturally easily defensible because of its numerous ambas or flat-topped mountains and rugged terrain, yielded little tactical use from the structures in contrast to their advantages in the flat terrain of Europe and other areas, and so had until this point little developed the tradition. Castles were built especially beginning with the reign of Sarsa Dengel around the Lake Tana region, and subsequent Emperors maintained the tradition, eventually resulting in the creation of the Fasil Ghebbi (royal enclosure of castles) in the newly founded capital (1635), Gondar. Emperor Susenyos (r.1606-1632) converted to Catholicism in 1622 and attempted to make it the state religion, declaring it as such from 1624 until his abdication during this time, he employed Arab, Gujarati (brought by the Jesuits), and Jesuit masons and their styles, as well as local masons, some of whom were Beta Israel. With the reign of his son Fasilides, most of these foreigners were expelled, although some of their architectural styles were absorbed into the prevailing Ethiopian architectural style. This style of the Gondarine dynasty would persist throughout the 17th and 18th centuries especially and also influenced modern 19th-century and later styles.

    Great Zimbabwe is the largest medieval city in sub-Saharan Africa. By the late nineteenth century, most buildings reflected the fashionable European eclecticism and pastisched Mediterranean, or even Northern European, styles.

    In the Western Sahel region, Islamic influence was a major contributing factor to architectural development from the later ages of the Kingdom of Ghana. At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques, as described by al-bakri, with one centered on Friday prayer. [81] The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting. [82]

    Sahelian architecture initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné. The rise of kingdoms in the West African coastal region produced architecture which drew on indigenous traditions, utilizing wood. The famed Benin City, destroyed by the Punitive Expedition, was a large complex of homes in coursed clay, with hipped roofs of shingles or palm leaves. The Palace had a sequence of ceremonial rooms, and was decorated with brass plaques.

    A common type of houses in Sub-Saharian Africa were the beehive houses, made from a circle of stones topped with a domed roof. The ancient Bantu used this type of house, which was made with mud, poles, and cow dung.

    A traditional tata-somba house in Benin

    Illustration from 1854 of Lunda street and houses

    A Dogon village in Mali, with walls made in the wattle and daub method

    Most Oceanic buildings consist of huts, made of wood and other vegetal materials. Art and architecture have often been closely connected—for example, storehouses and meetinghouses are often decorated with elaborate carvings—and so they are presented together in this discussion. The architecture of the Pacific Islands was varied and sometimes large in scale. Buildings reflected the structure and preoccupations of the societies that constructed them, with considerable symbolic detail. Technically, most buildings in Oceania were no more than simple assemblages of poles held together with cane lashings only in the Caroline Islands were complex methods of joining and pegging known.

    An important Oceanic archaeological site is Nan Madol from the Federated States of Micronesia. Nan Madol was the ceremonial and political seat of the Saudeleur Dynasty, which united Pohnpei's estimated 25,000 people until about 1628. [83] Set apart between the main island of Pohnpei and Temwen Island, it was a scene of human activity as early as the first or second century AD. By the 8th or 9th century, islet construction had started, with construction of the distinctive megalithic architecture beginning 1180–1200 AD. [84]

    Photo of a native house from New Caledonia, circa 1906

    Detail of a ceremonial supply house, from Papua New Guinea, now in Ethnological Museum of Berlin

    Medieval Edit

    Surviving examples of medieval secular architecture mainly served for defense. Castles and fortified walls provide the most notable remaining non-religious examples of medieval architecture. Windows gained a cross-shape for more than decorative purposes: they provided a perfect fit for a crossbowman to safely shoot at invaders from inside. Crenellation walls (battlements) provided shelters for archers on the roofs to hide behind when not shooting.

    Byzantine Edit

    The Byzantine Empire gradually emerged as a distinct artistic and cultural entity from the Roman Empire after AD 330, when the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Roman Empire east from Rome to Byzantium (later renamed Constantinople and now called Istanbul). The empire endured for more than a millennium, dramatically influencing Medieval and Renaissance-era architecture in Europe and, following the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, leading directly to the architecture of the Ottoman Empire.

    Early Byzantine architecture was built as a continuation of Roman architecture. Stylistic drift, technological advancement, and political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style gradually emerged, which imbued certain influences from the Near East and used the Greek cross plan in church architecture. Buildings increased in geometric complexity, brick and plaster were used in addition to stone in the decoration of important public structures, classical orders were used more freely, mosaics replaced carved decoration, complex domes rested upon massive piers, and windows filtered light through thin sheets of alabaster to softly illuminate interiors. This Byzantine style, with increasingly exotic domes and ever-richer mosaics, traveled west to Ravenna and Venice and as far north as Moscow. Most of the churches and basilicas have high-riding domes. As result, they created vast open spaces at the centres of churches, heightening the sense of grace and light. The round arch is a fundamental of Byzantine style. Magnificent golden mosaics with their graphic simplicity and immense power brought light and warmth into the heart of churches. Byzantine capitals break away from the Classical conventions of ancient Greece and Rome. Sinuous lines and naturalistic forms are precursors to the Gothic style.

    According to descriptions, interiors were plated with marble or stone. Some of the columns were also made of marble. Other widely used materials were bricks and stone, not just marble like in Classical antiquity. [85] Mural paintings or mosaics made of shiny little stones were also elements of interior architecture. Precious wood furniture like beds, chairs, stools, tables, bookshelves and silver or golden cups with beautiful reliefs, decorated Byzantine interiors. [86]

    Apse of Santa Maria Maggiore (Rome), decorated in the 5th century with this glamorous mosaic

    Mosaics on a ceiling and some walls of the Basilica of San Vitale (Ravenna, Italy), circa 547 AD

    The Little Metropolis (Athens), unknown dates, between the 9th century to the 13th century

    The northern façade of the Palace of the Porphyrogenitus, before the modern renovation, late 13th-century

    One of the mosaics from the St Mark's Basilica (Venice)

    Romanesque Edit

    The term 'Romanesque' is rooted in the 19th century, when it was coined to describe medieval churches built from the 10th to 12th century, before the rise of steeply pointed arches, flying buttresses and other Gothic elements. For 19th-century critics, the Romanesque reflected the architecture of stonemasons who evidently admired the heavy barrel vaults and intricate carved capitals of the ancient Romans, but whose own architecture was considered derivative and degenerate, lacking the sophistication of their classical models.

    Scholars in the 21st century are less inclined to understand the architecture of this period as a 'failure' to reproduce the achievements of the past, and are far more likely to recognise its profusion of experimental forms, as a series of creative new inventions. At the time, however, research has questioned the value of Romanesque as a stylistic term. On the surface, it provides a convenient designation for buildings that share a common vocabulary of rounded arches and thick stone masonry, and appear in between the Carolingian revival of classical antiquity in the 9th century and the swift evolution of Gothic architecture after the second half of the 12th century. One problem, however, is that the term encompasses a broad array of regional variations, some with closer links to Rome than others. It should also be noted that the distinction between Romanesque architecture and its immediate predecessors and followers is not at all clear. There is little evidence that medieval viewers were concerned with the stylistic distinctions that we observe today, making the slow evolution of medieval architecture difficult to separate into neat chronological categories. Nevertheless, Romanesque remains a useful word despite its limitations, because it reflects a period of intensive building activity that maintained some continuity with the classical past, but freely reinterpreted ancient forms in a new distinctive manner. [3]

    Part of a stained glass window with Kings David and Solomon from Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Strasbourg (Strasbourg, France), 1015-1439

    Maria Laach Abbey, situated on the southwestern shore of the Laacher See (Lake Laach), near Andernach (Germany), 11th-12th centuries

    Marble capital with four scenes from the story of Samson, from the cloister of Avignon Cathedral (Avignon, France), 1150-1175

    Gothic Edit

    Gothic architecture began with a series of experiments, which were conducted to fulfil specific requests by patrons and to accommodate the ever-growing number of pilgrims visiting sites that housed precious relics. Pilgrims in the high Middle Ages (circa 1000 to 1250 AD) increasingly travelled to well-known pilgrimage sites, but also to local sites where local and national saints were reputed to have performed miracles. The churches and monasteries housing important relics therefore wanted to heighten the popularity of their respective saints and build appropriate shrines for them. These shrines were not merely gem-encrusted reliquaries, but more importantly took the form of powerful architectural settings characterised by coloured light emitting from the large areas of stained glass. The use of stained glass, however, is not the only defining element of Gothic architecture and neither are the pointed arch, the ribbed vault, the rose window or the flying buttress, as many of these elements were used in one way or another in preceding architectural traditions. It was rather the combination and constant refinement of these elements, along with the quick response to the rapidly changing building techniques of the time, that fuelled the Gothic movement in architecture.

    Consequently, it is difficult to point to one element or the exact place where Gothic first emerged however, it is traditional to initiate a discussion of Gothic architecture with the Basilica of St Denis (circa 1135–1344) and its patrons, Abbot Suger, who began to rebuild the west front and the choir of the church. As he wrote in his De Administratione, the old building could no longer accommodate the large volumes of pilgrims who were coming to venerate the relics of St Denis, and the solution for this twofold: a west façade with three large portals and the innovative new choir, which combined an ambulatory with radiating chapels that were unique as they were not separated by walls. Instead a row of slim columns was inserted between the chapels and the choir arcade to support the rib vaults. The result enabled visitors to circulate around the altar and come within reach of the relics without actually disrupting the altar space, while also experiencing the large stained-glass windows within the chapels. As confirmed by Suger, the desire for more stained-glass was not necessarily to bring more daylight into the building but rather to fill the space with a continuous ray of colorful light, rather like mosaics or precious stones, which would make the wall vanish. The demand for ever more stained-glass windows and the search for techniques that would support them are constant throughout the development of Gothic architecture, as is evident in the writings of Suger, who was fascinated by the mystical quality of such lighting. [3]

    Central portal of the Chartres Cathedral (Chartres, France), circa 1145–1155

    Statues in the central tympanum of the Chartres Cathedral

    Notre-Dame de Paris, the most iconic Gothic building, by various architects, begun in 1163

    The north rose window of Notre-Dame de Paris, with the Blessed Virgin Mary and Christ Child in Majesty at its centre, surrounded by prophets and saints

    Pointed arches in the arcades, triforium, and clerestory of the Lincoln Cathedral from Lincoln (England), 1185–1311

    Stained glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, completed in 1248, mostly constructed between 1194 and 1220

    Ceiling of the Lower Chapel of Sainte-Chapelle

    The Reims Cathedral, 1211–1275, by various architects

    North transept windows, circa 1230–1235, in the Chartres Cathedral

    Medieval Louvre in the in early 15th century, demolished and replaced with the Louvre Palace

    Ca' d'Oro from Venice (Italy), and example of Venetian Gothic architecture, by Matteo Raverti (1398-1436) and Giovanni Bon (1355-1443)

    Flamboyant Gothic cross-windows of the Hôtel de Sens (Paris), completed in 1507

    Russian Edit

    The architectural history of Russia is conditioned by Orthodox Eastern Europe: unlike the West, yet similarly, if tenuously, linked with the traditions of classical antiquity (through Byzantium). It has experienced from time to time westernising movements that culminated in the comprehensive reforms of Peter the Great (around 1700). From prehistoric times the material of vernacular Russian architecture was wood. Byzantine churches and the architecture of Kievan Rus were characterized by broader, flatter domes without a special framework erected above the drum. In contrast to this ancient form, each drum of a Russian church is surmounted by a special structure of metal or timber, which is lined with sheet iron or tiles. Some characteristics taken from the Slavic pagan temples are the exterior galleries and the plurality of towers.

    The Saint Basil's Cathedral is one of Russia's most distinctive sights. Built by Tsar Ivan IV (also known as Ivan the Terrible) to commemorate his defeat of the Mongols at the battle Kazan in 1552, it stands just outside the Kremlin in the Red Square, in the heart of Moscow. Its extraordinary onion-shaped domes, painted in bright colours, create a memorable skyline, making St. Basil's Cathedral a symbol both of Moscow and Russia as a whole. [87] Each of the domes has its own dazzling form of decoration, ranging from prisms and spirals to chevrons and stripes, all emphasised with brilliant colours. Their colours are unusual, most of the Russian domes being either plain or gilded. Originally, the domes of St. Basil's Cathedral had a gold finish, with some blue and green ceramic decoration. The bright, painted colours were added at various times from the 17th to the 19th century. [88]

    Interior of Saint Basil's Cathedral, full of icons painted in the Byzantine style

    Spasskaya Tower in the Moscow Kremlin, 1491

    Ivan The Great Bell Tower in the Moscow Kremlin, 1505–1508

    Kolomenskoye, summer residence of the Tsars, 1667–1668

    Brâncovenesc Edit

    The brâncovenesc [brɨŋkovenesk] style is a style in medieval Romanian art and architecture, more specifically in Wallachia during the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu (1688-1714). Brâncovenesc buildings are characterised by the use of gazebo-like porticos (mainly the entrances of churches), trilobate or kokoshnik arches, columns (usually Corinthian) with twisted flutings, and ceramic or metallic tile roof. The main ornament used for decoration are the interlace and the rinceau. Some of the features of Brâncovenesc architecture derive from Byzantine and Ottoman architecture, and a some can also be found in medieval Russian architecture.

    Churches usually have minimalistic façades with reliefs, most churches being white, while some have elaborate paintings on the façades (like the Stavropoleos Monastery from Bucharest), or brickwork (like the Kretzulescu Church from Bucharest). The walls of their interiors are filled with Byzantine style frescos. Above their main door there is a pisanie, which is an inscribed stone plaque. The inscription usually includes a religious invocation, the name of the founder or founders, the date of construction, the motivation of the building, the circumstances of the time and other data.

    The main building of the Mogoșoaia Palace (Mogoșoaia, Romania), 1698-1702

    The Colțea Church (Bucharest, Romania), with white simplistic reliefs

    The main door of the Antim Monastery Church (Bucharest), with a pisanie above it and borders of rinceaux

    The Kretzulescu Church (Bucharest), with brickwork on the façade, 1720–1722

    Ceiling with frescos in the New Saint George Church (Bucharest)

    Balustrade of the portico of the New Saint George Church from Bucharest

    The Stavropoleos Church (downtown Bucharest), with elaborate paintings on the façade, 1724

    The altar of the Stavropoleos Church, filled with many Byzantine style icons

    Renaissance Edit

    The passage from Gothic to the Renaissance entailed an adoption of forms and aesthetic principles that were copied from - and, to some extent, aspired to revive - Roman antiquity. The more recent Romanesque and Gothic of Tuscany (present-day Italy) had a part to play, too. These turned out to be not a regression, but transitions from medieval to proto-modern. Broader developments in the structure and culture of Florentine society had made it sympathetic towards a brief sequence of architectural projects in Florence in the early 1420s. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446), while working on the Gothic dome of the Florence Cathedral, Santa Maria del Fiore (1296-1436), introduced the Renaissance style in two smaller works, both within a few hundred meters of the cathedral, and both begun in about 1421: the Hospital of the Innocents and the Basilica of Saint Lawrence.

    The Hospital of the Innocents was the first orphanage in Europe, commissioned by a silk guild at a time when charity was becoming common practice in secular society, even though the material wealth of Florence had begun to decrease. Brunelleschi was perhaps more conscious of introducing a new style that had been Suger, the so-called inventor of Gothic, three centuries earlier. Yet, in both cases, all the components existed already. The real innovation lay in the arrangements and combinations of these elements to create a new overall effect. The hospital's façade was symmetrical with nine bays. Rhythm was established by the columns, emphasised by the pedimented widows (which correspond to the bays), and punctuated by the tondi (roundels). These were blank until the late 15th century, when Luca della Robbia populated them with swaddled babies in terracotta. The most prominent feature is the colonnade with its semicircular arches. These were of ancient Roman origin, as were the Corinthian columns and the proportionately correct architrave. Yet the Romans would not have rested such wide arches on such slender columns, normally used for interiors. This ancient form appeared in Brunelleschi's time and the architect incorporated it in a colonnade facing the street. The result was a bright loggia expressive of Renaissance desire for a public life with a clarity of purpose.

    The Basilica of Saint Lawrence was originally devoid of ornament. The fluted pilasters with Corinthian capitals, and the originally empty roundels inscribed in the pendentives were conceived not as decorative embellishments, but as architectural references. Brunelleschi complained about subsequent interventions in the Sacristy, by Donatello (circa 1386–1466) and others, and with good reason in some cases: the small roundels along the frieze weakened the effect of pietra serena (Italian sandstone) set off by the off-white colour of the walls. As much as Brunelleschi's mental image of pure architecture may appeal to modern sensibilities, it did not necessarily correspond to ancient realities he conjured it from the sight of ruins during his trip to Rome in 1402, where frescoes had worn off, interiors had been sacked, and the paint or gilt on façades had been removed or placed with overgrown vegetation.

    In the last decades of the 15th century, artists and architects began to visit Rome to study the ruins in earnest. They left behind precious records of their studies in the form of drawings. While humanist interest in Rome had been building up over more than a century (dating back at least to Petrarch in the 14th century), antiquarian considerations of monuments had focused on literary, epigraphic and historical information rather than on the physical remains. Although some artists and architects, such as Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446), Donatello (circa 1386–1466) and Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472), are reported to have made studies of Roman sculpture and ruins, almost no direct evidence of this work survives. By the 1480s, prominent architects, such as Francesco di Giorgio (1439-1502) and Giuliano da Sabgallo (circa 1445–1516), were making numerous studies of ancient monuments, undertaken in ways that demonstrated that the process of transforming the model into a new design had already begun. In many cases, drawing ruins in their fragmentary state necessitated a leap of imagination, as Francesco himself readily admitted in his annotation to his reconstruction of the Campidoglio, noting 'largely imagined by me, since very little can be understood from the ruins'.

    This intensive study bore immediate fruit, inspiring a series of increasingly bold attempts to match the scale, ambition and sheer achievement of the ancient works. The most dramatic demonstration of this new attitude towards the antique - which aimed not just for imitation and emulation but for rivalry - occurred in the work of Donato Bramante (circa 1444–1514), an architect who first trained as a painter in Milan. [89]

    The Truth on Hidden Human History (1/3)

    The most important thing people have to realise is, our 3 dimensional reality is not real. Meaning this is nothing but a consciousness trap. Who we really are is hidden from us. Our spiritual nature is our only true form. That’s why all these dark forces spend so much time and money on attempting to make people forget. They use subtle techniques to keep us all trapped. That is where the true magic lies. If you cannot see preceding it, you have been defeated. It all is an illusion.

    But, soon people will discover who and what really has been going on, and who they really are, when they are discovering their true origin. On one side, there are the Dark Forces that have had almost unlimited free reign on the surface of the planet for hundreds of thousands of years, whereas on the other hand there are the Light Forces, the Patriots guided by Trump-Team who are making great efforts and progress to remove the dark negative forces off our planet as soon as they can.

    There are nine important areas in which the hidden dark forces are heavily infiltrated. These are the Military, Government, Religion, Education, Management, Finance, Media, Healthcare and Sciences. In essence, they are everywhere in public life. They hold key positions in all of these main areas, aided by a fully-controlled and complicit Media network and with their ownership of the Financial System and all big financial institutions, they virtually, have covered all pillars. Since President Trump came in Office, his first move was to return the Military to his side, by removing dangerous top generals and refinancing the army.

    What is the true agenda of the Archon, Anunnaki and Draco cabal? What are they really trying to achieve here on Earth, and why do you need to know this? The real drive of the Deep State rulers is darker and more evil than most people can imagine, as it goes both “off world” and then literally is transformed, in a surprising manner into the Archon Bloodline Agenda 2030 to rule our world on behalf of the ‘off world’ Anunnaki and Draco Control Matrix.

    The Great Awakening has begun

    The hypnotic charm, lies in the manipulative lying influence. Fabricated up the illusion of creator god Thoth, of which none has any orientation on reality or truth. The reality is, we, as humanity, have been deceived and high jacked from our eternal paradise state. And that is what they do not want, we understand to becoming consciously aware of that fact. Because, in that event people’s great awakening has begun.

    The dark forces have formed strategic alliances under the popular signature of the Galactic Federation, making contact with selected members of the Deep State cabal, government and Illuminati Archon bloodlines. By extensively infiltrating the secret societies, like the Free Masons, Knights Templar, Jesuits and other spiritual societies. The propaganda of the Galactic Federation as a pro-human ET-group is used to derail the spiritual awakening of people and course them into the new age movement and their respective Mind Control based belief systems making them obedient for suppression, as happens now with the mask wearing and social distancing protocols.

    These alliances are responsible for guiding scalar based weapons into the planetary field of Stonehenge 11th Stargate. Arranged by the Nibirians to erase the collective human race memories and most importantly to eradicate any trace of humanity’s recorded histories originating from Atlantis civilisation. It was the Luciferian Agreement behind the tragic events that led to the Atlantean Catastrophe.

    As of yet the period of the Atlantis civilisation in Earth’s history is not known, as the literature about it in the archives of Alexandria Library has been destroyed 2,300 years ago. The rulers of Alexandria set out to fulfil one of humanity’s most audacious goals: to collect all the knowledge in the world under one roof. In its prime, the Library of Alexandria housed an unprecedented number of scrolls and attracted some of the Greek world’s greatest minds. But by the end of the 5th century BC, the great library had vanished. Many believed it was destroyed in a catastrophic fire. The truth of the library’s rise and fall is much more complex.

    Additionally, theosophists believed that the civilisation of Atlantis reached its peak between 1,000,000 and 900,000 years ago, but was destroyed through internal warfare brought about by the dangerous use of psychic and supernatural powers of the inhabitants. There are vague indications, the real history may have been saved and are stored in the archives of the Vatican? Time will tell us the real truth.

    Here are some of the oldest constructions built in that period of human Atlantis history, with technologies scientists still cannot explain. Judge for yourself and realise how much further ahead has been this civilisation compared to ours.

    Tens or even more millions of years ago, the Galactic Federation worked closely with the High Syrian Council to serve as a Guardian race that would help to support the seeding and evolution process of the planet Earth in its lowest density, called the first Harmonic Universe, or third dimensional timelines.

    The Great Pyramid of Giza was built as a harmonic resonator chamber within an interdimensional portal system in which visiting space craft could time travel and access planet Earth quickly, especially if intervention was needed. During the cycle in which the Great Pyramid was built during pre-Atlantean times, the Galactic Federation was tasked to protect the Stargate portal and the ascensie within it and to intervene in case of an attack from hostile intruders such as the Anunnaki resistance.

    The Pyramid of Giza was a mystery school for the spiritual ascension programme of the Blue Flame Melchizedek to accelerate the DNA assembly for the portal passage through the Inner Earth for which the entrance was under the Sphinx. The Blue Flame Melchizedek, were acting as the primary Archivists of Earth’s vast genetic library and timeline history, through the gnostic process of their own consciousness embodiment.

    Back into the stone age

    Some factions of the Anunnaki Melchizedek became patriarchal and had disregarded the Law of One teachings. They became increasingly hostile when they were forbidden access into the ascension chambers and were not allowed to enter the Great Pyramid.

    As result, they organised a large resistance group in Atlantis with the plan to explode the protective ‘force field’ via setting off explosions in which to take control over the Giza Stargate, and to achieve their goal to enlist support of sympathisers allied with the Galactic Federation who were originally of Anunnaki lineages and felt discriminated.

    During this period, the Jehovah Anunnaki took control of the Galactic Federation and joined forces with the Ashtar Command of Luciferian rule, to prepare the final phase of the Atlantis tragedy and erase all historical records, technological knowledge and progress on Earth, thus sending the inhabitants of planet Earth back into the Stone Age.

    World Domination

    The Galactic Federation collaborated with these groups in order to achieve world domination. They were also behind the mind control propaganda presenting the Anunnaki as the ‘Gods of planet Earth‘ and the ‘Solar System’, touting themselves as the divine angels who returned to help humanity expand their minds, thus seducing the world’s population into oppression with the aim of introducing their New World Order slavery agenda 2030.

    Satanism, Freemasonry and all forms of paganism are anti-human and anti-natural. Centred on manipulation of energy and consciousness through Mind Control and deception, which is brought about through ritual-based ideology. These rituals create energy fields, vibrational frequencies, which connect the consciousness of the participants to the ‘Negative Extraterrestrial Agenda‘, of the Archon Reptile Kingdoms, and transform them into 4-Dimensional Parasites. The Archons with their base on Saturn send out AI containing Satanic belief systems to transmit these distortions to planet Earth.

    It must be clear a revision of history of Ancient times will have a far-reaching influence and lasting effects, as with this new understanding, it would seem that conventional statements about the origin of mankind and planet Earth are nonsense, because extra-terrestrials have played a complex role regarding the destruction of Atlantis and the evolution of mankind.

    The Anunnaki are arrogant, narrow-minded, cruel, incestuous and hateful beings. Any negative adjective that can be imagined, applies to them. There is evidence that they made their slaves work very hard and had little compassion for the plight of these people.

    They decided 7.000-years ago to allow humanity to have its first civilisation, known as the Sumerian civilisation. But that civilisation came only after the human genetic code had been even further manipulated in an attempt to drastically eradicate human life.

    The Anunnaki transformed on Earth into a group of rulers known today as the Deep State. To ensure their control over the population, Kingdoms were established with Pharaohs and Kings as head descendants from their Archon bloodline. They built their hierarchy using mind-controlled puppets that work very effectively to support and implement their rules in preparation for the eventual establishment of the New World Order.

    There are tens of millions of people living on Earth who are totally in service of these dark minds, while they don’t even know it. Just, for money fame, status, and reward they are willing to carry out Agenda 2030. These individuals are found in Governments, Media, Big businesses, Education, Religion, Military, Science, Hollywood, virtually all over the place.

    These puppets do not have the slightest idea that they are digging their own graves, because they have no idea for whom they are actually doing their work! They are criminally bribed with counterfeit money, and are unaware of the ultimate goal of those higher up in the hierarchy. They do not even know who these individuals really are. Every puppet involved is communicatively isolated, even up to the highest echelons, because every facet is hidden in the Occult Darkness of Black Magic, they do not know where the new world order really leads,

    The whole organisational structure functions on the foundation of the worldwide corrupt financial system that runs on bribe, blackmail, murder, drug running, weaponry sales, toxic chemically based pharmaceuticals that don’t heal, human sex trafficking, paedophilia, and is ultimately supported with Satanic Blood Scarifying Rituals of young children.

    The Deep State cabal is deeply involved in the creation of an entirely new and even more disconnected human body, for all beings trapped in the Matrix of the third dimension. They are human beings dulled to a level far below what they were before, but more controllable by computers, which deprives them of their free will with no choice but what the cabal wants.

    The real plan of the Deep State cabal is to get rid of the old disconnected human being, by killing off 90% of the exiting populace by poisoning through COVID-vaccination, food and medicines. Once, this is completed it will be impossible for anyone with a true freewill to stand up against this takeover.

    Those who are not awake, are living their daily lives within the matrix system, and are quietly consenting to it, unless they speak out against it. So, you need to stand up and take action to opt out of this Matrix.

    Feel encouraged to share this insightful article with everyone you know. The greater the number of awake people, the better it is for us digital warriors. Remember more than 50% of the population needs to be awake, to successfully realise the final deadly blow to the Deep State cabal.

    If you found this information interesting, explanatory, valuable, and/or insightful, please share it with everyone you know to help awaken and prepare them. And don’t forget to put up your national flag showing the world you are awake, and motivate the silent awake majority to follow suit. The more flags out show the cabal is losing their grip of power over us. There is much more enlightening information to follow! You are invited to subscribe free of charge as well as participate in the discussion on the Final Wakeup Call website at .

    Unity is Power

    Our liberation process cannot be stopped anymore. Uniting with others who are like minded people creates and shapes our best reality. Worldwide networks of awakening people are being created, such as in Spain in the Marbella / Malaga area, which attracts an increasing number of participants. In just a few months of existence, the group has grown to over 530 members. If you would like to apply or learn how to start your own regional or local group, please contact FWC via email. Our future lies in our own hands specifically in small communities that become the foundation of our self-managed society.

    How a Medieval Knight Solved One of History's Great Crimes

    Raymond Chandler famously begins The Big Sleep with private eye Philip Marlowe staring at a stained-glass window in General Sternwood’s mansion that shows a knight rescuing a damsel in distress. Chandler’s portrait of the ideal detective in his essay, “The Simple Art of Murder,” also hints at knighthood. The “hero” is “a man of honor,” “neither tarnished nor afraid” as he pursues “adventure in search of a hidden truth.” In fact, one of history’s first detectives was an authentic knight who faced his most risky adventure in seeking the hidden truth of a notorious crime.

    In 1407, Duke Louis of Orleans, who often ruled in place of his insane brother, King Charles VI, was cut to pieces by a gang of masked thugs in a Paris street. Louis’s assassination would plunge France into a bloody civil war leading to Henry V’s invasion and ultimately setting the stage for Joan of Arc. But the official murder inquiry, committed to a thirty-foot parchment scroll sprinkled with grisly details, disappeared soon after the crime.

    The scroll turned up again almost three centuries later at an old chateau in the south of France. (Imagine the Zapruder film of JFK’s assassination lying unknown in a drawer for decades.) A copy of the scroll was sent to Paris, only to be shelved in the royal library and forgotten. Almost another century went by before a scholar stumbled on the copy and realized what he had found. He published a few tantalizing excerpts, but not until the 1860s, when the original scroll turned up again, did the complete report get into print. The published report opened a new window on a turbulent week in Paris that had changed the course of history. But even today it is not widely recognized that the report’s author, the lead investigator, was one of history’s first detectives.

    Long before Eugène François Vidocq (founder of the Sûreté) and Allan Pinkerton (who protected Lincoln) and Jack Whicher (a model for Sergeant Cuff inthe Wilkie Collins novel The Moonstone) there was Sir Guillaume de Tignonville, who investigated and solved the sensational 1407 murder. A skilled knight and the veteran of several campaigns, he was also a well-traveled diplomat, a trusted royal advisor, and a man of law. One chilly November night in Guillaume’s seventh year as Provost of Paris — the king’s chief law enforcement officer — a breathless courier arrived at the Provost’s house with news of Duke Louis’s murder less than an hour before.

    Guillaume, with his lieutenant and officers, all armed and carrying torches, rushed to the scene of the crime in the rue Vieille du Temple, a narrow street in the Marais no wider today than it was back then. The duke’s butchered body had already been removed from the muddy pavement to a nearby house, where Guillaume examined the corpse. One hand had been cut off, the other arm slashed to the bone, and the head mutilated by ax-wounds “so enormous,” says his report, that “the entire brain protruded.”

    Questioning the people at the scene, Guillaume gathered some preliminary information and dispatched officers to search a nearby house apparently used by the assassins as a hideout. He had all the city gates closed to keep the killers from escaping, and he posted soldiers in the streets to prevent panic among Parisians. Then he set about solving the crime, working through much of the night and apparently with little sleep over the next several days.

    A brilliant sleuth, Guillaume marshaled the scores of officers and clerics at his command to examine the crime scene, collect physical evidence, depose witnesses, and ransack the locked-down city for clues. He questioned shopkeepers to see if they recognized items found in the assassins’ hideout – a rented house in the Rue Vieille du Temple -- and he ordered innkeepers throughout the city to bring him lists of their guests, in case the murderers were among them. What’s more, he wrote it all down. In the scroll he left behind, filled with small, neat script now faded from black to brown, we have one of the earliest detailed accounts of a criminal investigation.

    The scroll was probably drawn up at the Chatelet, a gloomy old fortress fronting the river on the Right Bank and housing the Provost’s headquarters. It had a morgue, several prisons, and an evil reputation because of the torture regularly used there to extract confessions. Various methods were employed, including an early form of waterboarding combined with a sort of rack.

    Paris was Europe’s largest city, a teeming metropolis of over 100,000 — a noisy, crowded, smelly place of endemic crime and brutal punishment. In a pre-modern twilight of ignorance and superstition, such as the popular belief that a corpse would bleed again if the murderer were nearby, Guillaume led the investigation with remarkable legal and scientific rigor. Lacking modern forensic tools and computerized records, he relied on shoe-leather, intelligence, and a courageous pursuit of the truth.

    The several dozen witnesses he summoned to give statements included barbers, shopkeepers and housewives — ordinary citizens clearly alarmed to be caught up in great events. They were deposed separately at the Chatelet in six small rooms by two-man teams, one asking them questions while the other recorded their testimony, his goose quill scratching on parchment. Six centuries later, their excited, worried voices come alive again in the transcripts, rich with everyday details from a long-vanished era.

    A few witnesses had glimpsed the actual murder by torchlight. Jacquette, a shoemaker’s wife, had been holding her baby at a window above the street when she saw the gang of masked men knock Louis off his mount and slice him up with their swords and axes. As he screamed for help, she screamed, too, and the killers paused in their murderous work to shout threats at her. Along the escape route, Jean Fovel, a young barber’s apprentice, reported that some masked men had burst into his shop and knocked out the lights before fleeing down the street and tossing caltrops behind them — clusters of sharp metal spikes meant to cripple pursuers. Others also saw the escaping assassins and provided useful information.

    After a number of false leads and dead ends, as well as reluctant or misleading witnesses, Guillaume found the broker who had rented the house to the assassins, and several vendors who had sold them goods or supplies. He began to suspect a far-flung conspiracy reaching into some very high places. At great personal risk, he turned the tables on the conspirators and set a cunning trap for them that finally revealed the astounding truth. Guillaume dared the lords of France to allow his officers to search their palaces, normally off-limits to law enforcement officials. The Provost’s bold move prompted a confession from none other than a member of the royal family, a lord who had conspicuously appeared at Louis’s funeral draped in black and proclaiming, “Never was there a more treacherous murder!”

    Guillaume’s long, detailed investigation report does not so much as hint that he or any of his officers used torture or forced confessions to solve the case, despite the crime’s magnitude and the urgency of the situation. Instead, the Provost diligently collected evidence, deposed witnesses, and deduced the truth from the information thus obtained. Although in many ways a man of his age, in his police work he seems to have been well ahead of his time.

    Besides a knight and an early detective, Guillaume was also an author — another reason for Chandler (classically educated in England) to have admired him. A friend of the poets Eustache Deschamps and Christine de Pizan, Guillaume belonged to a courtly literary club and had written some love poetry. He had also translated an originally Arabic book of moral wisdom from Latin into French, a work later printed throughout Europe and earning him an afterlife of modest literary fame.

    But Guillaume should also be remembered for another work, his investigation report, an ordinary office document about an extraordinary crime. And his sober, methodical inquiry into the shocking 1407 murder should assure this brave, incorruptible knight’s place in history as a pioneering detective.

    Ancient Bone Hidden in a Stone Leads to a Roman Villa of Royal Proportions - History

    A Brief History Of Primitive & Traditional Blowguns
    James Stuart Koch

    The Origin Of The Blowgun
    Primitive Blowguns
    Traditional Blowguns
    Bored Blowguns
    Mouthpieces & Muzzles
    Sights & Shooting Marks
    Bore Size & Length
    Variations Of Form
    Ram Rods

    The Origin of The Blowgun
    The origin of the blowgun, in terms of time and place, is lost in pre-history. Many scholars believe that, due to it's simplicity, this weapon was invented and re-invented in various locations. Most agree though that the blowgun dates back to the stone age and was known and used at that time on all the inhabited continents, with the exception of Africa. Despite its worldwide distribution, the average weapon varies little in form across its entire geographic range, and has changed little over time. This consistency of form has led archaeologists to postulate that prehistoric contact existed between tropical peoples around the globe. The earliest examples were likely toys which eventually evolved into true hunting weapons for taking birds and small mammals. In areas where blowguns were used for hunting, children were often given toy versions and adolescents scaled down training weapons. (1)

    Primitive Blowguns
    The earliest type, and the one which is the most widely distributed worldwide, is what I refer to as a primitive blowgun. (2) These consist of a bamboo, cane, or similar natural tube of plant origin. Bamboo is an obvious choice when making a blowgun since its stems are largely hollow and relatively straight. Slight kinks are reduced by heating the cut pole over a small fire while applying bending force. (3) The stems of bamboo are divided into nodes by septums, the walls of which are a fraction of an inch thick. Blowgun makers devised a number of solutions to deal with the problem of the septums. Some species of bamboo have nodes which are up to four feet long, but only a few are of the correct diameter for use as a blowgun. Where long nodes of the right diameter were available, two or more nodes were cut to remove the septums and then splinted and lashed together end to end. In some cases tubes of larger diameter were used to splice the smaller tubes. In other cases a larger diameter bamboo tube was split and its septum walls removed. The smaller tubes were then placed inside the larger tube, which was glued and lashed back together. Where bamboo with shorter nodes was the only type available, one solution was to split the tube end to end and remove all of the septum walls. The resulting halves were then glued and lashed back together with cord or ratan. In East Pakistan sections of the tube wall were carefully cut away at the septums. The septums were then removed and the tube wall sections glued back into place with wax. (2) The most common solution was to burn, punch, or drill out the septums using a smaller diameter wood or bamboo rod. The septums were burned by repeatedly dropping small hot coals into the tube. Once the septum had been burned through, a long shaft tipped with an arrowhead was used to ream away what remained. Where bamboo and similar natural tubes were unavailable, other woody plant parts such as palm stems or elder were utilized. These contain a soft pith which may be pushed, burned, or bored out. Alternatively the material may be split and hollowed and lashed back together as with bamboo. The resulting tube was polished using a smaller diameter bamboo or wooden rod and sand. Bamboo blowguns were found in North, Central, and South America, Europe, Asia, and across the Pacific. Split Palm stem traditional blowguns were introduced to Madagascar from Malaysia in the early Christian era. The earliest written references to blowguns are from Rome in the 2nd century AD and from Chin dynasty China between 265 and 429 AD. In Rome it was mentioned by the imperial architect, Appollodorus Of Damascus in his book the Poliorcetus, a work written in Greek on the subject of siegecraft. (13) Appollodorus states: "And if not, reeds, too, are put together, such as bird-catchers use after they have bored holes all the way through them". In Peru illustrations of blowguns have been found which date back to the 6th century AD. The earliest illustration of a blowgun from Europe, of which I am aware, is a French illuminated manuscript of the early 14th century depicting a naked youth shooting a rabbit. (4) The weapon in this depiction is at least one and a half times the length of the boy's body indicating that it is not a simple pea shooter.

    Traditional Blowguns
    A later type of blowgun which I refer to as the traditional design was made by splitting or sawing a length of wood and gouging a half round lengthwise groove in both pieces. (1) This is similar to splitting a length of bamboo to chisel out the septum walls, only more material must be removed. Afterwards the two lengths are glued back together, smoothed, and wrapped as with the earlier bamboo blowguns. Various materials have been used for wrapping, such as cord, ratan, bark, cloth, paper, or leather. Some such blowguns were covered in metal sheeting including silver and gold. Paper cloth and similar materials were often coated with gum, wax, lacquer, or similar waterproofing. Once assembled the bores were reamed smooth as with the bamboo weapons. Wooden blowguns of this type take longer to make but have several advantages. They can be made when and where appropriate bamboo is unavailable and their barrels are very straight and smooth. These can shoot much more precisely made and tighter fitting projectiles with less drag. Traditional blowguns and the iron rod drilled variety are believed to have been introduced to Northern Africa and Europe circa 1250AD by seafaring Arab traders. The Mamelukes of Egypt referred to the weapon by its Arabic name "zabatana". This is derived from the Malay name "sumpitan" These are documented in Flanders by the fourteenth century where they were called a sarbacane. (2) By this time the traditional blowgun was known across Southern Europe from whence it diffused North as far as Scandinavia. The Southern European names for the Arab supplied traditional type blowgun are as follows: sarbatana, zar[a]batana, zerbatana, sarabata, sarbacana, esgaravatana, esgarapatana (Portuguese) cerbatana, zerbatana (Spanish and Catalan) sarbacano, serpatano, sarpatano, soumpetano (Provencal) cerbottana (Italian). Germanic languages used descriptive terms such as blasrohr, literally "blow" "tube". (8)

    Bored Blowguns
    A third method of making a blowgun was invented by the Dyaks of Borneo. (5) These were made by cutting one long piece of wood. A platform was attached to the side of a tree as high as the blowgun would be long. The length of wood was then lashed vertically to the edge of the platform. The maker drilled down into the end of the wood with a long iron rod tipped with a triangular steel point. This was done by lifting, droppimg and turning the rod, which was kept in proper alignment by forked guides. An assistant ladled water into the hole from time to time to float out the chips. Once the length of the bore had been drilled the tube was planed to the proper diameter and the bore smoothed. This type of blowgun needed no gluing or wrapping, but required specialized tools and a great deal of skill on the part of the maker. The resulting tube was also strong enough to serve as a spear shaft and many surviving examples are equipped with an offset iron lance head similar to a bayonet. This method of chiseling the bore did not spread beyond Borneo. However, eventually augurs were introduced and drilled blowguns were also made in Penang, Malaya, and South India. Bored blowguns became an item of export and were found far from their point of manufacture.

    Mouthpieces & Muzzles

    Yagua Hunter Of The Amazon
    Many blowguns were equipped with mouthpieces, which might be funnel, hour glass, hemispherical, or cylindrical in terms of the outside shape. The purpose of the mouthpiece was to get a tighter seal so that the shooter could exert greater air pressure and hence obtain a higher dart velocity. Some were actually shaped so as to fit in the shooter's mouth. On most examples, the breech end consisted of a wooden funnel, like the mouthpiece of an oversized trumpet, against which the shooter's lips could be pressed. The funnel shape also facilitated loading when multiple dart hits were required to bring down larger game. The muzzle ends of blowguns were sometimes protected by a ring of tough material. In Guiana the shell of an acquero nut was used. In the old world, rings of horn, coconut shell, and metal were common.

    Sights & Shooting Marks
    Some blowgun tubes have slight natural curves and others were curved or left curved intentionally. It was then possible to hold the tube so that when the correct side was up, the weight of the muzzle end would cause the bore to straighten. A marker such as two nearly identical teeth of an animal would be lashed to the sides of the tube, three to four feet from the mouthpiece. These indicated which side was to be at the top and also served as a simple sight. Two were required since when shooting a blowgun, both of the shooter's eyes are left open. With standard primitive and traditional blowguns it is not possible for the shooter to align an eye with the barrel while blowing into the breech. Instead while focusing on a distant object the shooter sees the illusion of two side by side muzzles in his field of vision, one slightly to the left and the other slightly to the right of the target. Two nearly identical markers lashed to the sides of the barrel and in a ways from the muzzle form an image perfectly bracketing the target. By moving the sight along the barrel it is possible to adjust for various ranges. In addition to teeth, wax, wood, bamboo, seeds, beads, and jewels were attached anywhere between the muzzle and the mouthpiece, depending how the weapon was to be used.

    Bore Size & Length
    Blowguns varied in terms of caliber and length. Although some earlier Japanese blowguns were over nine feet long, most were the length of a walking staff of five to six feet. Ninja assassins supposedly carried short concealable weapons. The bore of the Japanese weapon was of very small size, as low as one quarter inch = 25 caliber. (6) The tiniest ninja blowgun was a fukibari which was made from a bamboo tube small enough to be concealed in the users mouth. It contained a bundle of un-poisoned needles which could be blown in an opponents face during a fight. A survey of Cherokee river cane blowguns revealed an average bore of 19/32 inch = 61 caliber. This is likely determined to a great extent by the fact that a length of cane or bamboo stiff enough to make an 8 to 10 foot blowgun will naturally have a bore of around that size. The bamboo blowguns I have made varied from 56 to 68 caliber. Most hunting blowguns were from five feet to twenty three feet long. I assume the twenty three foot variety would have been used exclusively for shooting nearly vertically into trees with the muzzle end braced against a limb or branch. I have shot seven foot long blowguns without difficulty, but imagine that one three times as long, and stiff enough to be held from one end without excessive muzzle sag, would be very heavy. Supposedly blowguns averaged nearer the eight to nine foot length. Most of those I have seen depicted or in collections appeared to be about that length.

    Variations Of Form
    A number of variations have been made on the theme. An expedient blowgun was made in the field by some Pacific islanders. This consisted simply of several large leaves rolled and bound together to form a tube. (2) Blowguns have been found in the Celebs with two and three inner tubes, allowing multiple projectiles to be shot with one breath. In other places two or more tubes were lashed together side by side so that they could be shot separately. The Choctaws of the Southeastern US supposedly lashed together four or five tubes in a pan pipe arrangement. (9) This would have been useful in situations where multiple shots were required to bring down game from a tree. Even with poisoned darts, several good hits were usually required before the game was incapacitated or killed. In India barbed darts attached to lines were devised for shooting fish. Later Japanese blowguns were usually made of bamboo with an offset mouthpiece allowing the shooter to aim along the barrel as with a gun. The dart was loaded into the bore and a plug was affixed behind it to close the breech. Metal blowguns were also manufactured. In India, blowguns were sometimes made of brass. Iron tube blowguns were manufactured during the renaissance in Europe. An example of one of these can be found in the Museum in St Ettienne, France. The largest blowguns ever made were the Greek fire shooting iron tubes used in the Eastern Roman Empire in late classical times. These were actually blowgun cannons and were the precursors of the airguns of the 16th and later centuries. (7) How the Greek Fire was propelled is largely a matter of conjecture. It may have been forced by heated air or steam or simply pumped by some mechanical device.


    Houma Rabbit Fur Piston Darts From US
    Two main types of projectiles were shot from blowguns. The simplest and likely the earliest were pellets. Not much later darts were introduced. Primitive pellets could be made of stone or clay. When firearms became available, lead balls identical to gun shot were also occasionally used. The remains of darts and pellets are often found together in various proportions by archaeologists. Pellets seem to be the projectile of choice for birds and the smallest game. Darts could be made much larger and were sometimes poisoned. Various materials such as bamboo, wood, and even bone were used to fabricate the shafts of darts. These varied in length from an inch up to thirty six inches on Timor and New Britain. (5)&(2) Blowgun darts were sometimes simply sharpened and fire hardened, or tipped with pirahna teeth, stone, or metal points. Since the dart shafts were of a smaller diameter than the bore of the blowguns from which they were shot, a piston was required to drive them down the barrel. Pistons varied in type from region to region and were generally glued or tied to the back end of the dart. In South America darts were driven by kapok, or monkey fur. In North America milkweed cotton or rabbit fur were used. In Asia and the Pacific, darts were driven by cork, pith or cones made of rolled and glued materials. Feather fletching was widely distributed, but limited to the old world. Twisted helical darts were also produced by the Houma, Choctaw, and Creek people of the Southern US. (9) The twisting caused such darts to rotate in flight and prevented planing, thus greatly improving the accuracy of the projectile. These were made by splitting cane and twisting the resulting square shafts while heating them over a fire. Where pellets and darts with pistons made of hard material were fabricated, gauges were used. These were made of shell, bone, or bamboo. When making my own darts I resort to using a plastic circle drawing template for rough checking the pistons. I find though that nothing beats running the dart through the bore of the actual weapon prior to taking it to the field. Poisons were identical to those used locally on arrows. In South America curare and poison dart frog poisons were the two most common. In Asia and the Pacific, numerous local poisons were used, most of which contained ipoh as an ingredient. The Japanese Ninja supposedly placed a paste of fugu fish poison on their darts. The shafts of poisoned darts were often notched a short distance back from the point. This caused the point to break off and remain in the wound, increasing the chance that sufficient poison would be absorbed by the target animal. One other type of projectile was used and this, as far as I have been able to determine, was confined to Japan. This was a blowgun containing blinding powder. The most common type of powder was a fine pepper dust which could be blown or flung into an enemies eyes, exactly like modern day mace. This was a weapon used primarily by members of a town watch to subdue unruly drunks and the like when a non-lethal weapon was required. Blinding powder was originally shot from staff type blowguns, and later from small boxes with a mouthpiece and a barrel known as a metsubushi or gantsubushi. (5)

    Although blowgun darts are much lighter than arrows and pack less energy, they are extremely fast and accurate. Blowgun darts can travel at speeds of over 400 feet per second. (11) This is roughly twice the velocity of an arrow from a wooden self bow. Blowguns are therefore ideal for hunting small game at short ranges. They are also surprisingly fast and silent, often allowing a hunter to get off a second shot if the first missed. The relatively easy to make darts and even easier to mass produce pellets allow a hunter to shoot birds and monkeys in trees. Shooting into a tree using a bow can be expensive, since a miss can cause the loss of an arrow, or at least require a difficult and dangerous recovery. In densely forested parts of Southeast Asia blowguns actually completely replaced bows over time. The hand held common variety of blowgun was rarely used in warfare. Even the people who hunted regularly with poisoned darts set aside their blowguns in favor of swords during times of war. The exception was renaissance Italy.


    Bamboo Dart Quiver With Belt Hook From Borneo
    Darts were carried in quivers. In the old world these were most often made of a length of bamboo with a removable cover. Some had a strip of wood or bamboo attached to the back to form a long hook which allowed the quiver to be slipped over a wide cloth belt. Others had cords which could be tied around the waist. Some had multiple inner tubes, each one just large enough to hold a single dart. In the new world, quivers were often woven from palm fronds, attached to a cord and slung around the neck or over a shoulder. The darts they contained consisted simply of a sharpened poisoned shaft with no piston, just a bit of sticky tree sap on the butt end. A hollow nut was also carried which contained kapok. When a target was sighted, the hunter would grab a dart and a pull a tuft of Kapok from the nut. This he would quickly roll onto the butt end of the dart where it adhered due to the tree sap. In its South American cultures wing, The American Museum Of Natural History shows an excellent continuous loop video of Warani Indians hunting a howler monkey with a blowgun using exactly this sort of dart. They also have an example of the palm leaf quiver and kapok filled nut on display as part of their permanent collection. In most places pellets were carried in leather, or woven bags attached to a belt.

    Ram Rods
    As I have learned through personal experience, an essential accessory to the blowgun is the ramrod. A slightly too large dart or pellet may become stuck in the bore and the ramrod is required to remove it. I once went out target shooting and had two blowguns each with a stuck dart! Ramrods are needed even with the traditional weapon having a relatively smooth bore. A projectile becoming stuck can occur due to the bore not being perfectly round or to swelling of the missile and/or tube due to changes in humidity. Stone describes ramrods with perforations near one end through which leaves can be strung for cleaning the bore. I have seen an example of a ram rod made of palm wood in the collection of the American Museum Of Natural History in New York City. It is associated with a five and one half foot long childs blowgun from Indonesia. (1)

    Blowguns and especially their accessories were often decorated. Many quivers show carved and stained geometric and zoomorphic designs as do the nuts used in South America to hold the kapok for the darts. Monkeys were a commom motif on bamboo quivers from Borneo. Amazonian blowguns were sometimes decorated with feather work, which is not surprising since feather decoration is so common in those cultures. I have seen depictions of blowguns carved in the shape of dragons with the mouth of the beast at the muzzle. These though were quite modern, small, and obviously made for the tourist trade. Miniature modern blowguns are sold in both the old and new worlds. (12) The examples of older weapons I have seen in the museums were all relatively unadorned. The main decoration on the barrels of actual hunting weapons consisted mostly of the bark, ratan, or basket weave overwrap added to prevent splitting.

    Mathematics and Architecture

    The first mentioned type of architecture Salingaros mentions in this quote is the pyramid and here we have marked disagreement between experts on the how much geometry and number theory the architects used. For example the Great Pyramid was built at Giza in Egypt around 2575 BC for King Khufu. Much has been written on the measurements of this pyramid and many coincidences have been found with , the golden number and its square root. There are at least nine theories which claim to explain the shape of the Pyramid and at least half of these theories agree with the observed measurements to one decimal place. This is a difficult area, for there is no doubt about certain astronomical alignments in the construction of the pyramid. Also regular geometric shapes were sacred to the Egyptians and they reserved their use in architecture for ritual and official buildings. That they had a goddess of surveying, called Seschat, shows the religious importance placed on building. However, no proof exists that sophisticated geometry lies behind the construction of the pyramids.

    One has to make decisions as to whether the numerical coincidences are really coincidences, or whether the builders of the pyramids designed them with certain numerical ratios in mind. Let us look at just one such coincidence involving the golden number. The golden number is (1 + √ 5) / 2 = 1 . 618033989 and an angle based on this will have size arcsec (1 . 618033989) = 51 ° 50 '. Now the sides of the Great Pyramid rise at an angle of 51 ° 52 '. Is this a coincidence? F Röber, in 1855 , was the first to argue that the golden number had been used in the construction of the pyramids. Many authors have followed Röber, or produced even more elaborate versions of how and the golden number have been utilised by the Egyptians. The authors of [ 23 ] , however, suggest reasons for the occurrence of many of the nice numbers, in particular numbers close to powers of the golden number, as arising from the building techniques used rather than being deliberate decisions of the architects. Arguments of this type have appeared more frequently in recent years.

    Even if deep mathematical ideas went into the construction of the pyramids, I think that Ifrah makes a useful contribution to this debate in [ 4 ] when he writes:-

    The first definite mathematical influence on architecture we mention is that of Pythagoras. Now for Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, number took on a religious significance. The Pythagorean belief that "all things are numbers" clearly had great significance for architecture so let us consider for a moment what this means. Taken at face value it might seem quite a silly idea but in fact it was based on some fundamental truths. Pythagoras saw the connection between music and numbers and clearly understood how the note produced by a string related to its length. He established the ratios of the sequence of notes in a scale still used in Western music. By conducting experiments with a stretched string he discovered the significance of dividing it into ratios determined by small integers. The discovery that beautiful harmonious sounds depended on ratios of small integers led to architects designing buildings using ratios of small integers. This led to the use of a module, a basic unit of length for the building, where the dimensions were now small integer multiples of the basic length.

    Numbers for Pythagoras also had geometrical properties. The Pythagoreans spoke of square numbers, oblong numbers, triangular numbers etc. Geometry was the study of shapes and shapes were determined by numbers. But more than this, the Pythagoreans developed a notion of aesthetics based on proportion. In addition geometrical regularity expressed beauty and harmony and this was applied to architecture with the use of symmetry. Now symmetry to a mathematician today suggests an underlying action of a group on a basic configuration, but it is important to realise that the word comes from the ancient Greek architectural term "symmetria" which indicated the repetition of shapes and ratios from the smallest parts of a building to the whole structure. It should now be clear what the belief that "all things are numbers" meant to the Pythagoreans and how this was to influence ancient Greek architecture.

    Let us look briefly at the dimensions of the Parthenon to see how the lengths conform to the mathematical principles of proportion of the Pythagoreans. In 480 BC the Acropolis in Athens was totally destroyed by the Persians in the Second Persian War. To understand the timescale, let us note that this was about the time of the death of Pythagoras. After the Greek victory over the Persian at Salamis and Plataea the Greeks did not begin the reconstruction of the city of Athens for several years. Only after the Greek states ended their fighting in the Five Years' Truce of 451 BC did the conditions exist to encourage reconstruction. Pericles, the Head of State in Athens, set about rebuilding the temples of the Parthenon in 447 BC. The architects Ictinus and Callicrates were employed, as was the sculptor Phidias.

    Berger, in [ 11 ] , makes a study of the way that the Pythagorean ideas of ratios of small numbers were used in the construction of the Temple of Athena Parthenos. The ratio 2 : 3 and its square 4 : 9 were fundamental to the construction. A basic rectangle of sides 4 : 9 was constructed from three rectangles of sides 3 and 4 with diagonal 5 . This form of construction also meant that the 3 : 4 : 5 Pythagorean triangle could be used to good effect to ensure that right angles in the building were accurately determined.

    The length of the Temple is 69 . 5 m, its width is 30 . 88 m and the height at the cornice is 13 . 72 m. To a fairly high degree of accuracy this means that the ratio width : length = 4 : 9 while also the ratio height : width = 4 : 9 . Berger took the greatest common denominator of these measurements to arrive at the ratios

    which gives a basic module of length 0 . 858 m. Then the length of the Temple is 9 2 modules, its width is 6 2 modules and its height is 4 2 modules. The module length is used throughout, for example the overall height of the Temple is 21 modules, and the columns are 12 modules high. The naos, which in Greek temples is the inner area containing the statue of the god, is 21 . 44 m wide and 48 . 3 m long which again is in the ratio 4 : 9 . Berger notes the amazing fact that the columns are 1 . 905 m in diameter and the distance between their axes is 4 . 293 m, again the ratio of 4 : 9 is being used.

    We mentioned above that F Röber believed that the Egyptians had used the golden number in their construction of the pyramids. In the same work of 1855 he also argued that the golden number was used in the construction of the Temple of Athena on the Parthenon. Perhaps this work was very persuasive, or perhaps it presented a romantic idea which people wanted to believe. Whatever the reason, it appears as essentially an accepted fact today by most people that indeed the buildings of the Parthenon achieved their undoubted exceptional beauty through the use of the golden number. There appears little hard evidence to support this view, while Berger's 4 : 9 theory, on the other hand, appears well established.

    Plato was much influenced by the ideas of Pythagoras. Plato's theory of ideas makes meaning and concepts as fundamental and real, while the physical realisation of these ideas was not real and of lesser importance. For example the idea of a flower is real and permanent while the physical examples of flowers are only seen as apparent and temporary. Although buildings are not permanent, Plato saw that they were long lasting and therefore more beautiful to him than flowers. He saw mathematics as providing the most fundamental of all ideas and therefore buildings should be designed on mathematical principles. Plato writes in Philebus:-

    1. Principles of architectural.
    2. History of architecture, and architectural materials.
    3. Ionic temples.
    4. Doric and Corinthian temples.
    5. Public buildings, theatres, music, baths, and harbours.
    6. Town and country houses.
    7. Interior decoration.
    8. Water supply.
    9. Dials and clocks.
    10. Mechanical engineering with military applications.

    It is interesting, particularly given the details above on how the Temple of Athena on the Parthenon was constructed, to look at what Vitruvius says in Book 3 on designing temples. The book begins with an essay on symmetry and then describes the use of symmetry and proportion in the design of temples. For Vitruvius the proportions of the human body were fundamental in achieving beauty and he says that the proportions of the temple should follow these human proportions. He suggests that the circle and the square are perfect figures for generating architectural designs because they approximate the geometry of the spread-eagled human body. There is a religious significance here, since Vitruvius believed that the human body was made in the image of a god and was therefore perfect. Of course many have argued that the golden number can be found in the proportions of the human body so it may be that the evidence found today for the golden number in ancient Greek temples is explained by its relation to human proportions.

    One of the remarkable parts of De architectura Ⓣ is Book 5 where Vitruvius discusses acoustics. Sarton writes [ 6 ] :-

    Before we leave Vitruvius's De architectura Ⓣ it is worth noting that, although today we see Vitruvius more as a practical man rather than as a scholar, nevertheless Cardan included him in his list of the twelve leading thinkers of all time.

    In Europe there was little progress in mathematics and architecture until the 14 th and 15 th Centuries. Architecture was modelled on the teachings of Vitruvius and on the classical architecture which was still plentiful, particularly in Greece and Italy. The next person we want to mention is Brunelleschi who was trained as a goldsmith. There were really no professional architects at this time and Brunelleschi learnt his skills in architecture by visiting Rome:-

    Many of the famous mathematicians from the time of Brunelleschi made contributions to architecture. Alberti wrote a text on the topic, as well being the author of an important text on perspective in which he wrote down Brunelleschi's brilliant discoveries for the first time. He was one of a number of mathematicians to develop a general theory of proportion which, of course, was motivated by his architectural studies.

    Although the name of Leonardo da Vinci makes one think of his stunning paintings rather than mathematics, in fact he was fascinated by mathematics. Architecture was another of his specialities and he learnt about it, in particular the mathematical principles behind it, from studying Alberti's texts. He was a man of wide ranging abilities and interests and, at one stage in his career, earned his living advising the Duke of Milan on architecture, fortifications and military matters. He was also considered as a hydraulic and mechanical engineer. He also worked for Cesare Borgia as a military architect and general engineer. Later the French King Francis I appointed him first painter, architect, and mechanic to the King.

    Another mathematician from Renaissance times was Bombelli who was taught by Pier Francesco Clementi, himself an engineer and architect. With this training Bombelli was soon working himself as both engineer and architect employing his mathematical skills both in his work and in his deep investigation of complex numbers. Another to combine his skills in both mathematics and architecture was Bramer who was employed directing constructions of fortifications and castles. He published a work on the calculation of sines, prompted by the practical work in which he was involved. He followed Alberti (1435) , Dürer (1525) and Bürgi (1604) when in 1630 he constructed a mechanical device that enabled one to draw accurate geometric perspective.

    La Faille was a contemporary of Bramer who taught mathematics and military engineering. He worked as an architect advising on fortifications and he wrote an architectural treatise as well as important works on mechanics. Later in the 17 th Century lived the English architect Wren, in many ways the best known architect in English history. A well rounded scientist, he solved a number of important mathematical problems before taking up architecture as a profession. Although he is better known as an architect than as a mathematician he was considered one of the leading mathematicians of his day by Newton. It was clear that Wren saw mathematics as being a subject which had applications to a wide variety of scientific disciplines and his mathematical skills played an important role in his architectural achievements. One of the architects with whom he worked, Robert Hooke, is better known as a mathematician than as an architect. Again that mathematics and architecture were closely related disciplines was considered natural at this time.

    Another 17 th Century mathematician was La Hire whose interests geometry arose from his study of architecture. In 1687 he was appointed to the chair of architecture at the Académie Royale. His interest in geometry arose from his study of perspective and he went on to make important contributions to conic sections. In the 19 th century Poleni made contributions to hydraulics, physics, astronomy and archaeology. He held university chairs in astronomy, physics and mathematics as well as working as an architect.

    The nineteenth century saw a change of attitude which led to a separation in people's minds of the scientific and the artistic. From this period the roles of mathematicians and architects were seen as distinct in a way that did not happen in say the seventeenth century. This is not to say that the connections between mathematics and architecture vanished, just that the scientific and artistic aspects were seen as complementary skills not to be found in the same person. Of course there were still those who did excel in mathematics and architecture it was only perceptions which changed. An example of a person who excelled in architecture and mathematics was Aronhold who taught at the Royal Academy of Architecture at Berlin from 1851 . Aronhold was appointed professor at the Royal Academy of Architecture in 1863 . He made outstanding contributions to geometry.

    Others from this period who combined the two skills include Brioschi and Wiener. From 1852 to 1861 Brioschi was professor of applied mathematics at the University of Pavia. There he taught mechanics, architecture and astronomy. Wiener studied engineering and architecture at the University of Giessen from 1843 to 1847 . With this training he went on to become a teacher of physics, mechanics, hydraulics and descriptive geometry at the Technische Hochschule in Darmstadt.

    There are a number of late 19 th Century, and 20 th Century mathematician who began their careers as architects before turning to mathematics, for example the Frenchman Drach and the American Wilks. Drach worked as an architect before turning to mathematics. Wilks studied architecture at North Texas State Teachers College. He received a B.A. in architecture in 1926 . However his eyesight was not too good, and he feared that this would be a handicap if he pursued architecture as a profession so he decided on a career in mathematics.

    Two unique talents from the 20 th Century were Escher and Buckminster Fuller. Escher was never a mathematician, despite his fascination with the subject and the deep mathematical ideas which underlay his art. He trained at the School of Architecture and Decorative Arts in Haarlem and only at age 21 did he give up architecture in favour of art. Buckminster Fuller was an engineer, mathematician and architect who applied geometric principles to design a totally new concept in buildings in the second half of the 20 th Century. He made an art out of structural purity, using simple geometric forms for aesthetic as well as functional purposes.

    There are two primary ways of knowing reality:

    1. The rational, deductive, argumentative, intellectual thinking that is accepted by the science and our patriarchal Western culture. The alchemists called this Solar Consciousness and assigned it many code words, such as the Sun, Sulfur, the King, the Father, Spirit, and ultimately, the One Mind of the universe. This involves left-brain activity like linear thought, schematics, formulae, arguments and logic.

    2. The intuitive way of thinking, also called intelligence of the heart, a non-linear, image-driven way of thinking that is an accepted tool of the arts and religion. The alchemists called the other way of knowing Lunar Consciousness. Among its many symbols are the Moon, Mercury, the Queen, the Holy Ghost, Soul, and ultimately, the One Thing of the universe. This involves right-brain activity dealing with drawings, paintings, mandalas, symbols, music, and meditation.

    The alchemists believed that perfection could only be achieved by working with both Solar and Lunar ways of knowing and ultimately uniting them in a third state of Stellar Consciousness. Stellar Consciousness is a state of incorruptible wisdom symbolized by the heroic Child that resulted from the marriage of the King and Queen, as well as by Salt, Gold, the Philosopher’s Stone, the Astral Body, and of course, the Stars themselves.


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