Jamestown II PG-55 - History

Jamestown II PG-55 - History

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Jamestown II

(PG-55: dp. 1,7S0; 1. 294'; b. 38'2"; dr. 16'; s. 15 k., cpl.
259; a. 2 3")

The second Jamestown was built as Savarona in 1928 hy Pusey & Jones Corp., Wilmillgton, Del., for Mrs. Tholnas S. Cadwallader of Philadelphia. While Mrs. Cadwallader operated her, Savarona was said to be the largest and most luxurious yacht in the world. Colonel William Boyce Thompson purchased the palatial vessel in 1929 and renamed her Alder.

Alder was acquired by the Navy at New York 6 December 1940; converted into a gunhoat in the Fletcher Division Shipyard of Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., Hoboken, N.J.; renamed Jamestown and designated PG-55 ; and commissioned at New York Navy Yard 26 May 1941, Comdr. A. P. Lawton in command.

Jamestown's first summer in the Navy was devoted to training Naval Academy midshipmen. She sailed to Annapolis 1 June to embark ner first detachment of 100 third class men and 3 instructors for a 2-week training cruise to Norfolk.

At the end of the summer, after completing a number of similar cruises, Jamestown steamed to New York to be fitted out as a motor-torpedo-boat tender. When final conversion was completed, she sailed to Melville, R.I., to assist in establishing the Motor Torpedo Boat Training Center and to serve as training ship and tender for the boats of Squadron 4 while she readied herself for combat.

In June she returned to New York to receive new equipment before departing for the South Pacific. Eager for action, the tender stood out of New York Harbor 1 August. While she steamed toward the New Hebrides Islands via the Panama Canal and Pearl Harbor, the Navy daringly launched its first offensive thrust against Japan by landing the 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal and Tulagi. ~

The Navy's resources available for Operation "Watchtower," meager at the outset of the fighting 7 August, were dangerously weakened by combat losseR in ensuing weeks of desperate fighting against heavy odds. In September, when Jamestown arrived in Espiritu Santo, the marines on Guadalcanal were suffering from a critical shortage of supplies. While awaiting the arrival of the PT boats of Squadron 3, the tender busied herself escorting resupply convoys between the New Hebrides and Tulagi towing a barge carrying 2,000 barrels of gasoline and 500 quarter-ton bombs.

Jamestown was at Noumea, New Caledonia, 19 September when boats ol' the 1st Division of Squadron 3 arrived. Cargo ship Bellatri~ assisted her in towing them to Espiritu Santo, where Jamestown entrusted them to two fast minesweepers for the final passage to Tulagi and resumed her efforts to keep vital supplies flowing through the enemy infested waters to the Marines on Guadalcanal. Finally she reported to Tulagi 22 October and there, in the center of the bitter struggle subject to constant air attack, began servicing the PT boats of Squadron 3. For the next 4 months these fearless little ships patrolled "Ironbottom Sound" nightly, frequently challenging Japanese destroyers, cruisers, and even battleships of "the Tokyo Express". During the day Jamestown worked feverishly to ready the worn and battered boats for the next patrol. Besides ministering to the PT boats, the tender assisted with preliminary repairs to battle-damaged American eruisers and sent parties ashore to construct pipelines to water holes.

Jamestown and the PT boats of Squadron 3 were explicitly included in the Presidential Unit Citation awarded the 1st Marine Division for taking and holding strongly defended Japanese positions on Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, Florida, and Guadalcanal.

The tender was redesignated AGP-3 on 13 January 1943, and commenced operating under Commander Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron, Pacific Fleet. She departed Tulagi 1S February 1943 on one of countless trips made during the following year from that port to the New Hebrides or Rendova for supplies for the PT boats or acting as escort between island groups. After 12 months of this valuable service, Jamestown departed Tulagi 9 February 1944 for a well-earned and badly-needed overhaul at San Pedro, Calil'.

Back in tip-top shape she sailed from San Pedro 17 July and arrived Espiritu Santo 5 August. By this time the Solomons and the Bismarck Archipelago were secure; and the PT boats were needed in the Southwest Pacific, where General MacArthur was fighting for New Guinea. Jamestown found herself shuttling supplies, equipment and supporting troops from the Solomons to bases in Nevv Guinea. Her former role as a tender was now filled by larger ships designed specifically for the task. Jamestown proudly proved her worth as a utility ship maintaining communications between PT boat bases. For example, she departed Treasury Island 6 September 1944 to rendezvous at Bougainville with a troop transport which she escorted to Milne Bay, Dutch New Guinea returning to Treasury Island a week later ready for a similar voyage escorting merchantmen to Finschhafen, Dutch New Guinea.

Ordered to the Philippines 5 February 1945, Jamestown arrived Leyte 12 February to mess and berth men of Motor Torpedo Squadron 24 until 18 March. Convoy duty between Samar and Woendi, Schouten Islands was followed by voyages to Borneo and various ports in the Philippines occupying the tender until after Japan surrendered.

Jamestown departed Samar for the United States 20 October 1945 and arrived San Francisco 24 November. She decommissioned there 6 March 1946 ending her busy and useful service and was transferred to the Maritime Gommission for disposal 4 September 1946. She was sold to Balfour Gutrie and Co., Ltd., 16 December 1946.

Jamestown was built as Savarona in 1928, by Pusey & Jones Corp., Wilmington, Delaware, for Mrs. Thomas S. Cadwallader of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. While Mrs. Cadwallader operated her, Savarona was said to be the largest and most luxurious yacht in the world. Colonel William Boyce Thompson purchased the palatial vessel in 1929, and renamed her Alder prior to his daughter donating the vessel to the U.S. Navy.

Alder was donated to the U.S. Navy at New York on 6 December 1940 converted into a gunboat in the Fletcher Division Shipyard of Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., Hoboken, New Jersey renamed Jamestown and designated PG-55 and commissioned at New York Navy Yard 26 May 1941 with Commander A. P. Lawton in command.

Jamestown's first summer in the Navy was devoted to training U.S. Naval Academy midshipmen. She sailed to Annapolis, Maryland, 1 June to embark her first detachment of 100 third-class men and 3 instructors for a 2-week training cruise to Norfolk, Virginia.

Conversion to motor torpedo boat tender Edit

At the end of the summer, after completing a number of similar cruises, Jamestown steamed to New York to be fitted out as a motor-torpedo-boat tender. When final conversion was completed, she sailed to Melville, Rhode Island, to assist in establishing the Motor Torpedo Boat Training Center and to serve as training ship and tender for the boats of Squadron 4 while she readied herself for combat.

Transfer to the Pacific Theatre Edit

In June 1942, she returned to New York to receive new equipment before departing for the South Pacific Ocean. Eager for action, the tender stood out of New York Harbor 1 August. While she steamed toward the New Hebrides Islands via the Panama Canal and Pearl Harbor, the Navy daringly launched its first offensive thrust against Japan by landing the 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal and Tulagi.

Supplying Guadalcanal and Tulagi with fuel Edit

The Navy's resources available for Operation Watchtower were meager at the outset of the fighting on 7 August but had dangerously weakened by combat losses in ensuing weeks of desperate fighting against heavy odds. In September, when Jamestown arrived in Espiritu Santo, the U.S. Marines on Guadalcanal were suffering from a critical shortage of supplies. While awaiting the arrival of the PT boats of Squadron 3, the tender busied herself escorting resupply convoys between the New Hebrides and Tulagi towing a barge carrying 2,000 barrels (320 m 3 ) of gasoline and 500 quarter-ton bombs.

Constant threat of Japanese gunfire Edit

Jamestown was at Noumea, New Caledonia, 19 September when boats of the 1st Division of Squadron 3 arrived. Cargo ship Bellatrix assisted her in towing them to Espiritu Santo, where Jamestown entrusted them to two fast minesweepers for the final passage to Tulagi and resumed her efforts to keep vital supplies flowing through the enemy infested waters to the Marines on Guadalcanal. Finally she reported to Tulagi 22 October and there, in the center of the bitter struggle subject to constant air attack, began servicing the PT boats of Squadron 3. For the next 4 months these fearless little ships patrolled "Iron Bottom Sound" nightly, frequently challenging Japanese destroyers, cruisers, and even battleships of "the Tokyo Express". During the day Jamestown worked feverishly to ready the worn and battered boats for the next patrol. Besides ministering to the PT boats, the tender assisted with preliminary repairs to battle-damaged American cruisers and sent parties ashore to construct pipelines to water holes.

Included in Presidential Unit Citation Edit

Jamestown and the PT boats of Squadron 3 were explicitly included in the Presidential Unit Citation awarded the 1st Marine Division for taking and holding strongly defended Japanese positions on Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, Florida Island, and Guadalcanal.

Redesignated AGP-3 Edit

The tender was redesignated AGP-3 on 13 January 1943, and commenced operating under Commander Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron, U.S. Pacific Fleet. She departed Tulagi 18 February 1943 on one of countless trips made during the following year from that port to the New Hebrides or Rendova for supplies for the PT boats or acting as escort between island groups. After 12 months of this valuable service, Jamestown departed Tulagi 9 February 1944 for a well-earned and badly needed overhaul at San Pedro, California.

Stateside repairs and return to South Pacific Edit

Back in tip-top shape she sailed from San Pedro 17 July and arrived Espiritu Santo 5 August. By this time the Solomons and the Bismarck Archipelago were secure and the PT boats were needed in the Southwest Pacific, where General MacArthur was fighting for New Guinea. Jamestown found herself shuttling supplies, equipment, and supporting troops from the Solomons to bases in New Guinea. Her former role as a tender was now filled by larger ships designed specifically for the task. Jamestown proudly proved her worth as a utility ship maintaining communications between PT boat bases. For example, she departed Treasury Island 6 September 1944 to rendezvous at Bougainville with a troop transport which she escorted to Milne Bay, Dutch New Guinea, returning to Treasury Island a week later ready for a similar voyage escorting merchantmen to Finschhafen, Dutch New Guinea.

Supporting invasion of the Philippines Edit

Ordered to the Philippines 5 February 1945, Jamestown arrived Leyte 12 February to mess and berth men of Motor Torpedo Squadron 24 until 18 March. Convoy duty between Samar and Woendi, Schouten Islands was followed by voyages to Borneo and various ports in the Philippines occupying the tender until after Japan surrendered.

Jamestown departed Samar for the United States 20 October 1945 and arrived San Francisco, California, 24 November. She decommissioned there 6 March 1946 ending her busy and useful service and was transferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal 4 September 1946. She was sold to Balfour Gutrie and Co., Ltd., 16 December 1946.


My 8th great-grandfather was born in Virginia Colony in 1643. His parents were both killed in the Jamestown Massacre when he was an infant.

Godfrey Ragsdale I was the first generation emigrant to America. He came sometime before 1641. He and his wife were killed in an Indian massacre on April 18, 1644. Their baby, Godfrey II, was spared. He evidently came at his own expense with intent to inhabit the land, for no grant has been found to him, but there is a record of a purchase of 300 acres of land by deed from John Butler, 25 Feb 1642. This land lay on the north side of the Appomatox River in Henrico Co. Virginia. Source: “Godfrey Ragsdale From England to Henrico Co. Virginia” by Caroline Nabors Skelton 1969 and Henrico Co. Records Bk. 6 p. 21.

Godfrey Ragsdale II (1643 – 1703)
8th great-grandfather
Ann Wragsdale (1659 – 1724)
daughter of Godfrey Ragsdale II
Benjamin Abraham Vesser (1740 – 1779)
son of Ann Wragsdale
Samuel Harris Vassar (1757 – 1846)
son of Benjamin Abraham Vesser
Mary Vessor (1801 – 1836)
daughter of Samuel Harris Vassar
Margaret Mathews (1831 – 1867)
daughter of Mary Vessor
Julia McConnell (1854 – 1879)
daughter of Margaret Mathews
Minnie M Smith (1872 – 1893)
daughter of Julia McConnell
Ernest Abner Morse (1890 – 1965)
son of Minnie M Smith
Richard Arden Morse (1920 – 2004)
son of Ernest Abner Morse
Pamela Morse
I am the daughter of Richard Arden Morse

The Ragsdale family name is said to come from Ragdale, England, meaning either “valley at the pass” or “dweller in the valley where the lichen grows.” Henry Ragsdale was born in Leicestershire, England about 1450, his son Robert was born about 1485 in Ragsdale, Leicestershire, England. He died about 1559 and some of his children were Henry, Thomas R. and John R. Henry was born about 1510 he married Elizabeth Oglethorpe about 1532 , and their children were William, Dorothy, Elizabeth, Margaret, Owen and Catherine. Henry died in 1559. William was born in 1575 he married a woman named Heathcote, about 1615 they had a son, Godfrey I, who married Lady Mary Cookney and they both came to America.

Godfrey Ragsdale I and his wife, Lady Mary Cookney arrived in Virginia some time late in the summer of 1638. They were some of the first Ragsdales to come to America. Godfrey Ragsdale I ands his wife, Lady Mary Cookney lived in Henrico County Virginia on a 300 acre plantation on February 25, 1642, upon the north side of the Appomattox River.

On April 18, 1644 afterwards known as “Opechancanough Day” the Pamunkee Indians and several tribes in the Indian Federation went on a rampage. There was a carnage that was greater than the one in the Norfolk area in 1622. The Indians slaughtered no less than 500 Englishman. This massacre fell almost entirely upon the frontier Counties at the head of the great rivers, and upon the plantations on the south side of the James River. Both Godfrey I and his wife Lady Mary were killed and scalped.

From documents we know that Godfrey and Lady Mary had a son named Godfrey Ragsdale II, who was born in 1644. Because his mother and father had been killed in the “Jamestown Massacre”, Godfrey II’s next door neighbors raised him and later became his in-laws. Historians say that most Ragsdales in America came from Godfrey II.

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It would also be useful if they could stay fit, healthy and alive

No small undertaking for a group of people whose number was not much above one hundred.

They were not a group of people chosen at random, many came with specific skills suited to the purpose. About a third of them were skilled workers who would be needed both on the voyage and when they arrived. Carpenters such as William Laxon or blacksmiths such as James Reed. Who would cut your hair or amputate your leg if need be? Why that would be barber Thomas Couper. A priest was needed to say prayers for the dead and Robert Hunt stood up for this role. A labouring force would also be required. The rest of the settlers were made up of gentlemen, one wonders how the aptly named Captaine Archer fared? Find out more names in the list here.

The expedition finally set sail in three small ships, the Discovery, Susan Constant and Godspeed in December 1606, with around 140 colonists bound for Virginia. The ships left the Port of London but due to adverse weather conditions they were delayed. The River Thames often froze in the winter during this period.

Christopher Newport was the captain in charge of the three ships, he and John Smith clashed during the voyage and lucky for him, Smith only escaped being hanged for mutiny, when sealed orders were opened that named him one of the leaders of the new colony.

The search for a suitable site for the new colony ended on May 14th 1607, when the Virginia Company explorers landed on a small peninsular of land on the banks of a river some 45 miles from the Atlantic Ocean and entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. They named their new town Jamestown, in honour of King James I.

Of the first colonists who landed in April 1607, only thirty-eight survived the winter. They struggled on all fronts, shelter, food and disease.

They were not defeated though and more and more colonists crossed the seas. In the first fifteen years, 10,000 settlers left England but it is thought only 20% of these survived. They first months of the colony were chronicled by John Smith, Edward Wingfield and George Percy.

Roanoke Island History

Roanoke Island’s history is legendary. Long before Jamestown and Plymouth were settled, the island played host to the first English-speaking colonists in America.

In 1584 an English fort and settlement with more than 100 men was established on the north end of the island, but it was abandoned the following year due to weather, lack of supplies and poor relations with the Native Americans. The colonists and natives didn’t get along despite the fact that the two local chiefs, Manteo and Wanchese, had been taken to England in hopes of forming good relations.

In 1587 another party of 110 English colonists, including women and children, set sail for the New World, reaching Roanoke Island in July of that year. On August 18, one of the colonists, Eleanor Dare, gave birth to the first English-speaking child in the New World, Virginia Dare. A week later, the baby’s grandfather, Capt. John White, was forced to return to England for badly needed supplies. Due to Spanish attacks on England, White was waylayed in England for three years, and when he returned to Roanoke Island in 1590 there was no sign of his granddaughter or the other colonists. Their houses were gone, and the only sign of human presence was the letters “CRO” and “CROATOAN” carved on two trees. This led some people to believe that the colonists had sought the help of the Croatoan Indians on Hatteras Island, but they were not there. The fate of the lost colonists is as much a mystery today as it was then, and their story has been retold in the outdoor drama The Lost Colony since 1937.

Roanoke Island was permanently settled in the mid-1600s, and many of the original family names — Etheridge, Baum, Daniels and others — are still very much alive on the island. In 1870 Dare County was formed, with the county seat and courthouse established on Roanoke Island at a site along Shallowbag Bay, now Manteo. The government center became known as Manteo in 1873 when the post office was established, but the town wasn’t incorporated until 1899. By then it had become a bustling center for business and trade as well.

Between 1984 and 1987, Roanoke Island and Manteo played a large part in America’s 400th anniversary celebration. Manteo’s downtown area was renovated and revitalized, and the centerpiece of the celebration, the Elizabeth II, a representative 16th-century sailing ship similar to what the colonists arrived in 400 years before, was constructed on a site at the Manteo waterfront. On July 13, 1984, Her Royal Highness the Princess Anne attended the dedication of the ship, which is now berthed in Shallowbag Bay at Roanoke Island Festival Park.

In 1999 the Town of Manteo celebrated its centennial birthday with many events, the publication of a coffee-table history book, Manteo, A Roanoke Island Town by Angel Ellis Khoury, and the establishment of a centennial clock on the corner of Queen Elizabeth and Sir Walter Raleigh streets downtown.

For a town that preserves its history and charm so well, Manteo has changed exponentially in the past couple of years. More shops, galleries and restaurants fill the downtown area than ever before, and Manteo has evolved into a destination for overnight stays and daytrips from the beaches. Some of the most popular Outer Banks attractions are found in Manteo and on Roanoke Island — the Roanoke Marshes Lighthouse, Roanoke Island Festival Park and the Elizabeth II, the NC Aquarium, the Elizabethan Gardens and, of course,The Lost Colony outdoor drama.

Boats docked at the waterfront, sailing and kayak tours leaving the docks, tourists dining on a patio or sipping a latte as they poke in and out of shops, kids licking ice cream cones at the waterfront park, bicyclists leisurely pedaling along side streets, quaint inns, restored historic homes with flourishing gardens, crabbers tending to their daily operations — all this and more is seen on a daily basis in Manteo.

Yet the small-town flavor of the town has remained. City folk often find it unsettling, but here nearly everyone says hello as they pass you on the street and asks about your health and chats about the weather before they get down to any business, like taking your lunch order or selling you a stamp. Manteo residents are all on a first-name basis, and visitors get the feeling that if they stayed a couple of days, they’d all be on a first-name basis too.

Enjoy your visit to Manteo and Roanoke Island. We hope you will use this guide to learn more about the history and present-day offerings of this wonderful place we call home.

Jamestown II PG-55 - History

Court documents tell us Thomas Savage the
Carpenter built houses and boats. It's
reported that a Shallop was typical of the
kind of boats built by his crew.
Savage Ancestry - Savage History - Savage Genealogy - Savage Family - Savage Lore - Savage Legend - Savage Traces - Savage Honor - Savage Women - Savage Roots - Savage Lineage - Savage Adventure - Savage Pioneers -
Savage Hero's - Savage Men - Savage Arms - Savage Ancestry - Savage History - Savage Genealogy - Savage Family - Savage Lore - Savage Legend - Savage Traces - Savage Honor -
Savage Ancestry - Savage History -
Savage Genealogy - Savage Family - Savage Lore - Savage Legend - Savage Traces - Savage Honor - Savage Women - Savage Roots - Savage Lineage - Savage Adventure - Savage Pioneers

JULY 19TH 1621.

    17th-century European engraving depicts Powhatan receiving Ralph Hamor,secretary of theVirginia colony
    and interpreter Thomas Savage in 1614 at thechief’s new capital of Matchcoton the Pamunkey River.
    Hamor relates: I had Thomas Salvage with me, for my interpreter with himandtwo Salvages,for guides I
    went from the Bermuda in the morning, andcame toMatchot the next night,where the King (Powhatan) lay
    upon theRiverofPamaunke his entertainment was strange tome, the boy (ThomasSavage)heknew well
    and told him My child, I gave you leave, being myboy,to goe seeyourfriends, and these foure yeares I
    have not seene you, norheard of myowne manNamontack.
Ensign Thomas Savage was an"adopted son" to Powhatan and "brother"
to Pocahontas and lived in everyday association with them for three years.

This European
painting of the
wedding of
Pocohantas and
John Rolfe is said
to include Ensign
Thomas Savage

    The following law seems to imply that
    consensualsexwithan Indian was allowed:
    Indian, or other, upon pain of death.
    The Library of Congress: For The Colony in Virginea
    Lavves Diuine, Morall and Martiall .. Printed atLondon
    Walter Burre. 1612.

    Ensign Thomas Savag e
    In 1607, thirteen years before the Mayflowerlanded, anex-privateerwho had losta hand by a
    Spanish sword,commanded a fleet of three English ships crossingtheAtlantic.
    Their destination Virginia. Their aim to create a settlementon a riverabovethe mightyChesapeake. Against all odds,
    that settlementcalled,Jamestown,survived andwas the beginning ofwhat would become the United States of America.
    The ex-privateer wasCaptain ChristopherNewport and he had on board a boy by the name ofThomas Savage.
    Newportgave the boy, as ahostage,tothe great Chief Powhatan in exchange foran Indian named Namontack. Newport's
    purposewas two-fold,to helpinsure friendshipwith the powerful Powhatanand to have Savagelearnhis language.John
    Smith,present at the exchange, tells us Savage was thirteen years ofage.Thomas Savage remained with Powhatan for
    three yearsandwas an interpreter for the EnglishColonyfor the remainder of hislife. He becameknown as, Ensign
    Thomas Savage.Had it notbeenfor the influence that Savage had with theIndians, and thegenerous heart of Pocahontas,
    theJamestownColony would probably not havesurvived.In 1619 Ensign Savage settled in Accomackas the first white
    settler on theEastern Shore. The Ensign is said to have given us the oldestcontinuing family name in America.

The Savages intermarried with the Friends, Fikes,
Casteels and many other pioneer families of
Garrett County, Maryland, Preston County, West
Virginia to the west and Fayette County,
Pennsylvania to the north.

All material on this site, other than that which is cited from other sources, is protected through Copyright and is made available for private use only.
Any commercial use or for-profit publication in any form is forbidden without the written consent of R. Blair Savage at 6622 Garde Rd., Boynton Beach, FL 33472
For those who regularly follow
this page, I will continue to
update it as I find new
information. For those who
visit here for the first time,
additional documentation of
this search is available in the
two books featured below.

    Interpreters Take Native Wives

    Henry Spelman and Robert Poolewere two Englishmen who were also hostaged to thePowhatanIndians
    andlater becameinterpreters the same asEnsign Thomas Savage.They werecontemporariesofthe Ensign
    and thethree knew each other well.
    According to the source cited below,He (Spelman) was survived by his Patawomeck spouse"MarthaFox,"a
    childnamed Clement Spelman, his father Sir Henry Spelman, hisbrothersThomas SpelmanofKecoughtan,
    Virginia,John Spelman, and Francis Spelmanof Truro,Cornwall, England.
    From The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Virginia Historical Society, Contributor Philip
    AlexanderBruce,WilliamGlover Stanard,Published 1893, Virginia Historical Society p. 17

    Spelmanwent back to England in 1613, and made several other trips, but returned to Virginia eachtimeto
    continue toserve asan interpreter, and eventually rising to the rank of Captain. During thistime hemarried
    aPatawomeck Indianwoman who isbelieved to have been given the English name"MarthaFox."
    (According totraditions passed on to HenrySpellman'sdescendents, - his native wifewas a sisterof
    Pocahontas, anddaughter of Powhatan.)From Wikipedia, thefreeencyclopedia
    Robert Poole'sspouse was unknown, but the wife of his son, William John Poole, was an unnamed
    AmericanIndianwoman.Rev. Stephen E. Harris, The Surry County, Virginia, Historical Society and
    In John Rolfe’s 1619 letter to Edwin Sandys he makes references that imply that RobertPoolelivedamong
    theIndians.Heeven stated “Poole being even turned heathen.” It'sthereforeobvious to methat Poole
    would have hadan Indianbed-mate.
    In the Proceedings of the Virginia Assembly at James City July 30 – August 4, 1619, afterHenrySpelman is
    read hissentence,an Assembly member stated "This sentence beingread toSpelman he,asone that had in
    him more of theSavage than of the Christian"
    As explained at length in my book, SAVAGE IS MY NAME - PART II, it was routinelycommonfortraders
    andotherwhite men important to the American and Canadian Indiansto begivenyoungnative girls as
    wives, or bed-mates. TheEnsign was a trader - andinterpreterswere certainlyimportantto the Indians. If
    Spelman, Poole andPoole's son tookIndian wives, itcertainly wouldhave madegood business sense for the
    Ensign to do thesame.

    My book, SAVAGE IS MY NAME - PART II, contains
    EnsignThomasSavageand a NativeAmericangirl.

A quote from the pen of J.C. Wise:
"These old carpenters and ship-builders
seem to have been
constantly occupied and prosperous".

Dedicated to Thomas Savage "The Carpenter" and Ensign
Thomas Savage of Virginia's Eastern Shore during the first
successful English colonization of America Jamestown
Covering the period from 1607 to 1655


    The 1990 Census records
    49,740individuals in the
    United States withthe
    surname of, Savage.
    The name ranks number
    582withSmithbeing number
    1 at2,501,922.

    2000 Census
    Total - 48367
    Rank - 640
    77.24% White
    18.59% Black
    1.46% Hispanic
    Balance - Other

    The line from Thomas Savage the Carpenter to me:

    01. Thomas Savage1 ? - 1654-55

    02. Thomas Savage2 1646 - 1721

    03. Robinson Savage1 1699 - 1774

    04. Robinson Savage2 ? - 1786

    05.Robinson T. Savageabt 1774- 1830's (See link)

    06. Evan Savage 1797 - after 1849

    07. Robert Savage 1819 - 1895

    08. Nelson E. Savage abt 1838 - 1916

    09. Milton Jackson Savage 1880 - 1960

    10. Russell Milton Savage 1901 - 1986

    11.Russell Blair Savage1934 – (That's me!)
    Robinson T. Savage, early pioneer of Western Maryland, present day Garrett County, was my great, great, great, great,
    grand-father.Born on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, Robinson was relocated with his family to Sussex County, Delaware in
    1779 whenjust a smallboy. Between 1787 and 1793 his father died and left Robinson his 250 acre plantation, which the young
    mansold and traveled tobeautiful Western Maryland where he settled for life.
    Along with others, for some time I have been searching for a proven male descendant of Ensign Thomas Savage. I would like to
    compare my DNA with such a gentleman. There are living male descendants of Jacob C. Savage, but I regret to suggest that
    J. C. Savage himself did not have a direct line of descent from Ensign Thomas Savage.
    Several years ago when I read this book it appeared to me to not be adequately proven, so I went out to the Eastern Shore of Virginia and met with three
    very qualified genealogists, one of which has been consulted by the Smithsonian. I left a copy of J.C.
    Savages book with Dr. Miles Barnes, Head Librarian at the Accomack County Library. Dr. Barnes copied the book and it was studied closely by the folks
    I reference above. They all agree there is no proof of the connection, cited in the book, between the John Savage of Northampton County and the John
    Savage of Augusta County. There appears to be proof that the John Savage of Northampton stayed and died on the Eastern Shore. That breaks the blood
    line for Jacob Cochran Savage. It is more likely that the John Savage who died in 1784 and married Delitha Ward was from Thomas the Carpenter's line.
    Following are excerpts from correspondence between myself and the genealogists mentioned above
    “As I have related to you, Mrs. [Nora] Turman, you and I (independent of each other) agree on the descendants of John
    Savage d. 1749 and we both disagree with the work of Jacob C. Savage at the level where a John Savage appears inAugustaCo. Blair had told us
    that documentation was lacking in that work and it certainly is at that step. If we arecorrect then theJacob Savage line to Ensign Thomas
    Savage is flawed and I feel in a small way this even lends support tothe theory of theThomas Savage lines converging.”“I see no proof in the
    book that this John Savage was from Northampton County. Seems like if that had been the case,Mr. Dorman would have found that.”
    “I do think, at this point, that the John Savage who died in 1784 and married Delitha Ward wasfrom the OccahonnockSavages
    (Thomas the Carpenter's line).”


    Anyone interested in this issue may reach me at the email address shownbelowand I would be happy to
    forward all thecommunications fromwhich these excerpts are taken.
    R.B. Savage

Words of Chief Robert P, Green of the Patawomeck Tribe of Stafford,
April 20, 2004 interview with the Stafford Historical Society.
"We have a lot of interpreters I think that married into our tribe. A lot of the
interpreter's surnames show up in our family names, like the name Cox. The
families that were in Virginia before 1700 tended to inter-marry a lot. There weren't
a lot of English women around. And who did the English kill? The Indian men, not
the women. So there were a lot of Indian women and few Indian men for them to
marry. So, it made sense that these interpreters married these Indian women since
they spent most of their time with the Indian tribes anyway. So, when you talk
about blood quantum, I have no idea what my blood quantum is. When somebody
tells me they're pure Indian, I doubt that there are any pure Indians in this part of
the country. The Spanish went into the southwest, and then the settlers. The
trappers in the north either raped the Indian women or married into those tribes.
To me, blood quantum doesn't really matter. Its like an older Elder that Mitchell
Bush once introduced me to said, "I know white men that are more Indian than
some Indians I know. It's what's in your heart and not necessarily what's in your
blood that matters. Your heart tells you whether you are an Indian or not. Do you
love and respect Mother Earth?""

    It's been claimed that
    Savageisthe oldest
    continuing name in
    America.Can anyone prove
    otherwise?Is there anyone
    Savagein 1607/08?

    Is there a living malewho
    hasprovenhisSavage line
    to theEnsign?We have yet
    tofind onewhowill agree
    to havehis DNAtested!

    Sir ThomasDalesays to Rolfe andPocahontas: "Since we English and the red beautieswillgettomarrying,thereneed be no
    more war, butblessedpeace.Know youwhat iswrit inthisletter, my LadyPrincess? I seethou dost, by thyroses.MasterRolfe
    would marry thee- hathdoubtless read thee thisbilletd

    1622, Dec. 15. [ffor the Certentye of Corne it is best knowne to my selfe for yt by sendinge & discoueringe those places,
    ffirst Ihauenot onelyreaped thebenefitt, but all the whole Collonye since whoe had perished had it not bene discouered
    beforeSrGeorgeYardley came in by myAunchient ThomasSavage& servants, besides necessities hath made those
    Savages moreindustrious thenany other Indians in or Baye]By Captain John Martin:

    Here we see two replicates of the
    Shallops of the time were described
    "of twenty-six feet by the keel with
    masts,oars and yards".
    "of four tons".
    "a sloop rigged craft of about twelve
    tons".(Capt. John Smith's shallop
    withwhich heexplored the bay area)
    "Tons" refers to the weight of water
    displacedby the craft, not the weight
    ofthe craft itself.

Much information on our Savages may be found on the expansive genealogy work of M. K. Miles on the Miles Files.
    In May of 1614, after the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas,Thomas Savagewas theinterpreter
    accompanying Ralph Hamor to meet Powhatanon amission for the governor, ThomasDale, in which
    another daughter of Powhatanwas being sought asa bride for Dale. Thismission wasunsuccessful as
    Powhatan refused to give up another daughter.

Matanerew shashashewaw erawango pechecoma
Whe Tassantassa inoshashaw yehockan pocosack.
Whe whe yah haha nehe wittowa wittowa.
Matanerew shashashewaw erawango pechecoma
Capt. Newport inoshashaw neir inhoc natian matassan.
Whe whe yah haha nehe wittowa wittowa.
Matanerew shashashewaw erawango pechecoma
Thom Newport inoshashaw neir inhoc natian monacock.
Whe whe yali haha nehe wittowa wittowa.
Matanerew shashashewaw erawango pechecoma
Pochin Simon inoshashaw ningon natian monacock.
Whe whe yah haha nehe wittowa wittowa.

The words of the song boasted that the Indians had killed
the English in spite of their guns (pocosack) and copper
(matassun), meaning the copper crown which Captain New-
port had presented to Powhatan (hoping thereby to secure his
friendship) that Thomas Newport (that is,
Thomas Savage,
whom Captain Newport had given to Powhatan, calling him
his son) had not frightened them with his sword (monacock)
and neither had Simon Skore's weapon saved him from
capture. The zvhe whe of the chorus made mock lamentation
over the death of Simon Skore, whom they tortured and the
words yah Jiaha ncJie zvittozva zvittoiua conveyed a jeering,
laughing commentary upon the English lack of fortitude
under torment.

1717Westmoreland Co, VA m: Abt. 1677 Westmoreland Co,VA
. 4 Thomas Spelman b: 1680 Washington, Westmoreland Co. Va. d: Abt. 1740 Washington Parish, VA
. +Ann Unknown
-------------------------------- Etc., etc.
SPILMAN FAMILY ABROAD - Descendants of Henry SPILMAN - Editor: Lori (Spilman) Dollevoet - http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry. com/

Anas Todkill, recorder of John
Smith's adventures, is portrayed
by Willie Balderson, Colonial
Williamsburg's manager of public
history development.

    If you want to taste the absolute best corn bread in the world
    youmust visit the web site of Bill and Laurel Savage. Their
    farm is onthe Eastern Shore of Virginia near where Ensign
    Thomas Savage andThomas Savage the Carpenter were raising
    Indian corn near 400years ago. Bill and I are "Cuzzins"and
    both descended from theCarpenter andrelated tothe Ensign.

    Thomas Savage, "The Carpenter"
    A prominent figure in Northampton and Accomack Counties on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, he first appears, by name,in surviving records, in
    1632He is known to have been a builder of watercraft and homes and operated a cooperage to manufacturecasks, barrels, kegs, buckets etc. At
    his death, he owned at least two properties totaling 750 acres.It is documented that Ensign Savage and Savage the Carpenter were closely
    related.Were they father and son?

The only known painting made during her lifetime.
It hangs in the National Portrait Gallery of the
Smithsonian, in Washington, D.C.

    Posted on geni.com is a reference to one
    Raleigh Croshaw, born 1584 in
    Croshaw,Lancashire, England,died in
    Elizabeth County, Virginia April 10,
    Croshaw is reported to have had an
    Indian wife,Rachel, "sister of
    Powhatan" and in another place,
    "sister of Pocahontas".No
    documentation though, so consider it
    speculationuntil a source is cited.

Letter from the Marquess of Flores to Philip III, King of Spain. 8-1-1612
--- reported by a source that "some of the people who have gone there, think now some of them should marry the women of the savages of that country and he tells me that
there are already 40 or 50 thus married." Also reported that the other Englishmen, after being put among them, have become savages themselves while the women, whom
they took out, also have gone among the savages where they have been received & treated well. A minister who admonished them was "seriously wounded in many places"
because "he reprehended them."
The Genesis of The United States, Vol. II, pages 572 & 632, by Alexander Brown in 1890. R eproduction 2018 by WWW.ForgottenBooks.com.

    Powhatan had died in 1618 his brother,
    Opechancanough, had effectively inherited the
    leadership of Tsenacomoco. Though
    Opechancanoughhad been outwardlyreceptiveto
    talk of peace with theEnglish andconvertinghis
    people to Christianity, hewasplanning anattack that
    would devastate theEnglish colonyand, he hoped,
    send them awaypermanently.One version of his plan
    hadinvolvedpoisoningthe English using large
    quantities of a deadlyplant native to theEastern
    Shore, which heneeded toobtain fromEsmy
    Shichansinaddition to refusing tosendthe plant, the
    Indianleader alerted his friendSavage to
    true intentions. Savage tried to warn English
    authorities, including Jamestown's newgovernor, Sir
    Francis Wyatt, but his messagefellon deaf ears.
    Wyatthad takenOpechancanough's promises of
    peace at facevalue, writing to the Virginia Company
    ofLondon thatthe English enjoyed "very great
    amytie and confidencew[i]th the natives." OnMarch
    22, 1622,Opechancanough led a swiftandterrible
    assault onoutlying plantations thatkilled as many
    as 347 colonists, or about one-fourth of the
    English population in Virginia.
    Encyclopedia Virginia: A project of the Virginia Foundation fortheHumanities
    in partnership with the Library of Virginia

Hannah has for years been mistakenly identified as Hannah Tyng of Boston. This error has been repeated over and over. Moody K. Miles, a trusted genealogist
who I know personally, and who has done important work for, among others, the Smithsonian, tells us that Hannah's surname was Elkington.
She was listed as, Ann in the Muster of February 1624/25 at Eastern Shore, Virginia in the home of Ensign Thomas Savage. In later years she is known from court
documents as, Hannah. The muster tells us she came to Virginia in 1621 on the Sea Flower. There is record of Hannah being the mother of at least two children
Captain John Savage, son of Ensign Thomas, and Margaret "Margery" Cugley, daughter of Hannah's second husband, Daniel Cugley to whom she was married
after the death of Ensign Thomas. In later years, after Hannah's death, Margery was cared for by her half-brother, Captain John Savage.

    An Important DNA Match

    In 2010 we discovered thata Mr. Savage (given namewithheld)
    wholives onthe Eastern Shore ofVirginia, withinthe bounds of
    the 9000acre tract thatwas owned by EnsignThomas Savage,
    has a close matchto myownY-DNAprofile.
    Mr. Savage and I bothhave documented linesto ThomasSavage
    theCarpenter. The fact that Mr. Savage lives todaywithinthe
    Ensign’soriginaltract does not necessarily meanthat he’s
    descended from theEnsign Isuspect a number ofthe
    Carpenter’s descendants also livewithin thoseboundaries.
    Mr. Savage and I have a genetic distance of, 2and since we both
    havedocumentedlines to the Carpenter, this indicates that our
    documentation is accurate and thereby the line is solidly proven.
    If Thomas Savage the Carpenter were to be considered
    Generation #1,then Iam Generation #11 and am removedfrom
    him by tengenerations. Thisagrees with theY-DNAstandard
    probability chart illustratedbelow.

    Probability that a common ancestor lived no longer ago thanthis
    number ofgenerations.

    Genetic Distance50% 90% 95%
    02 4 5
    13 6 7
    25 8 9
    36 10 11

    By 1691 intermarriage with Indian or Negro by the English had evidently become such a problem that the Virginia
    Colony banned all such unions: And for prevention of that abominable mixture and spurious issue which
    hereaftermayencrease in this dominion as well by negroes, mulattoes, and Indiansintermarrying with
    English, or other white women, as by their unlawfullaccompanying with one another, Be itenacted by the
    authoritie aforesaid, and it ishereby enacted, That for the time to come,whatsoever English or other white
    man orwoman being free shall intermarry with a negroe,mulatto, or Indian man or womanbond or free
    shall within three months after such marriagebe banished and removedfrom this dominion forever.
    An act for suppressing outlying Slaves,” Laws of 1691, act XVI, in Hening’s Statutes at Law
    In 1705 that law was modified to leave out the reference to Indians.

This just in: Our Grand Daughter, Nola, who is
also my Senior Research Analyst (pictured in
the photo to the right with her Assistant
Research Analyst, Sam) has evidently
uncovered some sort of evidence that proves
conclusively that Ensign Thomas Savage was
married to an Indian girl. Nola's preliminary
report is copied here. We believe that Nola
may have had some supernatural help with her
discovery, as she seems to be communicating
with an unknown entity. Also, the two of them
appear to be in some sort of ceremonial garb.
We anxiously await their full report.

    "The Bass prominence in Nansemond history originally goes back to the 1638
    marriage ofElizabeth,her Christianized name,to John Bass.She wastheking of
    the Nansemond'sdaughter.The family still own or still has in its possession the
    prayer book, which documentsthis marriage in 1638.Basically,that'swhere our
    whole line today descends from, from JohnBass ."
    Chief Barry "Big Buck" Bass - Nansemond Tribe May 21, 2004
    Indians had to have a pass to travel. They couldn't testify in court against
    whites.They couldn't inherit property at one time."
    Oliver "Fish Hawk"PerryChief Emeritus Nansemond 1987

To see a chart of some 4000 descendants of Robinson T. Savage
click on the Robinson T. Savage radio button at the top of this page.
  1. A Concise History Of England – F.E. Halliday
  2. A Genealogical History of The Savage Family In Ulster – George F. Savage-Armstrong
  3. A Key to Survey Reports and Microfilm of the Virginia Colonial Records Project. Vol 1 & 2
  4. A Land As God Made It: Jamestown & The Birth Of America - James Horn
  5. A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia ---- by Ralph Hamor -- 1615
  6. A True Relation of The State of Virginia Left by Sir Thomas Dale - in 1616 – John Rolfe
  7. Abstracts of Wills, Adm. Of Northampton Co. VA. 1632-1802 - James Handley Marshall
  8. Accomack Co. VA. Court Order Abstracts Vol. 1-10: 1663-1710 – J. R. McKey (On CD)
  9. Accomack Tithables 1663 – 1695 - Stratton Nottingham
  10. Adventures of Purse and Person, 1607-1624/5, Vol. IV, R-Z - John F. Dorman
  11. Adventures of Purse and Person, Va. 1607-1624/5, Vol. I, A-F - John F. Dorman
  12. America’s First Family, The Savages of Virginia – Burghard
  13. American Colonists In English Records – 1597 to 1800 George Sherwood 1982
  14. American Colonists in English Records. Pub. 2011 2 Vol. in one – George Sherwood
  15. American Journeys – An Anthology of Travel In the United States – E. D. Bennett
  16. An Account Of Virginia: Its Scituation, Inhabitants, Etc. – 1676 Thomas Glover
  17. Ancient And Noble Family Of The Savages Of The Ards, The – Geo. F. Savage-Armstrong
  18. Anne Orthwoods’s Bastard – John Pagan
  19. Atlantic World and Virginia, 1550-1624 – Peter C. Mancall
  20. Before and After Jamestown: Virginia's Powhatans - Rountree & Turner
  21. Between Two Worlds, Pocahontas & an English Boy Hostage to her Father – Clausen
  22. British Empire, The - Jane Samson (on order)
  23. Captain Christopher Newport - A. Bryant Nichols Jr.
  24. Captain John Smith – Writings with Other Narratives – Ed. James Horn
  25. Common Law of Colonial America, The – Nelson
  26. Conquest Of Virginia, The Forest Primeval – Conway Whittle Sams
  27. County Court Records of Accomack-Northampton 1640-1645 - Susie Ames
  28. Directories of Accomack & Northampton Landowners - 1815 - Roger G. Ward
  29. Early Virginia Immigrants, 1623 – 1666 – George Cabell Greer
  30. Eastern Shore Indians of Virginia and Maryland - Rountree & Davidson
  31. Eastern Shore of Virginia, The - 1603-1964 - Nora Miller Turman
  32. English Duplicates of Lost Virginia Records – Louis des Cognets, Jr.
  33. English Estates of American Colonists 1610-1699 - Coldham, Peter
  34. Ethics and Indians – Social Relations in a Northwestern Ontario Town – David H. Stymeist
  35. European And The Indian, The – James Axtell
  36. First Colonists, The: the First English Settlements in North America – David and Alison Quinn
  37. First People: The Early Indians of Virginia - Egloff & Woodward
  38. First Republic In America: An Account of the Origin of This Nation - Alexander Brown
  39. Formation of A Society on Virginia’s Eastern Shore 1615-1655 - James R. Perry
  40. Genesis of the United States,Vol. 1 and 2 by AlexanderBrown, 1891with reprint in 2018
  41. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches _: Gender, Race, Power in Colonial Virginia - Brown, Kathleen. M.
  42. Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia, The - William Strachey
  43. Histories of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina – Wm. K. Byrd
  44. History of Savage Family in England 1066-2010 – Hugh Savage (CD)
  45. Indians in Seventeenth-Century Virginia – McCary, Ben C.
  46. Immigrants To America Appearing In English Records – Frank Smith
  47. Jamestown Adventure, The: Accts of the Va. Colony, 1605-1614 - Ed Southern
  48. Jamestown Colony, The – Cornerstones of Freedom – Sakurai
  49. Jamestown Project, The - Karen Kupperma
  50. Jamestown, the Buried Truth - Kelso
  51. Jamestowne Ancestors 1607-1699 – Davis
  52. Key to Survey Reports and Microfilm of the Virginia Col. Records Project, Vol. 1 & 2
  53. Land Causes Accomack County, Virginia 1727-1826 - Stratton Nottingham
  54. Life of the Powhatan (Native Nations of North America) - Sjonger & Kalman
  55. Loose Papers and Sundry Court Cases 1628 – 1731 - Jean Mihalyka
  56. Lord Mayor’s Court Of London Depositions Relating to Americans 1641-1736 – Peter Coldham
  57. Lost Virginia Records, English Duplicates of – Louis des Cognets, Jr.
  58. Marriages, Northampton County, Virginia 1660-1854 - Jean Mihalyka
  59. Middlemen in Peace and War: Virginia's Earliest Indian Interpreters, 1608-1632 J. F. Fausz
  60. Mother Earth – Land Grants in Virginia - W. Stitt Robinson, Jr.
  61. My lady Pokahontas a true relation of Virginia – Anas Todkill (Fiction based on history. RBS)
  62. Narratives Of Early Virginia – Editor J. F. Jameson
  63. Northampton Co. Va. Record Book, Ord, Deeds, Wills, 1654-55 - Mackey & Groves
  64. One Among the Indians - Martha Bennett Stiles
  65. Peopling of British North America, The - Bernard Bailyn
  66. Pioneer Spirit – By American Heritage. Editor in Charge, Richard M. Ketchum
  67. Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough - Rountree
  68. Pocahontas's People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia - Helen C. Rountree
  69. Powhatan Confederacy, The - Past and Present – James Mooney 1907
  70. Powhatan Indians of Virginia, The - Helen C. Rountree
  71. Powhatan’s Mantle - Wood, Waselkov, Hatley
  72. Proceedings of the Virginia Co. of London 1619 – 1624 - Conway Robinson & R. A. Brock
  73. Reading, Writing and Arithmetic in Virginia 1607-09 - Susie Ames
  74. Records of the Va. Co. of London, Court Book, Vol. 1, 1619-22 - Susan M. Kingsbury
  75. Records of the Va. Co. of London, The - Vol. 1,2,3,4 (CD) - Susan M. Kingsbury
  76. Records of the Virginia Company of London, Volumes 1-4 [CD] - Susan M. Kingsbury
  77. Relation of Virginia c. 1613 - Henry Spelman
  78. Savage Is My Name – Part II – R. Blair Savage
  79. Savage Is My Name - R. Blair Savage
  80. Savage Kingdom – The True Story of Jamestown – Benjamin Wooley
  81. Shawnee Heritage I - Don GreeneBeware, sources not cited. Unreliable contents.
  82. Shawnee Heritage II - Don Greene--------- ditto ---------------------
  83. Sir William Berkeley and the Forging of Colonial Virginia – Warren M. Billings
  84. Soldiers & Sailors of the Eastern Shore of VA in the Revolutionary War – S. Nottingham
  85. Studies of the Virginia Eastern Shore in the 17th century - Susie M. Ames
  86. Surviving Jamestown – Gail Karwoski
  87. The Three Charters of the Virginia Co. of London With Seven Related Documents 1606-1621
  88. The Virginia Company Of London, 1606-1624 - Wesley Frank Craven
  89. Thomas Savage, Headright of William Gany by James W. Petty, CGRS, AG, BS (Genealogy)
  90. Tom Savage - A Story of Colonial Virginia - John Logan (Encyclopaedia Britannica)
  91. Tracks and Other Papers Relating to Origin (etc) of Colonies in North America (etc) - Peter Force
  92. True Story of Pocahontas, The - The Other Side of History - Custalow & Daniel
  93. Virginia: A History Of The People – John Esten Cooke -- Printed 1884
  94. Virginia – The First Seventeen Years - Charles E. Hatch, Jr.
  95. Virginia ‘Publick’ Claims, Accomack & Northampton, 1780-83 -- Abercrombie & Slatten
  96. Virginia Colonial Abstracts – Series 2, Vol. 3. Va. Co. of London 1606 – 1624 - Beverly Fleet
  97. Virginia Court Records in Southwestern Pennsylvania – Boyd Crumrine
  98. Virginia Gleanings in England – Lothrop Withington
  99. Virginia Immigrants And Adventurers 1607 – 1635 - Martha W. McCartney
  100. Virginia Wills and Administrations 1632-1800 - Torrence Clayton --- on order
  101. Virginia’s Eastern Shore - Ralph T. Whitelaw
  102. We Are The Savages – James C. Savage
  103. Who’s Saying What in Jamestown, Thomas Savage - Jean Fritz
  104. Wills And Adms of Accomack Co. Va. 1663 – 1800 - Stratton Nottingham
  105. Ye Kingdom Of Accawmacke - Jennings Cropper Wise
  106. Wenches, Wives & Widows - JoAnn Riley McKey

    The only source we have for the age of Ensign Thomas Savage is the writing of John Smith (or Anas Todkill) who wrote "aboy of thirteen years old,calledThomas Savage, whom
    he(Newport) gave him as his son".I believe Savage was older than 13.He was tooinfluential withthe Powhatansto havebeen only15when, inApril of 1610 Captain John
    Martinfound"Thomas Savage already a power among the red men".
    In 1610 there was an attack upon the English at the Falls of the James River when Lord Delaware sent an expedition from Jamestown to search thecountryabove the Falls for gold
    mines. In this attack Lord Delaware's nephew, Captain William West, was killed and Simon Skore, a sailor, and oneCobb, a boy,were taken prisoners.As a result of this fight the
    Indians said in their song that Thomas Savage, “had not frightened them with hismonacock(sword)”.Savage was obviously a man to be dealt with to have been wielding a sword
    andsurviving the attack. Fifteen years old?Perhapsolder?Smith stated the age of Pocahontas as, "a child of tenne years old" in the spring of 1608. However, in a letter written by
    him in1616 he gave her age at that same meeting in 1608 as"a child of twelve or thirteen".

The competing cultures of the Powhatan and English settlers
were united through unions and marriages of members, of which
the most well known was that of Pocahontas and John Rolfe.
Their son Thomas Rolfe was the ancestor of many Virginians and
many of the First Families of Virginia have both English and
Virginia Indian ancestry.

These books are all available for sale
on Amazon. Click on the "My Books"
button in the Navigation Bar at the
top of this page.

    I havebeen told,by a source which I trust,that Thomas Savage the Carpenter, because he was half Indian, was required to wear a
    copper "badge",perhaps liketheone to the right which was excavated at Jamestown.Please understand that this is NOT
    DOCUMENTED, but if it is true, might such a "badge" be similar tothe "pass"to whichFish Hawk Perry refers?(RBS)

STATES, 1605-1616,
Brown says of Ensign Thomas Savage,
on page 196 He left two sons, Thomas, who was alive in
1652, but seems to have died without issue, and a younger
son, John.
We know that this Thomas who was alive in
1652 was, in fact, our Thomas Savage the Carpenter who
died in 1654/55 and he also had issue including two sons,
Thomas and John.
A similar statement appears in THE
by the Oxford University Press in London, pages 839-840. By
his wife, Anne he had two sons, Thomas and John besides
other children who died young.

"Why should you take by force that from us which you can have by love? Why should you destroy us who
have provided you with food? What can you get by war?" Chief Powhatan Wahunsenaca, 1608
(Moquin and Doren 1973:111:

    There's a fellow I know by the name of Scott Savage. We don't yet know if we're related, but we're working on finding
    out. Scott has hit a temporary dead-end with his ancestor, Robert Savage in Mercer County, PA.Any help in that regard
    would sure be welcome.

    After retiring from the US Army, Scott started making knives. They are made completely by hand with great detail given
    to the fit and finish of each blade. He makes the most beautiful and precision knives you're likely to come across.
    It wouldn't make me a bit angry if you were to go toScott'swebsite and take a look at his work.It's pure and functional
    art thekind you'd like to leave toyour kids or grand-kids.

    Just click here >>>> Black Earth Knives

    Maryland State Park at Sang Run, GarrettCo. Maryland.
    Robinson T.Savagepioneer families.

The Park is open daily. Friends Store is closed during winter.

Friends Store and Farm, Sang Run State Park
3735 Sang Run Road. (4 miles past WISP resort) 301-387-7067

Plymouth: The First Puritan Colony

The first group of Puritans to make their way across the Atlantic was a small contingent known as the Pilgrims. Unlike other Puritans, they insisted on a complete separation from the Church of England and had first migrated to the Dutch Republic seeking religious freedom. Although they found they could worship without hindrance there, they grew concerned that they were losing their Englishness as they saw their children begin to learn the Dutch language and adopt Dutch ways. In addition, the English Pilgrims (and others in Europe) feared another attack on the Dutch Republic by Catholic Spain. Therefore, in 1620, they moved on to found the Plymouth Colony in present-day Massachusetts. The governor of Plymouth, William Bradford, was a Separatist, a proponent of complete separation from the English state church. Bradford and the other Pilgrim Separatists represented a major challenge to the prevailing vision of a unified English national church and empire. On board the Mayflower, which was bound for Virginia but landed on the tip of Cape Cod, Bradford and forty other adult men signed the Mayflower Compact, which presented a religious (rather than an economic) rationale for colonization. The compact expressed a community ideal of working together. When a larger exodus of Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 1630s, the Pilgrims at Plymouth welcomed them and the two colonies cooperated with each other.

The Mayflower Compact and Its Religious Rationale

The Mayflower Compact, which forty-one Pilgrim men signed on board the Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor, has been called the first American governing document, predating the U.S. Constitution by over 150 years. But was the Mayflower Compact a constitution? How much authority did it convey, and to whom?

In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, defender of the Faith, etc.

Having undertaken, for the Glory of God, and advancements of the Christian faith and honor of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the Northern parts of Virginia, do by these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the presence of God, and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic for our better ordering, and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.

In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the 11th of November, in the year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, 1620

Different labor systems also distinguished early Puritan New England from the Chesapeake colonies. Puritans expected young people to work diligently at their calling, and all members of their large families, including children, did the bulk of the work necessary to run homes, farms, and businesses. Very few migrants came to New England as laborers in fact, New England towns protected their disciplined homegrown workforce by refusing to allow outsiders in, assuring their sons and daughters of steady employment. New England’s labor system produced remarkable results, notably a powerful maritime-based economy with scores of oceangoing ships and the crews necessary to sail them. New England mariners sailing New England–made ships transported Virginian tobacco and West Indian sugar throughout the Atlantic World.

The original Mayflower Compact is no longer extant only copies, such as this ca.1645 transcription by William Bradford, remain.

NCERT History Book Class 10 Free PDF Download

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  • Chapter 8: Novels, Society and History

Class 10 इतिहास Book (भारत और समकालीन विश्व – II)

  • Chapter 1: यूरोप में राष्ट्रवाद का उदय
  • Chapter 2: इंडो-चाइना में राष्ट्रवादी आंदोलन
  • Chapter 3: भारत में राष्ट्रवाद
  • Chapter 4: भूमंडलीकृत विश्व का बनना
  • Chapter 5: औद्योगिकीकरण की युग
  • Chapter 6: काम, आराम और जीवन
  • Chapter 7: मुद्रण संस्कृति और आधुनिक दुनिया
  • Chapter 8: उपन्यास, समाज और इतिहास

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Furniture Industry, 1816-1945

The industrial development of Jamestown before the Civil War depended primarily on two resources, wood and water. In the early nineteenth century, Western New York was heavily forested, with as much as 100,000 board feet of timber per acre in upland areas like Chautauqua County. Southwestern New York was rich in white pine, hemlock and such valuable northern hardwoods as maple, oak, beech, birch, chestnut, walnut, sycamore and cherry. Southern Chautauqua County was covered with dense pine forests.

The county was also crossed by several creeks which provided water power for early nineteenth century factories. The creeks did not, however, provide a unified system of transportation. Chautauqua County is divided by a large terminal morraine known as “the ridge.” The ridge is 600 to 1,400 feet in elevation and runs parallel to lake Erie, from three to six miles inland. West of the ridge, Cattaraugus Creek, Canadaway Creek and Walnut Creek flow into Lake Erie, while east of the ridge Lake Chautauqua, the Chadokoin River and Conewango Creek flow into the Allegheny River. Before the coming of the railroad, towns located west of the ridge, like Dunkirk, Fredonia and Westfield, were economically tied to the settlements of northern Ohio and Central New York, while Jamestown was tied to western Pennsylvania and the Ohio valley.

Overland transportation in the early nineteenth century was primitive and expensive. The high cost of transportation made it difficult for Chautauqua County farmers to import manufactured goods and prohibited the exporting of an agricultural surplus. Consequently, most farming in antebellum Chautauqua County was on a subsistence basis, while village industry consisted mainly of small artisan shops serving the needs of local farmers.

Timber was the only resource Chautauqua County possessed that could bear the transportation costs to urban markets. Soft pine woods were cut into boards, piled into rafts and floated down the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers to Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. The hardwoods were burned and their ashes used to make potash. Ten acres of hardwood land yielded up to a ton of potash, worth as much as $200. The potash was shipped to New York and Pittsburgh, where it was used as an ingredient in the manufacture of soap, glass, baking powder and gun powder.

Jamestown’s location on the Chadokoin River, in the heart of the pine country, made it an early center of lumber milling. As early as 1804, Edward Work and Thomas R. Kennedy built a sawmill near Jamestown. In 1809, James Prendergast established the first settlement at “the rapids,” as Jamestown was then known. He built a sawmill in 1810, and two more by 1816. Other settlers erected additional sawmills, and by 1830 Jamestown was shipping forty million board feet of timber per year, with an annual product value of $250,000. So many new mills were built during the 1830’s that by 1840 most stands of first class pine timber had been exhausted.

Prendergast encouraged the settlement of skilled New England craftsmen in his village and many of them used their skills to launch manufacturing enterprises. New England artisans founded the village’s first woolen mill and cabinet making shop. Other Yankees founded a scythe snath factory in Jamestown that quickly gained a nation-wide market, and a sash and pail factory that sold its goods as far away as New Orleans.

By the eve of the Civil War, Jamestown had developed a variety of industries. However, most of the village’s business concerns were small establishments that provided for the needs of an agricultural area. Several factories manufactured farm implements such as grain measures, rakes and scythe snaths, while other entrepreneurs operated grist mills, sawmills, blacksmith shops, tanneries, wagon building shops and coopers’ shops. Manufacturing not directly related to agriculture was limited largely to three woolen mills, two cabinet making shops and a chair factory.

Until shortly before the Civil War, Jamestown’s industrial growth was severely hindered by lack of adequate transportation. In 1814, Jamestown was connected with the outside world only by keelboat. As late as 1880, some Jamestown merchants still traded on the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers from storeboats. Stage lines were opened between Jamestown, Warren, Mayville, Fredonia, Dunkirk, Erie and Buffalo during the 1820’s. While stage coaches were adequate for passenger transportation, they were not sufficient for the movement of raw materials or manufactured goods. Plank roads, built in 1837, connected Jamestown with Fredonia and Dunkirk, but these were still not adequate to provide the transportation needed if Jamestown were to develop into an industrial city. Although the first railroad reached Chautauqua County in 1852, it went through the northern part of the county to Dunkirk, bypassing Jamestown. Until 1860, when the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad connected Jamestown to New York and Pittsburgh, Jamestown developed far more slowly than Dunkirk.

Jamestown’s Furniture Industry Before 1860

The availability of wood and water not only made Jamestown a lumber milling center, but also made it possible for a furniture industry to develop. Jamestown was still basically a logging camp when in 1816, Royal Keyes started the first cabinet making shop in the village. Like many of Jamestown’s early manufacturers, Keyes was an immigrant craftsman from New England. In 1820, Keyes formed a partnership with another Yankee immigrant, William Breed. In 1823 Breed bought out Keyes’ interest and in 1837 he converted the business from a cabinet making shop based entirely on hand labor, to a water- powered factory. In 1827, Phineas Palmeter launched the village’s first chair making factory which, like the Breed factory, later converted to water – powered machinery.

The water – powered machinery used in Jamestown’s early furniture factories was very crude and most of the intricate work was still performed by hand. Nevertheless, by 1850 the Breed Company was selling furniture within a one – hundred mile radius of Jamestown, while the Rogers and Bill Chair Factory was shipping furniture in pieces to Pittsburgh. In 1858 Simmons, Tyrell and Company produced more than twenty types of chairs as well as bedsteads and other furniture. The company had large rooms for machinery, painting, finishing and storage. Most furniture factories built in Jamestown before the Civil War were located in the southeastern bend of the Chadokoin in order to make use of falling water. The area soon became known as Piousville, because so many of the factory owners were church deacons.

Economic Development of Jamestown after 1860

Several factors contributed to Jamestown’s rapid growth after the Civil War. Of great importance was the development of railroads in southern Chautauqua County, beginning with the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad which reached Jamestown in 1860. Before 1860, railroad development in Chautauqua County had taken place only in the northern part of the county and benefited towns like Dunkirk, Fredonia and Westfield. Jamestown’s only transportation before the Civil War was over rude plank roads, which were inadequate for shipping industrial goods. Lacking a railroad, Jamestown lagged behind Dunkirk. In 1855 Jamestown had only 1,625 people while Dunkirk had 4,754.

Jamestown’s political and industrial leaders energetically worked for the construction of a railroad, and in 1860, they were able to interest the builder of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad in building their railroad through Jamestown. This gave the village a rail link with New York City and Pittsburgh. It also made it possible for Jamestown to import coal, the indispensible ingredient of nineteenth century industry. By 1865, the village’s population had doubled to 3,155. The building of additional railroads also boosted Jamestown’s growth. The Buffalo and Oil Creek Cross Cut Railroad, built in 1865, connected Chautauqua County with the coal and oil fields of northwestern Pennsylvania, while in 1875 the Buffalo and Jamestown Railroad linked Jamestown to Buffalo. Many towns in Chautauqua County subsidized railroad construction and in 1888 Jamestown promoters spent $1,080,000 to build a railroad linking Jamestown with Mayville and Westfield, which were on the routes of the New York Central, Pennsylvania and Southern Michigan railroads. By 1880, Jamestown had surpassed Dunkirk when its population reached 9,357 and by 1920, Jamestown’s population was 38,917.

The establishment of rail links made it possible for Jamestown to import raw materials more cheaply and export finished goods more profitably. Also, by the end of the Civil War, businessmen in Jamestown had accumulated enough capital from lumber milling to invest in new and expanded industries. In order to attract new industries, the city sometimes subsidized plant construction. In 1872, for example, $5,000 was raised by subscription to get the Union Boulder Pail Factory to locate in Jamestown, and in 1874 William Broadhead got a $15,000 subsidy to help build his first worsted mill.

Throughout the late nineteenth century, as agriculture became more mechanized, people moved to the cities, expanding the industrial work force and creating a larger urban consumer market. Companies which had produced agricultural equipment began making goods for urban buyers. The F. Simmons Company and the H. W. Watson Company of Jamestown, for example, had originally made farm tools, but later produced furniture instead. The arrival of foreign-born immigrants also swelled the urban work force. In Jamestown, the arrival of Swedish immigrants after 1865 provided additional skilled workers for the furniture factories, while English immigrants made a major contribution to the city’s worsted industry.

Jamestown never became a center of heavy industry. It was too far from the main lines of transportation, and its industrial growth began too late for it to compete with cities like Pittsburgh and Buffalo. Jamestown survived, however, and continued to grow by concentrating on smaller industries that did not require great capital investment or highly expensive technology. Throughout the late nineteenth century, Jamestown specialized in the manufacture of worsted cloth and wooden furniture, and by 1911 it was second only to Grand Rapids as a furniture manufacturing center. The city’s entrepreneurs were also quick to branch out into new lines of light industrial production. In 1889, a group of Jamestown businessmen organized the American Aristotype Company, a pioneer in the manufacture of photographic paper, and in 1888 another group of Jamestown businessmen took the leadership in organizing the Art Metal Construction Company. Other metal furniture companies were soon organized in Jamestown and by 1911, the city was the leading manufacturer of metal furniture in the nation. Jamestown entrepreneurs also organized companies to manufacture a wide variety of goods, including metallic doors, voting machines, pianos, crescent wrenches, ball bearings and automobile parts.

The Furniture Industry in Jamestown, 1860 to 1920

In 1855, Jamestown had one chair factory and two cabinet making shops. By 1920, the city had twenty furniture factories, and by 1930, there were fifty. The post Civil War years brought economic prosperity to the North, while the railroads enabled Jamestown manufacturers to expand their markets. As the forests of southern Chautauqua County became depleted, furniture manufacturers were able to import wood. Immediately after the war, furniture production expanded. In 1870, the Jamestown Cane Seat Company spent $17,000 modernizing its plant while the F. Simmons Company converted from making farm tools to making furniture. New enterprises were started, including the Martyn Brothers Lounge Company (1865), Park Brothers (1865), Wood and Comstock (1869), the Jamestown Wood Seat Chair Company (1873), and the Jamestown Bedstead Works (1873). The formation of new companies was hindered for a time by the depression of 1873 to 1877, however, during the later nineteenth century additional companies were launched, including Shearman Brothers (1880), the Morgan Manufacturing Company (1890), and the Jamestown Furniture Company (1893). The first Swedish manufacturer of furniture in Jamestown, Augustus Johnson, began making doors in 1869 and beginning in the 1870’s, the Swedes organized a great number of furniture companies, including the A. C. Norquist Company (1881), at Atlas Furniture Company (1882), Carlson, Bloomquist and Snow (1885) as well as a great number of firms launched early in the twentieth century, such as the Elk, Anchor, Allied, Acme, Active and Level Furniture Companies.

Furniture factories were a cheap investment primarily because they were not highly mechanized and did not require large numbers of workers. Jamestown furniture was made entirely by hand until 1837, when the first crude, water – driven equipment came into use.

William Maddox, founder of the Maddox Table Company, invented a variety of furniture making machines, which he sold to manufacturers throughout the United States. He owed much of his success, as a table manufacturer, to his invention of a machine for polishing wooden table tops. As late as 1900, however, the principal machines in the furniture factories were slash saws, band saws, planers, moulders and shapers, and many operations continued to be done by hand. Electric, motors were not introduced until shortly after World War I.

Most furniture factories employed a relatively small work force. In 1894, even well-established firms like the Breed-Johnson Company, the Jamestown Cane Seat Company, the Morgan Manufacturing Company and the Shearman Brothers Lounge Company only employed from 50 to 100 workmen. Smaller concerns often employed only one or two dozen men. As late as 1920, firms such as Elk, Acme, Active and Allied furniture companies employed 50 men or less. Large companies in 1920 included the A. C. Norquist Company, with 125 men, the Atlas Furniture Company, with 200 men, and Level Furniture Company and the Bailey Table Company, with close to 300 men each.

During the late nineteenth century, some of the larger furniture factories employed women and children on a piece-work basis. In 1870, the Jamestown Cane Seat Company employed from 30 to 40 girls and boys, paying them $.10 per seat. The children usually worked at home, and made from 6 to 10 cane seats per day. For more intricate work, however, companies relied on skilled adult woodworkers. Before the Civil War most of the woodworking was performed by Yankees, while after the war the Swedes began to play a major role in the city’s furniture industry. Early in the twentieth century, Italians and Albanians also found work in Jamestown’s furniture factories. The small scale of enterprise, and the continued reliance on hand labor, rather than inexpensive [expensive] equipment, made it possible for furniture workers to organize their own companies. This was especially true in the case of the Swedes. Several firms, including the A.C. Norquist, Atlas, Advance and Level furniture companies were founded by immigrant Swedish woodworkers.

The growth of the city’s furniture industry depended also on entrepreneurs who sought new ways of promoting their products and expanding their markets. Before the Civil War, Jamestown furniture makers sold their goods largely in the local area. Even during the first two decades after the war, the market for the furniture was largely regional. From 1877 to 1886, for example, Jamestown Split Cane Seat Company sold its goods almost entirely in New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. As transportation improved in the large nineteenth century, Jamestown businessmen were able to ship their goods profitably to more distant markets. At the same time, they were exposed to competition from other cities.

One of the ways in which furniture manufacturers in Jamestown increased their sales was by improved advertising and marketing arrangements. Until the end of the nineteenth century, dealers who wished to purchase Jamestown furniture made their selections from photographs carried by traveling salesmen. They rarely saw samples of the furniture they intended to order. One of the first manufacturers in Jamestown to experiment with new advertising techniques was William Maddox. He was one of the first furniture manufacturers in the United States to trademark his products, and in 1889, he sent a showman named Cedarine Allen on a world-wide promotional tour. In four months, Allen took Maddox tables to Great Britain, Spain, Egypt, Arabia, Ceylon, Malaya, China and Japan. The Ahlstrom Piano Company employed another advertising device when it appealed to ethnic pride by placing advertisements in Swedish-language newspapers urging their readers to buy their pianos from a Swedish-American company.

Jamestown’s furniture manufacturers took a big step towards improved advertising in 1895 when they held their first furniture exposition in the Celeron auditorium. No further expositions were held, however, until 1910. Between 1910 and 1917, furniture manufacturers began to exhibit their wares regularly in their factories and in hotels. They timed their exhibits to coincide with the annual furniture exhibitions in Grand Rapids, and furniture buyers began visiting Jamestown on their way to Grand Rapids. In 1914, several of the city’s furniture manufacturers organized the Jamestown Furniture Marketing Association. The leaders in this venture included a number of owners of important companies. In 1917, they built the Furniture Exposition Building, where manufacturers from the Jamestown area held regular showings of their new lines of furniture. By 1945 the association included thirty companies in Jamestown, Falconer, Frewsburg, Mayville, Brocton, Salamanca, Warren and Youngsville. The association mailed advertisements to over 10,000 furniture dealers and department stores, and advertised in a wide variety of trade journals as well as publications like Home and Garden, House Beautiful and The New Yorker.

The furniture industry in Jamestown also grew because entrepreneurs and investors took the initiative in launching new kinds of furniture concerns. In 1888 Arthur C. Wade, an attorney, and Alexis Crane, a druggist, took the leadership in organizing the Art Metal Construction Company. They were joined by Rueben E. Fenton, Jr., the governor’s son, and by Frank E. Gifford, a leading manufacturer of wooden furniture. They bought out the nation’s first producer of metal shelving, the American Shelf and Drawer Company of Milwaukee, and joined with firms in Saint Louis, Rochester and Milwaukee to found the Art Metal Construction Company, the first producer of metal furniture in the United States. Because of the leadership taken by Jamestown businessmen, Jamestown became the site of the company’s general office. The Watson Manufacturing Company soon converted its operations from farm equipment to metal furniture and in 1904 a group of Swedes organized the Dahlstrom Metallic Door Company. By 1920, there were six companies in Jamestown which produced metal furniture, doors and shelving.

Successful furniture manufacturers also helped promote the city’s development by supporting other business ventures. William Maddox, after succeeding as a table manufacturer, started a company to produce furniture making machinery. Arthur Wade and Frank Gifford, two of the leading founders of the Art Metal Construction Company, later took much of the initiative in organizing the American Voting Machine Company.

The Jamestown Furniture Industry, 1920 to 1945

By 1930, 50 of the city’s 110 factories produced furniture and two of them, Art Metal and Marlin Rockwell, were listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

In 1945 furniture was still Jamestown’s biggest industry, but the number of furniture companys had declined to 25. A number of factors help account for the failure of so many companies. First, it was becoming more expensive to get raw materials. The great pine forest of Chautauqua County had disappeared by 1850, most of the valuable hardwoods had been used by 1875 and even the cheaper woods like hemlock, were nearly exhausted by 1900. The manufacturers were able to import wood, pigments, oils and resins by rail, however, these were often expensive items produced in foreign countries. By the end of World War II, Jamestown’s furniture companies still obtained much of their popular, chestnut, maple, cherry and some of the oak timber locally. Other woods and materials had to be imported from abroad: mahogany from Africa, ivarra from the Philippines and primaverra from Mexico, sienna pigment from Italy, umber from Turkey and Van Dyke Brown from Germany, tung oil from China and Central America, and most of the resin came from South America and New Zealand. It was especially difficult for small firms to pay for these imported raw materials. Trade was interrupted during World War II which made these items even more scarce.

Conflicts between labor and management also become serious after World War I. Prior to this time, workers in Jamestown were seldom unionized, except for a few years during the mid-1880’s, when the Knights of Labor organized a few craft unions. The Knights had few supporters among unskilled or immigrant laborers, and they quickly collapsed because of conflicts within the labor movement. Unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor began to organize in Jamestown in 1896 and by 1900 there were twenty-nine A. F. L. unions in the city. Like the Knights, the A. F. L. represented primarily skilled labor, but unlike the Knights they had considerable support among the foreign-born. Labor solidarity, however, was hindered by ethnic conflicts. On several occasions, businessmen made concessions on hours and wages, as long as they did not have to grant the unions legal recognition, and there was little violence until shortly before World War I.

Violent strikes became more common shortly before the war, and wartime inflation contributed to increased union militancy and to the reluctance of employers to raise wages. Consequently, in 1919, a mass strike closed 56 factories and involved 3,600 workers. Disagreement between moderate and radical labor leaders contributed to the failure of the strike, as did widespread public reaction against radicalism. Relations between labor and management remained very bitter for years afterwards. There were major strikes at Empire Case Goods and the Art Metal Construction Company in 1933, at the Dahlstrom Metallic Door Company in 1940, at the Blackstone Company in 1949, and at the Art Metal Construction Company, the Watson Manufacturing Company and the Jamestown Metal Corporation in 1955. Union leaders argued that wages in Jamestown were below the national average, while employers argued that the burden of rising wages and taxes force companies to leave the city or go out of business.

The most important reason for the failure of so many furniture companies, however, was the lack of capital to modernize. Before 1920, many factories had been founded with small amounts of capital and they were able to survive because manufacturing did not require highly expensive, complex machinery. Furthermore, until the end of the nineteenth century, many furniture companies in Jamestown traded primarily in a regional market. As Jamestown became more integrated into the national economy, and as furniture became more mechanized, it was increasingly difficult for small, marginal firms to compete successfully with larger and more efficient rivals.

Even before the Great Depression of the 1930’s, economic downturns had caused furniture factories to fail. The depression of 1873 – 1877 witnessed the failure of Gates and Langford and Ford, Wood and Comstock. Business failures during the depression of the mid-1890’s included Benson, Hand, and Frisbee and Schildmacher and Bauer. A number of firms went out of business, or were bought out by larger companies, even during the prosperous decade of the 1920’s. The Kling-Triangle Furniture Company failed in 1925 and the Ahlstrom Piano Company and the Jamestown Case Goods went out in 1926. The year 1927 witnessed the failure of the Liberty Upholstery Company and the Herrick, Supreme and Standard furniture companies. In 1928, the Bailey Table Company, Himebaugh Brothers, Schulze and Van Stee and the Jamestown Period Furniture Company went out of business. The Ideal, Allied, Level and Star furniture companies failed in 1929. The number of companies that went out of business during the two or three years preceding the depression indicates that many firms, especially the smaller ones, were finding it difficult to compete successfully in a post-war economy characterized by larger firms and greater mechanization.

The depression itself wiped out many furniture companies, especially among the smaller Swedish firms founded with little capital during the early twentieth century. During the worst years of the depression, from 1930 to 1935, several other companies ceased operations: Jamestown Mantel Company, the Modern Cabinet Company and the Active, Excelsior, Elk, Premier and Diamond furniture companies. The recovery of the mid 1930’s was followed by the recession of 1936 – 1939 during which Berkey Chair Company, and the Munson, Marvel and Dykeman furniture companies failed. Thomas, Superior and Anchor furniture companies, along with the American Carving Works and the Lake View Carving Company discontinued business in the early 1940’s.

This period of the 30’s and 40’s were not years of total failure, however. A few successful new furniture companies were founded, including the Aluminum Chair Company (1937), Burns Furniture Company (1939), the Falconer Cabinet Corporation(1946) and the Chadokoin Furniture Company (1946). Although the Wright Metal Corporation failed in 1934, its place was taken by the successful Jamestown Steel Partition Company, organized in 1940.

Many companies merged or were bought by stronger firms. As early as 1919, the Maddox family sold its table making business to the Shearman Brothers Lounge Company. The Jamestown Metal Desk Company underwent reorganization in 1935, emerging as the Jamestown Metal Corporation. In 1940 it took over the Ellison Bronze Company then in 1950 it absorbed the Exel Metal Company. By 1945, there had been extensive mergers in the furniture industry in Jamestown Burns Case Goods took over the Premier Cabinet Corporation, Empire Case Goods absorbed the Cadwell Cabinet Company, and Kling Factories bought out the Triangle Furniture Company and Carlson, Bloomquist and Snow. Davis Furniture Company absorbed the F. M. Curtis Company and then merged with the Randolph Furniture Works, which had previously taken over the Eckman and Himebaugh furniture companies. Of twenty-five furniture companies still in business in 1945, the four strongest were products of mergers: Union-National, Shearman-Maddox, Jamestown Royal and Davis-Randolph.

In the decade that followed World War II, a number of companies in Jamestown were bought by firms which had their headquarters in other cities. The Chautauqua Plywood Company became part of Magnavox, the Curtis Machine Corporation was purchased by the Carborundum Company, Conroe Concrete became part of Marietta Concrete and Weber-Knapp was absorbed by a furniture company in Grand Rapids. Other companies, like the Daystrom Company, the Newbrook Machine Corporation and Empire Case Goods, left the city. Some, like the Swanson Machine Company and Croft Steel Products, moved to the deep South, where wage and tax costs were lower. In the early 1950’s, one Jamestown businessman noted that, during his years in the city, at least sixty-nine companies had left or gone out of business, while only seven successful new ventures had been launched. In 1945, however, none of Jamestown’s major furniture companies had left the city, and furniture making was still Jamestown’s largest industry.

The Furniture Industry and the Swedes

In addition to becoming Jamestown’s leading industry, furniture making also provided jobs and economic advancement for many of the city’s immigrants. While many of the foreign-born were unskilled laborers, other contributed important skills to the city’s industries. British weavers were very significant in the growth of the worsted mills in Jamestown, and the Art Metal Construction Company imported skilled German metal workers from Milwaukee. The wooden furniture factories employed some Italian woodcarvers and many Albanian painters and lacquerers. Italians organized the Paterniti Table Company, and the Maddox Table Company was founded by the son of an English immigrant. The most important immigrant group in the furniture industry, however, was the Swedes.

In 1865, there were 205 Swedes living in the town of Ellicott, which included Jamestown. By 1920 there were 15,025 people of Swedish birth or parentage in Jamestown, making the Swedes the city’s largest ethnic group. The peak years of Swedish immigration occurred between 1865 and 1900, and coincided with the rise of the city’s furniture industry. A large proportion of the Swedes who came to Jamestown were skilled shoemakers, tailors, blacksmiths and woodworkers, and even at the peak of Swedish immigration in 1880, Swedes in skilled occupations outnumbered those doing unskilled work. A great many of the Swedes were skilled in making wood products and they quickly found jobs in Jamestown’s furniture factories, where many operations were still performed by hand. By 1900, the Swedes generally made up a majority of the work force in furniture factories owned by native Americans, and in companies owned by the Swedes, almost all the workers were Swedish.

There were two main reasons for this change in Swedish occupational patterns. First, there was a change in the origins of Swedish immigrants. In 1880 most Swedish immigrants were peasants or rural craftsmen. By 1920, Swedish immigration included a larger proportion of factory workers with industrial skills. Second, among Swedes already settled in Jamestown there was growing occupational diversity. Wooden furniture making had given the Swedes a firm footing in skilled occupations and during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Swedes were able to branch out into other skills.

The first Swedish immigrant manufacturers in Jamestown also began by producing wooden furniture. Shortly after the Civil War, Swedes in Jamestown began going into business as grocers, tailors, cobblers and restaurant and saloon keepers. The first Swedish manufacturing concern in the city was a door factory, founded in 1869 by Augustus Johnson. During the 1870’s there was a rapid growth in the number of Swedish enterprises. Augustus Johnson became a partner in Jamestown’s oldest furniture company in 1870, when the Breed Furniture Company became the Breed-Johnson Furniture Company. In 1870 Olaf and August Linblad and P. J. Berquist began making custom-made furniture. C. A. Ahlstrom founded his piano factory in 1875 and in 1881 the Norquist brothers launched their first furniture business.

During the half century between the Civil War and World War I, Swedes in Jamestown founded at least seventy-five furniture companies. Most of them were small, and many of them were short-lived, but at least half of the forty furniture factories in Jamestown in 1920 belonged to the Swedes. Many of these companies were founded by Swedish craftsmen who saved money out of their wages, pooled their limited capital and took out bank loans in order to go into business. Some of Jamestown’s most successful Swedish manufacturers, including Charles A. Ahlstrom, Augustus Johnson and Evald B. Seaburg, had been woodworkers in furniture factories before going into business for themselves.

Swedes went into the furniture industry, not only because many of them were skilled woodworkers, but because, like native Americans, they found that it was relatively inexpensive to start a furniture factory. The A. C. Norquist Company was founded in 1881, when August and Charles Norquist, with $175 capital, began making furniture in the loft of their father’s barn. As business grew, they built a factory and by 1920 the A. C. Norquist Furniture Company employed 125 men, while another member of the family, Frank O. Norquist, had started two more furniture companies. The Level Furniture Company was founded by Swedish immigrants in 1905. At first the company employed only twenty-five men and made a cheap grade of bedroom and parlor furniture. By 1920, however, the company employed 275 men and produced better grades of furniture. The Atlas Furniture Company was founded in 1883 by Swedish immigrant workers with $1,400 capital. The Dahlstrom Metallic Door Company was funded by Charles P. Dahlstrom, an immigrant mechanical engineer, with the financial support of Swedish businessmen in Jamestown. He built his first factory on one floor of an old factory building in 1904. By 1920, the company comprised ten buildings and employed 500 men.

By 1920, the Swedes formed a considerable proportion of Jamestown’s business and professional elite. Of 425 prominent citizens the city listed in John P. Down’s History of Chautauqua County, one-third were of Swedish birth or parentage. The Swedes made up 40 percent of 193 business leaders born after 1850 and nearly half of these Swedish business leaders were furniture makers.

The furniture industry, therefore, not only provided jobs for Swedish workers, but also provided upward social and economic mobility for those who went into business. This industry became the means by which Swedes entered the city’s business elite. The Swedish manufacturers later diversified and founded such companies as Dahlstrom Metallic Door Company, Crescent Tool Company and Jamestown Metal Equipment Company which produced, respectively, metallic doors, crescent wrenches, and automobile heaters and radiators. In 1910, Swedish businessmen organized the Swedish-American National Bank of Jamestown of which several stockholders and directors were furniture manufacturers.

The Swedish people, through their contributions to the furniture industry, both as workers and entrepreneurs, helped make Jamestown a major center of the furniture industry. The role of the Swedes in Jamestown was not unique. They also helped make Rockford Illinois a major furniture manufacturing center and they contributed greatly to the growth of the emory grinding industry in Worcester, Massachusetts.

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Black Locust: The Tree on Which the US Was Built

Wesley Greene is garden historian for the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. This article is adapted from one that originally appeared as "Black Locust: an All American Tree" in The Interpreter. Greene contributed this article to Live Science's Expert Voices: Op-Ed & Insights.

As the strongest timber in North America, black locust helped build Jamestown and hardened the navy that decided the War of 1812, yet today few Americans have heard of it. The nation's taste in ornamental trees has changed fairly dramatically since the first street plantings were made in Williamsburg, Virginia, in the 1730s.

The catalpas that line the town's Palace Green, which was one of the first examples of a municipal street planting in British North America, are seldom planted today and are considered by most horticulturists as little more than weed trees. [Quaking Aspen: Trees of the Mountain West ]

The paper mulberry, whose twisted trunks elicit so many comments from visitors, was one of the first Asian trees brought into cultivation as an ornamental tree in North America. John Clayton first described the paper mulberry in "Flora Virginica" (1762), and by the end of the century, it was a common component of the Virginia plantation landscape. Today, it is nearly impossible to even find a paper mulberry for sale at a nursery.

The tulip poplars (Liriodendron tulipifera) that were found by the homes of many of the 18th-century Virginia gentry have been returned to the forests from which they came, seldom planted in residential landscapes, and the Lombardy poplars planted by Thomas Jefferson along Washington D.C.'s Pennsylvania Avenue (called "the Grand Avenue" at the time) have largely disappeared from the American landscape.

Black locust in early America

Of all the trees favored by our colonial predecessors, both as an ornamental and as a utilitarian tree, the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is perhaps the most significant. It is first mentioned by William Strachey, a member of the 1609 resupply mission to Jamestown . In "The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania" (1610), he describes it as "a kind of low tree which beares [sic] a cod like to the peas, but nothing so big: we take yt [sic] to be locust."

The name stuck, but it is interesting to speculate what Strachey meant by a locust. The locust tree of Europe is the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). Some believe this tree, rather than the insect, was the food that sustained John the Baptist in the wilderness and gave it the common name of St. John's Bread.

It is doubtful that Strachey ever saw a locust or carob tree, as this Mediterranean plant will not grow in England, but he may have seen the branches of the carob pictured in signs above the doors of goldsmiths as the large, uniform seeds of the carob provided the original carat weight. Both the black locust and carob trees are members of the large Fabaceae, or pea family, and have similar leaves, and this was probably the source of the confusion.

Botanists have suggested that the black locust is one of the few examples of a tree exported by the American Indians from the mountains to the coastal plain for domestic use, and by the time the first colonists arrived, they found them planted "by the dwellings of the savages" (Strachey, 1610).

The American Indians used the locust to form their bows. This use is recorded in "The Natural History" (c.1730), attributed to William Byrd II: "Locust tree is a very straight, tall and rather thick tree whose wood is the toughest in all the world, and almost cannot be broken thus the savages usually make all their bows from it." Some historians question the authorship of "The Natural History" and have pointed to parallels between this work and John Lawson's "History of North Carolina" (1714). Though Lawson was familiar with the tree, his description of it was quite different: "The Locust for its enduring the Weather, is chosen for all sorts of Works that are exposed thereto…We have little or none of this wood in Pampticough," he wrote.

The extreme resistance to rotting is perhaps the black locust's best-known attribute, and it was on poles of black locust that the first buildings in Jamestown were erected. One hundred years after the founding of Jamestown, Mark Catesby, author of "Natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahamas Islands" visited the site of the original settlement and recorded the following: "Being obliged to run up with all the expedition possible such little houses as might serve them to dwell in, till they could find leisure to build larger and more convenient ones, they erected each of their little hovels on four only of these trees, pitched into the ground to support the four corners many of these posts are yet standing, and not only the parts underground, but likewise those above, still perfectly sound." The black locust is the most durable American wood for ground contact, and it is what is used to line the beds at the Colonial Garden in Williamsburg.

Europe's first black locust

The genus Robinia is named for Jean Robin, a Parisian apothecary appointed as the king's arborist to Henry III, a post he retained under Henry IV and Louis XIII. In 1597, Robin is given the commission to lay out the garden for the Faculty of Medicine, which later became the famous Jardin des Plantes in Paris.

Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus credits Robin as the first European to plant the black locust in Europe,.giving the introduction date of 1601. Linnaeus also renamed the locust from Acacia Americana Robinia to its present Robinia pseudoacacia, in Robin's honor. The original tree, transplanted several times, was alive as late as 1963 in the gardens of the Museé d' Histoire Naturelle in Paris.

However, it may not have been Robin after all who first brought the black locust to Europe. He does not list it in his "Catalogus stirpium" (1601), nor is it listed by his son, Vespasien, in his "Histoire des plantes" (1620). The first French citation for the tree comes in Jacques-Philippe Cornut's "Canadensium plantarum historia" (1635), well after the date Linnaeus gave for the original planting.

The black locust is listed as "Locusta Virginiana arbor" in the catalog "Plantarum in Horto" (1634) compiled by the Tradescants — father and son gardeners, both named John, who were botanists and collectors, housing their collections at The Ark in Lambeth near London. John Parkinson recorded the black locust in "Theatrum Botanicum" (1640) and wrote that he had seen "a very great tree of exceeding height with Master Tradescant," suggesting that the tree had been planted quite a bit earlier.

Regardless of who first brought the tree to Europe, it quickly becomes a favorite ornamental tree for its delicate foliage and its large white, wisterialike blooms that produce one of the sweetest fragrances of any landscape tree.

At the time black locust was widely admired in Europe, it was equally popular in the United States. Virginian Landon Carter records on May Day, 1766, "I have hitherto my Locust trees to bloom in April, but now their leaves just begin to shade the trees with green."

The black locust is also given a prominent place at Mount Vernon by George Washington, who records in August 1776, "It will not do to Plant the Locust Trees at the North end of the House till the Framing is up."

Its popularity as a landscape tree only seems to increase in the 19th century. William Cobbett — an English publicist, author, entrepreneur and all-around cantankerous historical figure — grew black locust on his farm in New York from 1817 to 1819. When he returned to England (after libeling Dr. Benjamin Rush for killing George Washington with excessive bleeding and purging), he brought with him bags of locust seeds (as well as the corpse of Thomas Paine.

In England, Cobbett is credited with promoting the sale of more than 1 million of these trees. As late as 1946, A.L. Howard records the following in his book, "Trees in Britain": "The evidence of Cobbett's activity is very marked in the gardens around London and all other cities and towns throughout Great Britain."

In Virginia, Edwin Booth planted a memorial grove of black locust in his Carter's Grove plantation in 1881 to commemorate the Yorktown centennial. In 1892, Charles Sprague Sargent, first director of Harvard's Arnold Arboretum, wrote the following in "The Silva of North America": "No other North American tree has been so generally planted for timber and ornament in the United States and Europe and no inhabitant of the American forest has been the subject of so voluminous a literature."

A value beyond price

The attributes of this tree are seemingly endless — for example, its durability in the ground, and the wonderful fragrance of the flowers from which bees make excellent honey. It has the highest beam strength of any North American tree, and it is used to stabilize erosion-prone slopes and to reclaim mining sites. It fixes nitrogen in its roots, is extremely resistant to pollution and, for this reason, was planted along rail lines in England. The roots have a sweet licorice flavor, and a cord of seasoned locust has the same Btu potential as a ton of anthracite coal — the highest fuel value of any American tree.

It is ironic that this thoroughly American tree goes by all European names: "locust" rather than the carob tree Robinia, in memory of a French man and the species name pseudoacacia, or "false acacia," in comparison to another European tree of the pea family.

The tree that won a war

And yet we could make the case that the black locust helped the United States win the War of 1812. The decisive battle of that war was fought on Lake Champlain. On Sept. 11, 1814, the American fleet, commanded by Commodore Thomas Macdonough, engaged the British fleet, commanded by Capt. George Downie (killed in action), in Plattsburg Bay.

The Americans won a decisive victory, essentially stopping the invasion forces, led by Sir George Prevost. Prevost was recalled to England to face a court martial for his actions but died before the trial was convened.

One of the reasons circulated for the British Navy's defeat was that English ships were built with oak nails (the large pins or trunnels that hold the wooden members of a ship together), while American ships were built with locust nails. As a result, when the cannonballs from the American fleet hit the British ships, those ships came apart. But when the shot from the British ships hit the American fleet, their ships held together — and that is the reason they lost the Battle of Plattsburg Bay.

The very next year, the British began importing thousands of locust nails to refit the British Navy. By 1820, the Philadelphia market alone was exporting between 50,000 and 100,000 locust nails to England per year. As locust continues in export, even to this day, some would say we have been selling weapons to the enemy ever since.

Follow all of the Expert Voices issues and debates — and become part of the discussion — on Facebook, Twitter and Google+. The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the publisher. This version of the article was originally published on Live Science.

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