Robert Walker

Robert Walker


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Robert Walker was born in about 1599. Nothing is known of his early life and his first portraits date from the 1630s. It has been suggested that he might have worked as a student of Anthony Van Dyck.

Walker's work has also been compared to that of William Dobson. "Walker's poses are often stiff and his colour schemes limited compared to Van Dyck's. A prolific artist, his style is much more obviously derivative than that of his royalist counterpart William Dobson." (1)

During the English Civil War he painted several members of the New Model Army including Charles Fleetwood, Henry Ireton, Thomas Fairfax and John Lambert. He also painted the writer, John Evelyn, in 1648. Evelyn is shown in a half-length view wearing a white shirt and blue gown, at a table and leaning on a skull.

However, Walker is best known for his portrait of Oliver Cromwell that was produced in 1649. The pose is very similar to the one used by Van Dyck for his paintings of Thomas Wentworth (1639) and Kenelm Digby (1640). "This portrait (of Cromwell) is thought to date from that year and shows Cromwell wearing a type of armour which is unlikely to have been worn in battle but instead designed as a symbol of chivalric virtues. He holds a baton, the symbol of high military command." (2)

Art historians have expressed surprise at Cromwell allowing Walker to paint his portrait. It is very different from other portraits painted of Cromwell during this period. Cromwell once told the artist, Peter Lely to "use all your skill to paint my picture truly like me and not flatter me at all. Remark all these roughness, pimples, warts and everything as you see me. Otherwise I’ll never pay a farthing for it." (3)

Samuel Cooper obviously followed the same instructions and it seems that he was responsible for more paintings of Cromwell than any other artist. (4) Cromwell selected artists like Cooper who would present him "plain both in character and in clothing". It has been pointed out that plainness had a political purpose, presenting Cromwell as a "sober, honest alternative to the tradition of royal vanity, excess and arrogance he’d just replaced". (5) Alfred L. Rouse argues that "Cooper rendered the finest portrait of the great man, painted with penetrating sense of character." (6)

Margaret Whinney, the author of English Art, 1625-1714 (1957) has argued that he was "the favourite painter of the Parliamentarian party" but was in fact a poor artist. "In Walker's portraits of the Parliamentarians their heads are attached to bodies lifted straight from Van Dyke... His dry and impersonal use of paint and his lack of any feeling for colour were perhaps well suited to his sitters." (7)

Robert Walker died in 1658.

Robert Walker's poses are often stiff and his colour schemes limited compared to Van Dyck's. A prolific artist, his style is much more obviously derivative than that of his royalist counterpart William Dobson. This is evident in, for example, his portrait of Cromwell in the Cromwell Museum, Huntingdon, in which the pose is closely based on that used by Van Dyck in his portrait of Sir Kenelm Digby in armour (NPG). Though his work lacks any of the painterly qualities of Dobson, Walker occasionally demonstrated wit and originality, and his portraits possess a distinctive soft quality that is his own.

Portraits of Oliver Cromwell (Answer Commentary)

Military Tactics in the Civil War (Answer Commentary)

Women in the Civil War (Answer Commentary)

(1) Ann Sumner, Robert Walker : Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(2) National Portrait Gallery (NPG 536)

(3) Alastair Smart, The Daily Telegraph (11th October, 2014)

(4) John Murdoch, Samuel Cooper : Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(5) Alastair Smart, The Daily Telegraph (11th October, 2014)

(6) Alfred L. Rouse, Reflections on the Puritan Revolution (1986) page 229

(7) Margaret Whinney, English Art, 1625-1714 (1957) page 77


The earlier Walkers do not have good dates, so we use Robert Walker b.abt 1630 etc. He was the first we know about. "We believe that our ancestor Robert Walker lived in Scotland, Torbolton, Ayrshire before 1665, and fared well until the restoration when he was arrested and fined for selling and 'weaving lining cloth' in defiance of English laws pertaining to Scottish persons. It was prohibited by newly enforced regulations promulgated by the Restored Monarchy.

He was raised near Glasgow, Scotland. Migrated to Ireland, signed allegiance to King William at the siege of Londonderry, 1688-9.

In 1689 he and his son, James b abt 1660 are on the rolls of inhabitants of Londonderry, Ulster, at the time of the siege, by forces under James II and Lord Tyrconel.

In 1718, a group of Ulster Scots, two Roberts, a William and a James Walker were among those living in N Ireland who petitioned Gov. Schute of Massachusetts for permission to immigrate to the American colonies, which request was subsequently granted.

With six of James Walker's sons taking advantage beginning after 1730, three, James Henry and Andrew locating east of the Susquehanna River, and three others Samuel, Robert and William on the western side. Estates are in court records for those east, but there are none for the three western Walkers."

The oldest person on my chart is: Robert Walker b abt 1630

    I b abt 1660
    • James Walker II locating east of the Susquehanna River
    • Archibald Walker b abt 1719
    • Henry Walker locating east of the Susquehanna River
    • Andrew Walker locating east of the Susquehanna River
    • Samuel Walker locating on the western side of the Susquehanna locating on the western side of the Susquehanna (see below)
        (see below)
    • Robert Walker II's line continues:

      • (1) Robert Walker, Sr. II married Jean ?
        • (2)a Justice of the Peace: Robert Walker, Jr. III (1738-1812) married Elizabeth Brice
          • (3) John Walker (1764) marr Rachel Cochran
            • (4) Betsey
            • (4)Thomas Walker (1799)
            • (4) Betsey Walker died young
            • (4) Lucinda Walker married Edwin S Beardsley

            Robert Walker - History


            Robert Walker, Jr.
            President

            The original AIRSEP® design was developed for use on light-single and dual-engine piston reciprocating engines. A common problem at the time was the regular discharge of oil that was emitted from the crankcase breather and deposited on the underside of the airplane. The AIRSEP® solved this problem, and the resulting design was subsequently patented and marketed worldwide. Approximately 25,000 units have been sold to the aircraft industry alone.

            However, the evolution of the Walker AIRSEP® has been an ongoing one. In 1984, the U.S. Navy approached Walker for help in solving an ongoing engine problem of oil ingestion aboard a vessel. The source was found to be crankcase emissions. It was through this project that the MARINE AIRSEP® was developed and refined for use aboard diesel-powered vessels. Following this project, the AIRSEP® was further refined and packaged by current president Bob Walker for mass-market installations in the Marine Industry for both propulsion and marine Genset-auxiliary power applications.

            After rigorous testing and evaluations, the Walker AIRSEP® has been adopted by the leading OEM engine companies in the world, which offer marinized engines. No competing closed crankcase system manufacturer has accomplished this recognition. The AIRSEP® became standard equipment on all Detroit Diesel marine engines in 1991, and later became standard on select industrial models as well. Total shipped units to the Detroit Diesel factory have numbered well over 15,000 units. An excess of 25,000 DDC AIRSE® units operate in the general boating public which were sold as aftermarket kits through the WALKER AIRSEP® dealer network. Over 100,000 to 200,000 AIRSEP® units have been placed into service worldwide, and applied to a range of other engine types.

            Both the need and demand for the Walker AIRSEP® expanded with new engine models, older engines looking to update, and new applications such as Gensets and auxiliary engines. The increased interest in the product prompted Walker to step up development work to improve the durability and performance of the unit. Over the last few years, improvements have been made in construction and performance.


            Little Known Black History Fact: Echol Cole And Robert Walker

            Today marks a grim period in Black history, and also marked the a major shift in the aims of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. On this day 50 years ago, Black Memphis, Tennessee sanitation workers Echol Cole and Robert Walker were tragically killed, prompting their Black co-workers to strike in protest of their low wages and dangerous work conditions.

            Cole and Walker were working the morning of February 1, 1968 in Memphis when rainfall sent the men to the back of a garbage truck for shelter. A compactor in the garbage truck malfunctioned, crushing the men to death. The event revealed the truth about poor wages and conditions for the over 1,300 Black sanitation workers in the city. Adding to insult, two men also died in 1964 and the city refused to replace failing equipment.

            On February 12, hundreds of workers didn’t show up for work and the city’s trash piled up. As the strike waged on, the workers were assaulted with racist comments and brutality from police, and the city’s mayor refused to hold talks with the group. This caught the attention of King, who joined an event on March 18 in support of the workers. King and his fellow organizers helped the workers to challenge the city for fair wages and worker’s rights.

            With King’s presence, the FBI increased its observation of the sanitation worker’s strike and the SCLC’s involvement. Plans were underway for a second non-violent march and demonstration on April 4, 1968. The night before, King delivered his chilling “I’ve Been To The Mountaintop” speech at the city’s Mason Temple. The following day, King was assassinated at the Lorraine Hotel.

            Bravely, King’s widow, Coretta Scott King, joined with the SCLC in Memphis for a silent march through the city. Eight days later, the city agreed to increase wages and expand worker’s rights, but not without measurable resistance from the white power structure in place and further threats of strikes.


            About the Artist

            The English-born artist William Garl Browne (1823 - 1894) established himself as a portrait painter in Richmond, Virginia in 1846. After traveling to Mexico to paint General Zachary Taylor and other heroes of the Mexican-American War, he concentrated on patrons in the southern states. In North Carolina and the Virginias, he painted portraits of prominent society figures, statesmen, and Confederate officers and their families. Browne's works hang today in the White House, the Treasury Department, and Washington's Corcoran Gallery of Art, and he is heavily represented in public and private collections in the South. His portrait of Robert J. Walker painted in 1879, ten years after the subject's death, was probably based on a photograph.


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            Robert Walker - History

            HISTORY OF THE ROBERT J. WALKER

            Robert J. Walker was built in the first half of the nineteenth century in a time when the United States Government was beginning to expand its role in the surveying, marking, and control of its coastal waters. It was also a time, with the Industrial Revolution, in which steam technology as well as iron hulls were being adopted in the maritime and naval communities. Britain's Royal Navy adopted steam as a means of propulsion in the early 19th century, although interest in the technology dated to the end of the last century. American interest paralleled Britain's, with the first steam paddle warship in America, Robert Fulton's Demologos, a single, central paddle-propelled craft, being briefly tested and abandoned in 1815. These early steamers were wooden-hulled it would not be until 1820 when the first all-iron hull, the British steamer Aaron Manby, would be built.

            Walker's crews were diverse and included naval and merchant marine veterans, immigrants, foreign nationals, and a racially diverse crew which often included African-Americans. Walker figured in an incident involving one of its black sailors while in Charleston in what seems to have been late 1858. The sailor, G.E. Stevens, explained in a letter to J.C. White from Pensacola on early January 8, 1859 that:

            My duty on board this ship required that I should go ashore. The laws of South Carolina forbade my doing so. The day after I arrived I was ordered ashore and obeyed. When walking up King Street I was seized and arraigned before the Mayor. Fortunately for me, a young gentleman, a friend of Captain Huger (the Capt. of the Walker) saw the arrest and informed him immediately. The Captain rendered securities and I was released.

            The original letter from Mr. Stevens to Mr. White is in the archives of Howard University. The incident is recounted in Dorothy Sterling's 1973 book, Speak Out in Thunder Tones: Letters and Other Writings by Black Northerners, 1787-1865.

            Iron hulls did not weigh as much as a comparable wooden hull (about 20 percent less) and with smaller frames and bulkheads possessing about 20 percent more internal space, and being a rigid structure were "better able to resist vibration" from steam machinery than wood. While not always favored because of the brittle nature of wrought iron, improvements in metal technology and steam machinery in the 1850s and 1860s and the battle success of ironclads in the Civil War ultimately led to the abandonment of wooden-hulled warships as well as merchant steamers.

            Built for the United States Revenue Marine for the enforcement of customs, Walker was one of eight transitional iron-hulled steamers constructed in the 1840s by the United States Government to "naval designs" and to test through practical application various theories of construction and propulsion - in the latter, different types of paddlewheels as well as propellers. There was enthusiasm in the ranks of the Revenue Marine for iron hulls, Captain William A. Howard writing that not only would iron-hulled steamers be stronger than wood, but that they would also not rot, be damaged by marine borers, and would cost 50 percent less to repair over a 20-year time period than a comparable wooden ship.

            The U.S. Navy was at the same time also building iron steamers one, the gunboat USS Michigan, was built expressly for service on the Great Lakes (Rodgers 1996). While this was a period of steady adoption of iron in shipbuilding, it remained highly individualistic as various yards and builders experimented.

            The launching of the USS Monitor on January 30, 1862 from Continental Iron Works in Greenpoint, N.Y. Harpers' Weekly, September 1862. (Monitor Collection, NOAA)
            The Revenue Marine proceeded with an initial request for bids to construct six iron steamers in April 1843, and soon had contracts in place to build the steamers Spencer, Bibb, Dallas, and McLane, with an experimental paddlewheel invented by naval officer William W. Hunter, and two steamers, Legare and Jefferson, with helicoidal propellers designed by inventor John Ericsson, who would later design and launch the famous ironclad warship USS Monitor.

            The contracts for the six steamers were followed by contracts for two sidewheel steamships, Polk and Walker, in December 1844 and January 1845. While work on the last two setamers progressed - slowly - the Hunter wheel-propelled vessels proved to be failures. They were leaky, slow and inefficient in their consumption of coal and in excessive wear and tear on their machinery which necessitated expensive repairs and cost overruns. Ultimately, some of the vessels were refitted with new propulsion systems and were ultimately transferred out of the Revenue Marine.

            Polk was completed at Richmond, Virginia in March 1847. Meanwhile, work on the last of the iron steamers, Robert J. Walker, slowly progressed. Named for United States Senator Robert John Walker of Mississippi (1801-1869), who served as Secretary of the Treasury in the cabinet of President James K. Polk from 1845 to 1849, Walker was built at the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania shipyard of Joseph Tomlinson in 1847. Tomlinson and his business partner Samuel Stackhouse were ship and engine-builders of considerable reputation. Tomlinson, in addition to ships and engines later built rail cars and constructed two ironclad river monitors for the U.S. Navy at the end of the Civil War.

            The contract to build Walker was issued in 1846, but work did not commence until March 1847. Delays in obtaining the iron from the mill and bad weather delayed the start of work. Tomlinson finally launched the 358-ton Robert J. Walker on November 27, 1847. Richard Evans, the Commandant of the Revenue Marine and also serving as Walker's master, called the steamer "the finest iron vessel ever built in this country."

            After being rigged (Walker carried two masts with a brigantine rig) and being fitted with its 32-pdr. guns and ammunition, the steamer left Pittsburgh on December 14 for New Orleans and thence to its home port of Mobile on December 14, 1847. Soon after arrival, instead of heading to Mobile, Walker was transferred by the Revenue Marine to the United States Coast Survey at New Orleans on February 11, 1848. The reason for the quick transfer was explained in 1852 by Benjamin Isherwood, Chief Engineer of the United States Navy:

            The United States Coast Survey, established in 1807, was expanding its coastal surveys under an energetic new Superintendent, Alexander Dallas Bache, appointed in 1843 to succeed the first Superintendent Ferdinand Hassler, who had initially led the Survey from 1816-1818, and then resumed his post when the Survey was reauthorized and commenced duties again in 1832. Robert J. Walker, incidentally, was a brother-in-law of Alexander Dallas Bache, who now had a vessel in his fleet named for a family member.

            The U.S. Coast Survey's officers had watched the arrival of steam with considerable interest, and advocated the use of steamers in survey because of the "independence of steam against wind and tide:"

            Therefore, while the Revenue Marine was less than happy with their new steamers' failure as armed vessels patrolling and requiring fast response time, this was not a requirement for a survey steamship, and as the poorest part of the government's sea services, the Coast Survey was willing to accept the Revenue Marine's cast-offs.

            The United States Coast Survey was also a sister agency of the Revenue Service, and both operated under the auspices of the United States Treasury Department. The Revenue Service temporarily reverted to sailing vessels while the Coast Survey embraced steam technology, particularly for offshore operations. The first of these vessels was Bibb, followed by Walker, Legare, and Jefferson. An additional steam vessel, Hetzel, was transferred from the Army quartermaster department while a small steamer, Active, was procured on the Pacific coast, following the loss of Jefferson on the coast of Patagonia while in transit to San Francisco.

            As Historian Albert Theberge notes, Walker also joined the Coast Survey at a time when, under Bache the

            After transfer from the Revenue Service, Walker was assigned to the portion of the United States coastline designated Section VIII by the Coast Survey. This section extended from Dauphin Island to Vermillion Bay including the coasts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. The primary working area of Walker remained Section VIII for the next eleven years. The ship was turned over to the Coast Survey on February 11, 1848, and placed under the command of Lieutenant (Commanding) Carlile P. Patterson, destined to become the fifth superintendent of the Coast Survey. As the previous month Patterson had used the schooner Forward for survey work in the vicinity of Mobile Bay entrance and continued the work in Walker, the basis for a direct comparison of the cost of sail versus steam for surveying purposes was established. Patterson reported that for a given unit of hydrographic surveying production in offshore waters where the steamship was the primary surveying platform, it was 40% less costly to operate than a sailing vessel. This report helped assure the growth of the steam vessel fleet in the Coast Survey.

            In its first year, Walker finished surveying the offshore approaches to Mobile Bay and the approaches to Cat and Ship Islands. The work accomplished by the vessel also helped to determine the somewhat unique nature of tides in the Gulf of Mexico. Because of the small range of tides in the Gulf of Mexico coupled with the great influence of winds on the tidal levels, it was a triumph of perseverance and analysis to discern that the tides in this area were composed of only one high and one low per day as opposed to the twice daily tides of both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Studies of shifting channels, accreting and eroding barrier islands, and appearing and disappearing islands, all issues in the Gulf of Mexico today were first noted in the 1848 report. In addition, the commercial significance of the survey of Mobile Bay and entrance was not lost on the Mayor of Mobile: ". We trust sir, that the labors you are about to bestow upon Mobile Bay will fully confirm our present anticipations, and establish beyond controversy, the fact that our bay and harbor are capable of affording at least equal facilities with any other southern port to shipping of any description." (Appendix No. 17, 1848 Report. P. 107.) Although plans were in the making for a Mobile and Ohio Railroad, it was necessary to assure that Mobile Bay would be able to handle deep draft vessels if the railroad was to be successful.

            June 24, 1848 marked the end of Walker's first season, and it returned to New York on July 29th. The Coast Survey's annual report gave no statistics for the cruise other than the vessel and crew had acquired 2,000 lineal miles of hydrographic data. Over an 11 year period, an average of 47 miles per hydrographic mile was made. Extrapolating, the ship made approximately 100,000 soundings in 1848.

            On January 16, 1849 Patterson and the crew went from the Schooner Phoenix to Walker. Work commenced in Mobile Bay on February 26. During this season, the ship surveyed 145 square miles in Mobile Bay, obtained 71, 745 soundings, and ran 1,160 lineal miles. Work ended July 3rd. Patterson recommended the placement of numerous buoys and fixed aids to navigation in Mobile Bay, Cat Island Harbor, and Ship Island Harbor. Notable on this cruise was the death of Passed Assistant Surgeon Silas Holmes, who was lost by drowning on May 21st.

            In 1850, James Alden replaced Patterson as the commanding officer. Walker was apparently left in the Gulf of Mexico, probably the naval base at Pensacola, and was used by another, unnamed agency (an unauthorized use according to Bache which "deranged" plans for work in Section 8.) The ship was not ready for use by the Coast Survey until March and there were also delays caused by being unable to crew the ship. However, Alden did do a reconnaissance of Cedar Keys, Florida, and reported the existence of a shoal extending out eight or ten miles from Sea Horse Key and recommended establishing a light at the end of the shoal.

            Alden completed a survey of Mobile Delta and almost completed the survey of Mobile Bay. In all, the ship and crew gathered 25,096 soundings in a shortened season with a 536 mile run in the bay. After closing work in the section, Walker proceeded to Key West and Norfolk where the ship was turned over to S. P. Lee for work offshore of the Virginia Capes and Maryland. This was one of the few occasions when Walker conducted work anywhere but in Section VIII. Under Lee, Walker obtained 22, 029 soundings in the offshore areas and 31,117 soundings by boat in bay areas. 1,115 sounding miles were run in outside work and 518 miles by boat in the bay. In late September, the vessel was returned to Alden.

            In 1851, Walker was occupied in offshore work south of Dauphin Island and Petit Bois Island, and in in-shore work north of the same islands, and in special examinations of Pass Christian Harbor and the mouths of the Mississippi. A steam-launch, specially constructed for inshore and harbor work was lost in a storm off the Chandeleur Islands in May. In the early part of the season, James Alden was in command and finished the survey of Bon Secours Bay, the southeast corner of Mobile Bay. After this Benjamin F. Sands took over as commanding officer and commenced the work described above. As noted earlier, Sands would remain commanding officer of the vessel until 1858. Walker worked off the Mississippi Delta, where "the marshes have made out seaward, mud-lumps have been washed away, and other formed." Alden's work encompassed 13,760 soundings and 223 miles of sounding line while Sands' work included 28,244 soundings and 688 miles of sounding. Walker was relegated to a repair facility at the end of the season and received

            This is a wide view of the two engines side by side - their position, dimensions and placement in the hull were an exact match for Walker's engines as shown in the patent drawings.
            --> new boilers. According to Benjamin Isherwood, &ldquoDuring the present year, the Walker has been refitted with new boilers at the works of Messrs. Merrick & Son, Philadelphia&rdquo (Isherwood 1852:50). This machinery remained in place for the remainder of Walker&rsquos life.

            Following the repairs, in 1852 Walker continued surveying in Mississippi Sound from Dauphine Island to the longitude of Round Island including Horn Island Passage,made outside soundings (ten miles to sea) from the middle of Petit Bois Island to the middle of Horn Island, conducted a reconnaissance to the South and Southwest Passes of the Mississippi Delta, and made a survey of Naso Roads at the north end of Chandeleur Island. 65,362 soundings were taken over 1,486 miles of sounding line. Sands&rsquo executive officer this year was Charles Manigault Morris, who would during the Civil War be the last commander of the raider CSS Florida. There is no mention of whether the ship returned north or was laid up at Pensacola this season. Other notable events involving Walker&rsquos crew that year included the deaths of the second and third assistant engineers in a fever epidemic.

            In 1853, Walker, under Sands&rsquo command, engaged in checking for changes to hydrography in the vicinity of Ship Shoal , Horn Island Pass, and Chandeleur Islands at the beginning of the season in response to the Great Mobile Hurricane of 1852 (a precursor of modern work in clearing channels and checking for obstructions in the wake of every great coastal storm). The ship then began work in Mississippi Sound. The crew made 69,079 soundings over 1,430 sounding miles. The ship was laid up in Pensacola following the 1853 season, probably sometime in June. Following the season, the crew laid up Walker in Pensacola.

            In 1854, there was difficulty procuring crew so the field season did not begin until mid-march. The season began with searching for a shoal at 27° N 89° W south of the &ldquoBelize,&rdquo(the east pass of the Mississippi River). Deep sea soundings and temperature measurements were made as far south as 26° 40&rsquo. &ldquoWhat is not a little curious is, that the bottle thrown overboard in latitude 28° 58&rsquo, in the longitude of Mobile, where the surface temperature was 69 degrees, was found near Jupiter Inlet, on the eastern coast of Florida, having found its way to, probably by wind and counter-currents, into the comparatively warm current of the Gulf Stream.&rdquo This observation is perhaps the first indication of the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current. The bottle was thrown over on April 8, 78 miles south of the west end of Dauphin Island and found two months later on June 6 by a Mr. Douglas Dummet near Mosquito Inlet. The bottle had traveled over 750 miles if it had taken a straight course over the 59 days. Total statistics included 11,943 soundings obtained over 1,167 miles. 11,602 of those soundings were made outside of Horn and Ship Islands. The season was closed on June 1st with Sands taking Walker to Philadelphia for repairs and he in turn reporting to Washington for office work.

            The ship apparently left Philadelphia in December 1854 and attempted to run a line of deep sea soundings from Key West to the Mississippi Passes, but poor weather made it impossible to sound in waters deeper than 250 fathoms. January 1855 ended up with a succession of gales that were repaired in February during periods of foggy and hazy weather. Work continued on the Mississippi coast and offshore islands and ultimately the year&rsquos work was the most productive of Walker&rsquos career with 105,591 soundings acquired over 2,319 miles of sounding line. Sands invented a bottom sampling device during this season that worked on all attempts except one, which failed when it seemingly encountered a hard rocky bottom. Sands ran soundings in the Gulf Stream while running north at the end of the season and then in October ran the section south from Nantucket, one of the more difficult sections run in the past because of its length.

            In 1856, Walker attempted to leave Philadelphia early in the year but was detained by ice on the Delaware River. It attempted to leave in the middle of March but the ice damaged its paddlewheels necessitating further delay at New Castle for repair. A stormy passage south allowed for no deep sea soundings until reaching the latitude of Cape Fear. From there Walker ran soundings to Cape Canaveral. From Key West it ran deep sea soundings north to the Mississippi Delta. Walker reached Pass Christian on May 1 but proceeded to Pensacola for provisions as the weather was inclement for surveying. On May 5th, operations commenced and continued till closing the season on June 11. 62,434 sounding were observed during the short season and 1,716 miles of sounding line.

            Walker left Philadelphia on November 19, 1856 for the 1857 season and attempted deep sea soundings but poor weather in vicinity of Cape Hatteras stopped those efforts. Gales and boiler repairs at Key West delayed the arrival of Walker on its working grounds from Key West to Pensacola, finally departing from Pensacola on February 1. Despite the delays, Walker had a successful season working as far west as Bay St. Louis and then Chandeleur Sound. The ship and crew ran a line of deep sea soundings from Pass a&rsquol&rsquoOutre to Key West. The deepest sounding observed was 1511 fathoms and brought up blue mud. 75,529 soundings were obtained during the working season over 1,832 miles of sounding line. The ship then returned to Philadelphia for winter lay up.

            Walker left Delaware Bay on January 4th, 1858, having been detained due to shortage of officers. On January 20, 1858, Walker&rsquos crew, as well as that of the nearby Coast Survey steamer Varina turned to help combat a major fire ashore at Fort Pickens while off Pensacola. The Annual Report of the Coast Survey noted:

            Walker&rsquos survey party commenced work in Atchafalaya Bay on February 6. In March Walker conducted a hydrographic examination of the western end of Lake Borgne, with an additional 2,152 soundings made and over 37 miles of sounding lines. Near the end of the season, Walker proceeded on a line of deep sea soundings from Southwest Pass to the Tortugas. The deepest sounding ever obtained by the sounding was obtained on this line at 1710 fathoms. The season ended on May 3, by which time the crew had obtained 75,951 soundings over 1,117 sounding miles. Walker arrived in Philadelphia in early June. Commander B. F. Sands was detached and Lieut. Cmdg. Thomas B. Huger became the next commanding officer of Walker in September, 1858 (Coast Survey 1858:106).

            Under Huger&rsquos command, in 1859 Walker arrived on the west coast of Florida in early January and conducted an investigation of the channel into Cedar Key, Florida, with the crew making 15,102 soundings over a 166 mile run. Walker then proceeded to Pensacola for provisioning and departed for Atchafalaya Bay on January 15, 1859. On that run, 69,447 soundings were observed over 743 sounding miles. During the survey work, Walker was primarily used as a hotel ship because of shallow waters in the working area. The ship conducted deep sea soundings on the trip south to Key West and then ran a section of Gulf Stream from the Tortugas to Havana while on the way north. In Philadelphia, Lt. Cmdg. John Julius Guthrie was assigned as Walker&rsquos commanding officer on October 10, 1859. He had served in the Navy continuously since 1834.

            The 1860 season began on January 20th and continuing to the middle of February, as Walker conducted a thorough examination of the Cedar Key area on its way to the Gulf. 41,811 soundings were made and 467 miles of sounding run. The work included 13,072 soundings 244 miles in Chandeleur Sound, and 34,916 soundings, 612 miles of sounding run on the Mississippi Passes, line although both Chandeleur Sound records and Mississippi Passes records were lost in the sinking of Walker. Upon return to the Northeast in June, Walker stopped at Norfolk and thence planned to continue on to New York although the vessel was sunk on the night of June 21, 1860.

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            Historic re-enactor Lynne Garvey-Hodge, (Fairfax County [Virginia] History Commissioner) and member, Turning Point Suffrage Memorial Committee, portrays Suffragist, Mrs. Robert Walker (aka, Amelia Himes, Baltimore, Maryland).

            In a one-person monologue, Mrs. Walker reveals the story of her arrest in front of the White House on July 14, 1917, subsequent incarceration at the Occoquan Workhouse and passionate participation in the Prison Parades of 1918 – 1919.

            Hear her story as a Quaker woman, supported by her entrepreneur husband, her three children, life at her charming Baltimore estate, “Drumquhazle” and a member of Baltimore’s elite “Blue Book” society.

            Ms. Garvey-Hodge is available to speak to woman’s clubs, universities, schools, and other interested organizations. She has presented to:

            • League of Women Voter’s,
            • Commonwealth of Virginia State Convention
            • Turning Point Suffragist Memorial dedication
            • Girl Scout troops
            • High School groups
            • George Mason University
            • “Virginia Time Travel” Cox Cable program
            • Daughters of the American Revolution
            • American Association of University Women

            She is passionate about woman’s suffrage and enjoyed the celebration in 2010 of the 90th Anniversary of the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in the United States of America.

            19th Amendment

            Testimonials

            It was a pleasure meeting you and I enjoyed your presentation very much.

            Ken Knight
            Pleasant Hall


            Walker Surname Meaning, History & Origin

            England. In the traditional textile heartland of northern England, the workers – from the Old English wealcan – were walkers. A Robert le Walker was recorded in the Yorkshire assize rolls of 1260.

            Yorkshire. The Walker name has been most common in Yorkshire . Records of a Walker family at Birstall, Batley and Nidderdale began with the birth of William Walker around the year 1468.

            Walkers have been particularly numerous as a surname on Teesside and in the Yorkshire towns of Leeds and Wakefield (which had the largest number of Walkers in 1881):

            • Thomas Walker was vicar of Wakefield in 1655.
            • William Walker around this time bought Walterclough Hall near Halifax and the family remained there through four generations.
            • the Walker family in Whitby was Quaker and many of them were merchants and shipowners. Captain James Cook the famous explorer was an apprentice to John Walker in the 1720’s.
            • Robert Walker married Rachel Spence in Leeds in 1779 and they were part of a Quaker community at Netherdale in which
              the Walkers played a part for over 150 years.
            • while another family history began with Richard and Ann Walker who were married around 1740 and lived in Yarm, a small village near Stockton-on-Tees. Son James was a flax merchant and mayor of Stockton in 1809.

            Elsewhere. James Walker was a merchant in Manchester whose son of the same name moved in the 1750’s to Cottingham in the East Ridings. His family became landowners and country gentry there.

            The Rev. Robert Walker, born in Seathwaite in 1706, was a parish priest in the Lake District until his death in 1799. The poet Wordsworth wrote his praises in his Duddon Sonnet. His sons through four generations were called Zaccheus Walker.

            Scotland. The surname in Scotland originated from Waulker, “son of the Fuller or cloth maker.”

            Highland. There are waulking songs (from the Gaelic orainluiadh) that were sung in the Outer Hebrides during the “walking” process for tweed-making and which are still performed today.

            A Highland clan, initially called McNaucator and based in the forested area of Knapdale in Argyllshire, changed their name to Walker by the 18th century (Donald Walker was recorded in Inverary in 1699). The name became well-known because of the great success of Walkers Shortbread. This family firm was started in Banffshire in 1898 by Joseph Walker and has been passed onto his grandchildren.

            Lowland. There were also Lowland Walkers, notably in Ayrshire.

            Beginning in the early 1700’s, three generations of Walkers were Scottish kirk ministers from the small village of Monkton in Ayrshire. The third of them, the Rev. Robert Walker, was the subject of Henry Raeburn’s famous painting known as The Skating Minister painted around the year 1800.

            Johnnie Walker, a Kilmarnock grocer, was the inspiration behind the Johnnie Walker Black Label whisky blend created by his son Alexander in 1867 which became world-famous. Piersland House in Ayrshire was the country mansion home of these Walkers from 1899 to 1956.

            By the time of the 1881 census Glasgow and its environs were where most Walkers were to be found.

            Ireland. Walkers had arrived in Ulster by the 17th century, the most famous of them being the Rev. George Walker. Born in county Tyrone of English parents, he became governor of Derry. He led the successful defense of Londonderry during the siege in 1689. A year later he was slain at the Battle of the Boyne .


            Walkers at Carnew in county Wicklow go back to 1713 when Yorkshireman John Walker arrived there to work on the Shillelagh estate. The talk show host Graham Norton, whose real name is Graham Walker, has family roots in Carnew.

            America. Early Walkers came to New England.

            New England. Captain Richard Walker from London is the earliest known Walker immigrant to America, arriving in Lynn, Massachusetts in 1630. He was a maltster by trade and later kept a tavern in Woburn. Captain Samuel Walker who arrived in 1637 was found in the same towns, but the two Walkers were not related.

            Thomas Walker had immigrated to Boston from England and his son Thomas settled in Sudbury, Massachusetts around 1660. He was an inn-keeper there with the only liquor license in town. His line led after six generations to Hiram Walker who was born on a family farm in Douglas, Massachusetts in 1816. Hiram Walker was to make his mark in Detroit as a whisky distiller whose business boomed during the Civil War .

            Elsewhere. Scots Irish Walkers from Derry came to America:

            • John Walker, grandson of the Rev. George Walker, arrived in Delaware in 1720. His son John was a well-known Indian fighter.
            • Robert Walker was in Baltimore by 1725. His descendants migrated to Pennsylvania, then Ohio, before heading west again to Johnson county, Iowa in 1840.

            Walkers from county Down were in Chester county, Pennsylvania by 1730. Their descendants were to be found in Virginia and Alabama.

            T.B. Walker’s start to life in 1840 in Xenia, Ohio did not promise much for the future.

            “The Walkers had bought a ranch near Lexington in Missouri. On the way there, the family and their servants were stricken with malaria and Platt Walker was obliged to sell out and return to Xenia. When gold fever came in 1849, Walker left for California after spending $75,000 on covered wagons and horses. He died on the way.”


            In 1863 he came out to Minnesota and began to acquire timberlands and set up sawmills throughout the state. He later expanded into northern California and his company became one of the largest forest products companies in the country. Descendants of his son Clinton Walker have continued to live in northern California. They own 140,000 acres of timberland there known as Shasta Forests .

            Canada . A Walker family of Orange county, North Carolina was divided in its loyalties during the American Revolutionary War. Many stayed there after the war. But William Walker brought his family to Lincoln county, Ontario in 1794.

            In his application for a land grant he stated: “He had been in the army of Lord Cornwallis and had just arrived with his family from North Carolina. He had eight hundred acres of land taken from him and sold by the rebels. He had suffered everything but death by the American Revolution.”


            He did get a land grant, at Grimsby township on the shores of Lake Ontario.

            Thomas Walker was a maker of watchcases in London who, after the loss of his wife and four children, decided to emigrate to Canada. He came to Ontario with his remaining children in 1834. His grandson Edmund made his mark as a banker and was
            President of the Canadian Bank of Commerce from 1907 to 1924.

            Australia. William and Mary Walker were sponsored immigrants from Somerset who came to Tasmania with their family on the Ocean Chief in 1855. They were pioneer settlers in Parkham, opening the first post office and store in the region and raising fourteen children there.

            Another Walker family, headed by William and Janet from Ayrshire and also sponsored, arrived in Tasmania on the Conway in the same year of 1855. Their story was recounted in Leonard Dimmick’s 1997 book Cousins Galore: The Walker Family of Braeside.

            James Walker arrived in Queensland as a sixteen year old lad from Ayrshire in 1929 at the beginning of the Depression. He became a cattle and sheep stockman at Longreach, something which has been handed down to three generations of Walkers. Knighted for his community services, Sir James Walker Drive in Longreach honors him.

            Walker Miscellany

            A Walker Family at Birstall, Batley, and Nidderdale. One Walker family history in Yorkshire has an ancestry that have been traced back to 1468 and William Walker of Littletown, a hamlet near Liversedge manor in the parish of Birstall. Several generations lived thereabouts before a move to the neighboring parish of Batley.

            In about 1714 John Walker became a Quaker so that he could marry his Quaker bride Sarah Chappell. Thus began a long line of Quaker Walkers that has continued in some cases to the present day.

            His grandson Robert, after his marriage to Rachel Spence, moved to Darley in Nidderdale around 1780. The Walkers prospered there for the next hundred years, as gentlemen, farmers, land owners and mill owners.

            The Walker clan has since scattered. Many of them emigrated to Canada, America, or Australia.

            The Walkers of Walterclough Hall. The first recorded of these Walkers, William Walker, lived in the village of Scholes in Yorkshire and died in 1628. His son, also named William, in 1654 acquired Walterclough Hall in the Walterclough valley southeast of Halifax.

            The estate passed through three generations before John Walker became its squire and master in the mid-18th century. He was a
            woollen factor of great prestige and wealth. While he and his wife had four children, they had also adopted his nephew, an orphan Jack Sharp, into their household. It was this Jack Sharp that later took over the Hall and brought it to ruin.

            But the other Walker line at Crow Nest continued to prosper and do good. In 1775 William Walker brought Russian timber to the Yorkshire coast, and eventually to Brighouse by canal, for the construction of the Lightcliffe church and mansions in the area. On his death in 1809 it was said: “He was a gentleman of the strictest integrity and honor, a kind and affectionate master, and a liberal benefactor to the poor, by whom his loss will be long and severely deplored.”

            The Whitby Walkers. There was said to have been an old family of Walker merchants from Whitby on the Yorkshire coastline who traded between Holland and England. Family tradition has it that these Walkers were Quakers at one time. Subsequently three sets of Walkers could be identified, although
            it was not clear what the relationship with each was.

            The best known Whitby Walkers were the brothers John and Henry Walker who were shipowners and engaged in the coal trade between Newcastle and London. John Walker was close to the famous explorer Captain Cook in his formative years at Whitby. Cook stayed in John Walker’s house during his apprenticeship and was supported and encouraged by John during his career.

            Richard Walker was thought to be descended from another family of Whitby Walkers, but by the mid-18th century, he was living in Yarm, a market town on the Tees.

            Elizabeth Walker was the daughter of another John Walker. She married Abel Chapman who came from another prominent Whitby family. During succeeding generations, a number of descendants of Abel Chapman and Elizabeth Walker married descendants of James Walker.

            Walkers in the 1881 Census

            Walkers (000’s) Numbers Percent
            Yorkshire 21 24
            Lancashire 13 15
            Durham 5 5
            London 9 10
            Elsewhere 39 46
            Total 87 100

            The largest concentration of Walkers at that time was in Leeds, where their numbers totaled 1,350.

            The Rev. George Walker and the Siege of Londonderry. The Rev. George Walker led the successful defense of Londonderry during its siege by Jacobite forces in 1689. The relief was palpable, not just in Londonderry but in the capital London, when the siege ended. Walker became famous after his diary of the ordeal was published.

            “The applause which immediately followed the publication of Walker’s Diary in London was unbounded. The heroic author basked in the sunshine of royal and popular favor, seldom beaming on the head of any one man at the same time, however great his worth or important his services.”

            It was said that Bishop Walker’s portrait was in every house in London. Recollection of the siege was kept alive by the Walker and Campbell clubs of Londonderry.

            The Walker Monument, which was erected in Londonderry in 1828 by the Protestant Apprentice Boys to commemorate the siege, was blown up by republicans in 1973.

            Walker Pioneers in Johnson County, Iowa. The name Robert Walker goes through this family, starting with Robert Walker who was born in Glasgow in 1610 and through at least ten of them through the generations to those now in Johnson county. Robert Walker it was who came to Baltimore by 1725. Another Robert Walker fought in the Revolutionary War. Walker descendants migrated to Ohio after the War before heading west again to Johnson county, Iowa in 1840. Robert Johnson was among the first of the settlers there.

            According to family legend, the Walkers were kicked out of Portage county, Ohio for being poor. Robert’s younger brother Henry then made a fortune in the California Gold Rush. It was said: “He brought back so much gold that he couldn’t carry it all in one wagonload.”

            The Walkers remained stalwarts of their community through the 19th and 20th centuries. Robert Walker carried on the Walker family tradition of large families when he and his wife had 15 children. They make up a sixth generation of Walkers born in Johnson County, although only a few of them still live in the area.

            The Walkers have been buried in an old cemetery high on a hill in south Johnson county. The four Walker brothers who first settled in Johnson county – Robert, Joseph, Samuel and James – are all buried there. Some stones are so old that they have toppled over, the inscriptions now eroded with age.

            Piersland House in Ayrshire. Overlooking Royal Troon, Piersland Lodge as it was known, was built in 1899 by renowned Scottish architect, William Leiper as the home for Sir Alexander Walker, grandson of Johnnie Walker, founder of the Scotch whiskey firm.

            Having remained in the Walker family until 1956, Piersland House became a Grade A listed building with all the original features remaining, including wood panelling, stone fireplaces and woodcarvings.

            Set in an acre of landscaped gardens, the house has been much extended over the years and overlooks Royal Troon which has hosted seven British Opens in all. Keeping to the whiskey theme, each of the 28 en-suite guestrooms at Piersland House is based upon a malt whiskey distillery or family.

            Walker Names
            • John Walker, a professor of Natural History at Edinburgh University, was one of the leading lights of the 18th century Scottish Enlightenment.
            • John Walker of Stockton on Tees invented the friction match in 1827.
            • Hiram Walker began the production of Canadian Club whisky at Walkerville in Canada in 1858 .
            • Johnnie Walker a Kilmarnock grocer, was the inspiration behind the famous Johnnie Walker whisky brand.
            • Jack Walker developed Walker Steel as the largest steel stockholder in Britain by the 1980’s. He owned and invested in his home-town football club, Blackburn Rovers.
            • Alice Walker is an acclaimed American writer and feminist, best known for her novel The Color Purple.
            Walker Numbers Today
            • 195,000 in the UK (most numerous in Yorkshire)
            • 180,000 in America (most numerous in Texas)
            • 82,000 elsewhere (most numerous in Australia)
            Walker and Like Surnames

            The various medieval trades and occupations were a source of surnames as John the baker would over time would become known as John Baker. Some skilled craftsmen – such as chandlers, fletchers and turners – were able to form guilds, protective organizations, and style themselves Worshipful Companies. These are some of the occupational surnames that you can check out.


            Robert Walker

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