Brazil History - History

Brazil History - History

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With an estimated 170 million inhabitants, Brazil has the largest population in Latin America and ranks sixth in the world. The majority live in the south-central area, which includes the industrial cities of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte. Urban growth has been rapid; by 2000, 81% of the total population were living in urban areas. Rapid growth has aided economic development but also has created serious social, environmental, and political problems for major cities.

Four major groups make up the Brazilian population: the Portuguese, who colonized Brazil in the 16th century; Africans brought to Brazil as slaves; various other European, Middle Eastern, and Asian immigrant groups who have settled in Brazil since the mid-19th century; and indigenous people of Tupi and Guarani language stock. Intermarriage between the Portuguese and indigenous people or slaves was common. Although the major European ethnic stock of Brazil was once Portuguese, subsequent waves of immigration have contributed to a diverse ethnic and cultural heritage.

From 1875 until 1960, about 5 million Europeans emigrated to Brazil, settling mainly in the four southern states of Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Immigrants have come mainly from Italy, Germany, Spain, Japan, Poland, and the Middle East. The largest Japanese community outside Japan is in Sao Paulo. Despite class distinctions, national identity is strong, and racial friction is a relatively new phenomenon. Indigenous full-blooded Indians, located mainly in the northern and western border regions and in the upper Amazon Basin, constitute less than 1% of the population. Their numbers are declining as contact with the outside world and commercial expansion into the interior increase. Brazilian Government programs to establish reservations and to provide other forms of assistance have existed for years but are controversial and often ineffective.

Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas. About 80% of all Brazilians belong to the Roman Catholic Church; most others are Protestant or follow practices derived from African religions.

Brazil was claimed for Portugal in 1500 by Pedro Alvares Cabral. It was ruled from Lisbon as a colony until 1808, when the royal family, having fled from Napoleon's army, established the seat of Portuguese Government in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil became a kingdom under Dom Joao VI, who returned to Portugal in 1821. His son declared Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822, and became emperor with the title of Dom Pedro I. His son, Dom Pedro II, ruled from 1831 to 1889, when a federal republic was established in a coup by Deodoro da Fonseca, Marshal of the army. Slavery had been abolished a year earlier by the Regent Princess Isabel while Dom Pedro II was in Europe.

From 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional democracy, with the presidency alternating between the dominant states of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais. This period ended with a military coup that placed Getulio Vargas, a civilian, in the presidency; Vargas remained as dictator until 1945. From 1945 to 1961, Eurico Dutra, Vargas, Juscelino Kubitschek, and Janio Quadros were elected presidents. When Quadros resigned in 1961, he was succeeded by Vice President Joao Goulart.

Goulart's years in office were marked by high inflation, economic stagnation, and the increasing influence of radical political elements. The armed forces, alarmed by these developments, staged a coup on March 31, 1964. The coup leaders chose as president Humberto Castello Branco, followed by Arthur da Costa e Silva (1967-69), Emilio Garrastazu Medici (1968-74), and Ernesto Geisel (1974-79) all of whom were senior army officers. Geisel began a democratic opening that was continued by his successor, Gen. Joao Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo (1979-85). Figueiredo not only permitted the return of politicians exiled or banned from political activity during the 1960s and 1970s, but also allowed them to run for state and federal offices in 1982.

At the same time, an electoral college consisting of all members of congress and six delegates chosen from each state continued to choose the president. In January 1985, the electoral college voted Tancredo Neves from the opposition Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB) into office as President. However, Neves became ill in March and died a month later. His Vice President, former Senator Jose Sarney, became President upon Neves' death. Brazil completed its transition to a popularly elected government in 1989, when Fernando Collor de Mello won 53% of the vote in the first direct presidential election in 29 years. In 1992, a major corruption scandal led to the impeachment and ultimate resignation of President Collor. Vice President Itamar Franco took his place and governed for the remainder of Collor's term culminating in the October 3, 1994 presidential elections, when Fernando Henrique Cardoso was elected President with 54% of the vote. He took office January 1, 1995 and was re-elected in October 1998 for a second 4-year term. Presidential elections will next be held in October 2002.

President Cardoso has sought to establish the basis for long-term stability and growth and to reduce Brazil's extreme socioeconomic imbalances. His proposals to Congress include constitutional amendments to open the Brazilian economy to greater foreign participation and to implement sweeping reforms--including social security, government administration, and taxation--to reduce excessive public sector spending and improve government efficiency. a

Military history of Brazil

The military history of Brazil comprises centuries of armed actions in the territory encompassing modern Brazil, and the role of the Brazilian Armed Forces in conflicts and peacekeeping worldwide. For several hundreds of years, the area was the site of intertribal wars of indigenous peoples. Beginning in the 16th century, the arrival of Portuguese explorers led to conflicts with the aboriginal peoples a notable example being the revolt of the Tamoio Confederation. Sporadic revolts of African slaves also marked the colonial period, with a notable rebellion led by Zumbi dos Palmares. Conflicts were encountered with other European nations as well – two notable examples being the France Antarctique affair, and a conflict with the Netherlands in the early 17th century over control of much of the Northeast. Although Portugal retained its possessions during conflicts with other nations, it lost control of the colony after the Brazilian war of Independence, which led to the establishment of the Empire of Brazil.

Brazil's history after independence is marked by early territorial wars against its neighboring countries which have greatly affected the formation of current political boundaries. For example, the Cisplatine War, fought over the present day territory of Uruguay established that nation's independence. Brazil was also affected in its infancy by minor – and ultimately, unsuccessful – revolts in the Northern provinces. An armed conflict with Paraguay led to an establishment of Brazil's current border with that nation after a decisive victory. Internal conflicts between the executive government and the power of wealthy landowners finally led to the abolishment of the Brazilian Empire, and the rise of the current republican government.

Modern activity includes participation in both World Wars along with internal struggles due to military rule, and participation in right wing military operations, such as Operation Condor. Recent developments include participation in peacekeeping efforts after the 2004 Haiti rebellion.

The Confederacy Made Its Last Stand in Brazil

By the time the Civil War ended in 1865, much of the South lay in ruins, physically, economically and socially. Fears of Yankee reprisals and racial conflict percolated through society. Enslaved people had been freed Confederate President Jefferson Davis was imprisoned. For William H. Norris, a former Alabama state senator and staunch Confederate, it was all too much to bear.

Rather than rejoin the United States, he and a son traveled to southeastern Brazil in late 1865 and purchased about 500 acres of rolling hills and reddish soil that reminded them of Alabama. They then bought three enslaved workers, planted cotton, sent for the rest of the family and proceeded to live as if the Confederacy hadn’t just collapsed.

The Norris family was not alone in their desire to avoid Yankee rule. In the decade after the Civil War, roughly 10,000 Southerners left the United States, with the majority going to Brazil, where slavery was still legal. (Others went to such places as Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela, Honduras, Canada and Egypt.) Though hardships prompted most to come right back, descendants of these so-called Confederados maintain a presence in Brazil even today.

The house of the Norris family, the first American confederate family in Brazil. (Credit: Public Domain)

Amid the post-Civil War chaos, several countries tried to entice Southerners, largely for political and agricultural reasons. In Mexico, for example, Emperor Maximilian I (soon to be executed before a firing squad) awarded land and tax breaks and hired Confederate oceanographer Matthew Fontaine Maury to be his “imperial commissioner of immigration.” In Venezuela, the authorities also provided land and tax breaks. And in Egypt, an Ottoman viceroy brought over ex-Confederate and ex-Union officers to help invade Ethiopia.

The best incentives, however, came from Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II, a Confederate ally who had sheltered and supplied Southern ships during the Civil War. He offered land to the Confederados for as little as 22 cents an acre, subsidized their transport to Brazil, provided temporary lodging upon arrival, promised them quick citizenship and, at times, even personally greeted them as they disembarked.

Much of the Southern media opposed the exodus, as did Robert E. Lee, who believed all efforts should go toward rebuilding the South. But Dom Pedro counterattacked by taking out advertisements in U.S. newspapers. Meanwhile, certain pro-colonization Southerners produced glowing reports that portrayed Brazil as a tropical paradise. “Of course, when they got there, it was nothing like what they thought it would be,” says Cyrus B. “Sonny” Dawsey, a professor emeritus at Auburn University who co-authored and edited the book, The Confederados: Old South Immigrants in Brazil.

Dom Pedro seemingly had two main motives for luring in Confederados, the first of which was agricultural. “He saw these people as bringing new technologies and new abilities in farming to Brazil, which in fact they did,” Dawsey says, pointing out that they introduced watermelons and pecans into their new country, along with state-of-the-art plows.

Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years from 1831-1889. (Credit: Universal History Archive/Getty Images)

Furthermore, “it was public policy in Brazil to whiten society by bringing in Europeans and European-descended Americans,” says Luciana da Cruz Brito, a history professor at the Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia, who studies slavery and abolition.

At the time, slavery remained legal in Brazil, which over the course of its history imported more than 10 times as many enslaved people as the United States. In fact, it did not ban the practice until 1888, becoming the last country in the Western Hemisphere to do so. “In 1865, Brazil barely even had an abolitionist movement,” Brito says.

Her research shows that some Southern immigrants to Brazil took enslaved Africa Americans with them in disregard of U.S. and Brazilian law. Others bought new enslaved people upon arrival, such as former Alabama state representative Charles G. Gunter, whose family’s letters tell of his acquisition of 38 enslaved workers in Brazil. The letters also mention another Confederado, who acquired a sugar plantation with 130 enslaved workers.

Descendants of the original Confederados tend to play down their ancestors’ ties to slavery. Yet, according to Brito, the Confederados were largely attracted to Brazil both because they wanted to own enslaved people and because they believed the institution of slavery would maintain strict racial hierarchies. �sed on the documentation that I read,” Brito says, “I have no doubt that they came to Brazil because of slavery.”

A slave auction in Brazil. (Credit: Biblioteca Ambrosiana/Getty Images)

Still, these American expatriates never came close to replicating the large slaveholding estates of the Deep South. “The folks that moved to Brazil were not the wealthy plantation owners,” Dawsey says. “They were middle-income farmers, some were doctors, some were schoolteachers, some were machinists.” He adds that many �longed to families that had traditionally been pioneers on the frontier,” and that in his view they weren’t 𠇍iehard slaveholders.”

Whatever their reasons for immigrating, the Confederados struggled to adapt to their new homes. In many of the Brazilian settlements, the climate and soil were ill-suited to the types of crops they wanted to grow, such as cotton. Disease, insect infestations and internal power struggles likewise took a toll, as did a lack of transportation infrastructure that made it difficult for them to get their crops to market. Political support also dried up, as Dom Pedro became distracted by an economic downturn, his country’s participation in the gruesome War of the Triple Alliance and his own worsening health.

At the same time, language and religious barriers—the overwhelmingly Protestant Confederados weren’t even allowed to bury their dead in the local Catholic cemeteries𠅌ontributed to a sense of isolation. Dawsey says, “You read the letters, and they were just homesick, not just for their family members, but also for the way of life, things like church and food.”

What’s more, Brazil’s racial norms proved perplexing, particularly the more relaxed attitudes toward interracial marriage, the integrated army and police force, and the social mobility permitted to free blacks. Plus, as Brito points out, 𠇊 lot of the people who were considered white in Brazil were considered mulatto by the Confederates.”

Brazil: History

Topics include Transportation, Dining Scene, For Foreign Visitors & more!

During a period North-east of Brasil were ilegally colonizated by ducthes & in Rio by french

Brazil got its name from a tree which is red inside like a flame (flame:braza - brazil). Today the tree is protected by federal laws.

The portugueses starts the extraction of the trees all over litoral for to sold in Europe. This period as known as first extraction era. Salvador became the first capital of the new Portuguese colony. Portuguese's settlers started to produce sugar and the northeast of Brazil became a wealthy corner of the world. During that time, Portugal started a forced dislocation of millions of africans to the new world for works as slaves. They also started a form of territorial administration known as Hereditary Captaincy. The system of inheritance was extinguished by the Marquis of Pombal in 1759.

The second extraction era was gold, during mostly all XVIII century. It makes Vila Rica (Ouro Preto's former name) became one of the most important cities in the world with Rococo, a genre of Barroco style, financed by the gold exploraction. The Inconfidência Mineira of 1789 was a Brazilian independence movement. It was affected by the movement of the thirteen nort east colonies in North America independence, a in particularly, very impressedin the intellectual elite living in the captaincy of Minas Gerais.

1808 Portugal was made to be invaded by Napoleon forces. In deed, in follow year the Iberian Wars destroyed both Portugal & Spain.The Portugese royal family and government were relocate to Brazil under British protection. They made Rio de Janeiro the capital of Brasil & Portuguese colonies overseas. Dom Joao open the ports for all friendly Nations. Brazil make intense marked with England. He also creates the Botanic Garden & Banco do Brasil.

1821 king Don Joao IV returns to Lisbon, leaving his son, Dom Pedro1 (Dom Pedro VI in Portugal) as regent. In the follow year Dom Pedro1 leads a campaign for independence, first recognized by North Americans in the same year.

1823 Dom Pedro1 signs the Constitution of Brazil, based on principles of French Revolution. 1831 Dom Pedro travel back to Portugal, left Brazil be governed by Ministers til Dom Pedro II, the only royal born in American soil, 1940 get enough prepared for the post. During the his imperial era, many Germans, Austrians & Italians families immigrated to Brazil running way from the poverty & in-salubrity of the life in Europe. Some of then worked in the coffee plantations replacing the slavery which was in decline. Most of these Europeans immigrants came also with know how to industry. They started the industrialization in South east & south of Brazil.

1888 Princess Isabel, the first in succession of the Emperor Dom Pedro II, signs the Lei Aurea, abolishing the slavery in Brazil for all.

1889 Dom Pedro II is overthrown and a republic is introduced by Marshall Deodoro da Fonseca.

1930 Getulio Vargas elected president by universal suffrage. 1936 a famous writer Monteiro Lobato campaigned against the president in Sao Paulo, with book editions, for alert the population about the magnificent benefits to Petroleum exploration. Mintier Lobato wins in the culture industry & the petrol adventure started. Getulio holds power until 1954 when he suicide in the president palace in Rio de Janeiro. He was twice elected president.

1960 Juscelino Kubitschek made Brasília, the capital in the center of Brazil. Designed by Lucio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer & Burle Marx. Bossa Nova sound made a huge success's world wide contemplates jazz, Debussy & Samba, naturally.

The left winger Joao Goulart in 1964 was forced to retire by a "coup d'etat" leaded by military forces. Those men rule Brazil for 2 decades with despicable methods left the Union in bad conditions. 1980 under the pressure by civilians, the government gave amnesty for political prisoners. Brazilians soup opera is sold to all countries in the red block.

1985 Tancredo Neves becomes the first civilian president in 21 years, although he dies before taking office. deputy Jose Sarney takes over, and successfully negotiates the tricky transition between military and public rule. 1989 elections were held. The untrained Brazilians vote for the first time in 30 years for the president. The conservative Fernando Collor de Mello wins. 1994 Fernando Henrique Cardoso becomes president for 2 terms, and spends most of his time fire fighting the economy to stop it's downward spiral. 2002 the people elects Luis Inacio da Silva (known as ‘Lula’) a left wing trade unionist.

Brazil: A History of Change

Brazil is the largest country in South America and plays an important role in the world, yet many are unfamiliar with its history and culture. Brazil: A History of Change draws students into an often surprising and overlooked history. Like the United States, Brazil was colonized, gained its independence, and eventually overshadowed its colonizer. Like the United States, Brazil is a country of immigrants with a history of slavery that shaped its growth and affects it to the present day. Yet Brazil: A History of Change helps students see Brazil as a unique, dynamic country with an important history, diverse culture, and its own path of development. Brazil: A History of Change gives students an overview of Brazil’s history and traces its legacies through the present. The unit is divided into three parts. Each part includes:

This unit also includes an Options Role Play as the key lesson and additional synthesis lessons that allow students to synthesize new knowledge for assessment. You do not need to use the entire unit feel free to select what suits your classroom needs.

Preview this unit. Preview includes the Table of Contents for the Student Text and the Teacher Resource Book as well as a student reading excerpt and one lesson plan.

LGBTQ History and Movements in Brazil

An Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Queer (LGBTQ) movement emerged in the late 1970s during the Brazilian military dictatorship (1964–1985), as the country slowly moved toward democracy. The “Homosexual Movement,” as it was called at the time, along with feminist and black organizations that formed during the same period, fought for an end to discrimination, equality, and full rights. Since then, LGBTQ activists have challenged stereotypes about lesbians, gay men, and trans people and won some important victories, such as same-sex marriage, legal recognition of trans people’s rights to legalize their gender identity, and constitutional protection against hate speech, although discrimination and violence against LGBTQ people is still widespread. The movement challenged traditional Catholic Church notions of homosexuality as a sin, medico-legal discourses that considered same-sex and nontraditional gender performances as sicknesses, conservative political ideologies that privileged the heteronormative family, and sectors of the Left that considered homosexuality a product of “bourgeois decadence.” Built upon a long history of resistance to impositions of compulsory heterosexuality and normative gender roles, lesbians, gay men, and trans people formed diverse communities during the second half of the 20th century that offered important support networks. They also appropriated public spaces for dissident sexualities and gender performances. Carnival became a privileged site for subverting traditional gender roles. Gay activists pushed the government to change initial conservative policies dealing with HIV/AIDS, and Brazil became an international model for effectively combating the disease. Lesbians fought within the feminist movement for acceptance and against social norms that marginalized them. Trans people gained considerable respect and certain rights. The LGBTQ movement remains diverse in practice, composition, and ideologies. A recent reactionary backlash, which has united conservative Catholics, evangelical Christians, and right-wing political forces, is trying to undo the advances made since the late 1970s in favor of social toleration, respect, and equality.



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Brazilian people: origins, history, culture and traditions

by VxMag


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T he Brazilian people are known for their joy, for their love of Carnival and for their passion for football. But who are the Brazilians? What is their origin and what is their race? Before the arrival of the first Europeans in the year 1500, between 3 and 4 million natives lived in this territory. But with the arrival of the Portuguese everything changed. With them came African slaves and later emigrants from regions as diverse as Spain, Germany, Italy, Syria, Lebanon, China or Japan. Contrary to what happened in the United States, the marriage between different ethnicities was very common in Brazil, thus giving rise to a greater racial diversity. Discover the origin of the Brazilian people, their history, their tribes and their races.

A) Native Brazilian People

Native Brazilian People

Before the arrival of the Portuguese to Brazil there were already several indigenous groups inhabiting the Brazilian territory. In view of this variety, the Brazilian natives were classified according to the different languages, which are: Tupi, macro-jê, aruak and karib. Note below the characteristics of the languages ​​and indigenous groups that speak them:

A1) Tupi

The Tupi-speaking indigenous groups were the Tamoio, Guarani, Tupiniquim, Tabajara, etc. tribes. All these tribes were in the Brazilian coastal area. These were the first Indians to have contact with the Portuguese who arrived here. These tribes were specialists in hunting, great fishermen and they developed well the harvest of fruits.

A2) Macro-jê

They were rarely found on the coast. With the exception of some tribes in the Serra do Mar, they were mainly found in the central plateau. In this context, they stood out the tribes or groups: timbira, aimoré, goitacaz, carijó, carajá, bororó and botocudo. These indigenous groups lived in the vicinity of the springs of streams and rivers, they lived basically from the harvest of fruits and roots and hunting. These groups only came into contact with whites in the seventeenth century, when colonizers entered the interior of the country.

A3) Karib

Indigenous groups that inhabited the region that today comprises the states of Amapá and Roraima, also called the Low Amazon. The main tribes are the atroari and vaimiri – these were very aggressive and anthropophagic, meaning that when the natives defeated their enemies, they ate them believing that they could absorb the qualities of those who were defeated. The contact of these tribes with the white people occurred in the seventeenth century, with the religious missions and the dispersion of the army through the territory.

A4) Aruak

Its main tribes were aruã, pareci, cunibó, guana and terena. They are located in some regions of the Amazon and in the island of Marajó. The main activity was ceramic handicrafts.

B) White Brazilian People

The great majority of the white Brazilian people are of European origin (or are descendants of these). In the colonial period they emigrated to Brazil: Spaniards, Dutch, French, besides Italians and Slavs. The southern region is home to a large part of the whites of the Brazilian population, as these immigrants occupied this area. The concept of “white” in Brazil is different from that prevailing in other countries.

White Brazilian People

In the United States, people of European descent are historically considered white. In Brazil, this does not exist. According to a 2000 survey conducted in Rio de Janeiro, 52% of respondents who classified themselves as white admitted that they had African or indigenous ancestors. Thus, in Brazil, it is normal for people to know that they have black or Indian ancestry, and even if they see themselves as white.

B1) Portuguese Brazilian People

According to the Brazilian Constitution, the Portuguese people have a special status in Brazil. Article 12, first paragraph of the Constitution, grants citizens of Portugal, with permanent residence in Brazil “the rights inherent to Brazilians”, excluding the constitutional prerogatives of a Brazilian born. Requirements for granting equality are: place of habitual residence (permanent), age of majority and application to the Ministry of Justice.

Portuguese Brazilian People

In Brazil, the Portuguese may demand equal treatment with respect to civil rights, and in addition, they can request that political rights granted to Brazilians be granted (except the exclusive rights for born Brazilians). In the latter case, this requires a minimum of three years of permanent residence. The use of citizenship by non-Brazilian citizens (in this case, Portuguese) is a rare exception to the principle that nationality is a sine qua non condition for citizenship, granted to the Portuguese – with reciprocal treatment for Brazilians in Portugal – due to the historical relationship between the two countries.

B2) European Brazilian People

The first Europeans to arrive in Brazil were the Portuguese. Later, around the nineteenth century, the Brazilian government promoted the entry of large numbers of European and Asian immigrants. In the first half of the twentieth century, at least four million immigrants landed in Brazil. Among the main European human groups, the following stand out: Portuguese, Spanish, Italian and German.

European Brazilian People

Whites have always been a minority throughout the colonial period, never exceeding 30% of the population as a whole, while caboclos, negros, mulatos and Indians made up the remaining 70%. Despite this, the white minority has always enjoyed privileges granted by the Portuguese Crown. The white settlers of Brazil were aware of their numerical inferiority in comparison to the population of slave or free color and lived fearful of a possible “black rebellion”, similar to what would happen in Haiti at the end of century XIX. The position of whites as a dominant sector of colonial society was strengthened by royal decrees and local laws.

C) Pardo Brazilian People

In Brazil, Pardo is an ethnic/skin color category used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in the Brazilian censuses. The term “pardo” is a complex one, more commonly used to refer to Brazilians of mixed ethnic ancestries. Pardo Brazilians represent a wide range of skin colours and backgrounds. They are typically a mixture of white Brazilian, Afro-Brazilian and Native Brazilian. Pardo has been used, more narrowly, to indicate shades of skin color between white and black.

Pardo Brazilian People

The earliest record of the word ‘pardo’ in the history of Brazil is found in the letter of Pero Vaz de Caminha during the arrival of the Portuguese to Brazil in 1500, led by the explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral. He related to the king of Portugal, D. Manuel, that the Indians were “brown, somewhat reddish, with good faces and good noses, well made.” In a succinct way, most Brazilians who qualify as pardos use the same criteria as those who were classified as mestizos in the old censuses: they are people of mixed descent, as a result of five hundred years of miscegenation among Indians, whites and blacks.

D) Afro Brazilian People

Brazil received about 38% of all African slaves who were brought to America. The total number of sub-Saharan Africans who have arrived in Brazil has very different estimates: some cite more than three million people, another four million. According to an estimate, from 1501 to 1866, 5,532,118 Africans were shipped in Africa to Brazil, of which 4,864,374 arrived alive (667,696 people died on slave ships during the Africa-Brazil route). Brazil was by far the country that received the most slaves in the world.

Afro Brazilian People

One of the main characteristics of the Afro-Brazilian culture is that there is no cultural homogeneity throughout the national territory. The distinct origin of the Africans brought to Brazil forced them to appropriations and adaptations so that their cultural practices and representations survived. Thus, it is common to find the African cultural heritage represented in new cultural practices. African manifestations, rituals and customs were forbidden. They only stopped being persecuted by the law in the decade of 1930, during the New State of Getúlio Vargas. The two most prominent and influential groups in Brazil are: the Bantos, brought from Angola, Congo and Mozambique the Sudanese, from West Africa, Sudan and the Guinea Coast.

E) Asian Brazilian People

Brazil received many immigrants from Asia, from both the Middle East and East Asia. The first Asian immigrants who arrived in Brazil were a small number of Chinese (3,000) during the colonial period. However significant immigration from Asia to Brazil began in the late nineteenth century when immigration from Lebanon and Syria became important. Most Asian Brazilians have roots in East Asia, most of them Japanese. The first Japanese immigrants arrived in Brazil in 1908. Until the 1950s, more than 250,000 Japanese immigrated to Brazil. Currently, the Japanese population in Brazil is estimated at 1.5 million people.

E1) Japanese Brazilian People

The end of feudalism in Japan generated great poverty in the rural population, so many Japanese began to emigrate in search of better living conditions. By the 1930s, Japanese industrialisation had significantly boosted the population. However, prospects for Japanese people to migrate to other countries were limited. The US had banned non-white immigration from some parts of the world on the basis that they would not integrate into society this Exclusion Clause, of the 1924 Immigration Act, specifically targeted the Japanese. At the same time in Australia, the White Australia Policy prevented the immigration of non-whites to Australia.

Japanese Brazilian People

In 1907, the Brazilian and the Japanese governments signed a treaty permitting Japanese migration to Brazil. This was due to the decrease in the Italian immigration to Brazil and a new labor shortage on the coffee plantations. The first Japanese immigrants (790 people – mostly farmers) came to Brazil in 1908 on the Kasato Maru. About half of these immigrants came from southern Okinawa. They travelled from the Japanese port of Kobe via the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa. Many of them became owners of coffee plantations. In the first seven years, 3,434 more Japanese families (14,983 people) arrived. The beginning of World War I in 1914 started a boom in Japanese migration to Brazil such that between 1917 and 1940 over 164,000 Japanese came to Brazil, 75% of them going to São Paulo, where most of the coffee plantations were located.

Questions about the Brazilian People

1. Are Brazilians a mixed race?

The answer to this question is not simple because the definition of “white” used by Brazilians is not the same as in other countries. 43% of Brazilians identify themselves as “pardos”, the term used in Brazil to define someone of mixed race. Almost half of Brazil’s population identifies itself as white, even though it has close ascents of other races or ethnicities. The miscegenation was very intense in Brazil for cultural reasons (the Portuguese are less adverse to interracial relations than the English, for example) and for practical reasons. The colonization of Brazil was done mainly by single men and these, if they wanted to have a family, their only option would be to choose native or black women.

2. Are Brazilians considered Portuguese?

A large part of the Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry but that does not mean that they are Portuguese. However, both have a unique system in the world regarding the recognition of nationalities. The Portuguese living in Brazil have a privileged status that allows them to have access to the same laws, rights and privileges as the rest of Brazilians, except in some cases registered in the Brazilian Constitution that guarantee unique rights for people born in Brazil. In turn, Brazilians who descend from Portuguese can acquire Portuguese nationality very easily, thus having access to all the benefits provided for Portuguese citizens.

3. Are the Brazilians Latino?

No, they’re not. At least according to the most common definition used in the United States to define a Latino. In Europe, Latinos are all those who speak a language that descends from ancient Latin because they were part of the Roman Empire. According to this definition, the Portuguese, the Spaniards, the French, the Italians, and the Romanians are Latinos. According to the American definition of Latino, Latinos are those who live in Central and South America and who speak Spanish. Therefore, Brazilians (who speak Portuguese) are not considered Latinos.

4. Who originally lived in Brazil?

Some estimates indicate that the number of inhabitants in Brazil before the arrival of the Portuguese would be 3 to 4 million people. The clash of civilizations has led to a sharp decline in the indigenous population and today its number is only 280000 people. There were hundreds of different tribes but they could be divided into 4 linguistic groups. Some of these tribes have been completely extinct and others are on the verge of extinction. According to the most accepted theory, the Brazilian natives would have arrived in the territory that today is Brazil 48 thousand years ago and would have originated in migrations coming from Asia through the Strait of Bering. The Brazilian tribes that had the first contact with the Europeans were those who lived in the coastal zone. The tribes of Amazonia only had contact with the first whites about 100 or 200 years after the discovery of Brazil. Some of the most relevant and populous Brazilian tribes are the Guarani, the Yanomami and the Tikuna.

1950 World Cup was hosted by Brazil, and marks an important year for Brazil soccer history.

This world cup will always be remembered by the spectacle in the final between Brazil and Uruguay.

The final game was played in front of 200,000 people, still a record to this day, however it also marked a sad day in Brazilian soccer history as they lost the game to Uruguay 2-1.

As the years passed and the sport evolved, Brazil history is filled with great Brazilian soccer players that were magicians with the soccer ball and joy to watch.

It took only 8 years after hosting the 1950's World Cup spectacle for Brazil to produce one of the best soccer players of all time, Edison Arantes do Nascimento or better known as PELE.

This 17 year old wonder kid came to play and win games during the 1958 World Cup where he managed to lead Brazil to winning their first World Cup Trophy, writing another part of soccer history in Brazil.

Pele managed to score twice during the final match played against Sweden, to help Brazil win their first World Cup.

He helped put soccer in every alley, backyard, work yard, school, park and everywhere else two goals could be set up to get a game going.

Pele is considered as one of the greatest players in soccer history.

Every kid wanted to be Pele and every father wanted their son to be the next Pele.

Many people from Brazil say that the first gift for Brazilian boys is a Soccer ball :)

Brazil soccer history also shows that all Brazilian players built their technical skills and the foundation for this sport through playing Futsal or small sided street soccer games when growing up.

Ability with the ball that we see from the Brazilian soccer players is simply  "MAGIC".

Small sided games (Street Soccer) are played everywhere in Brazil. 

Players get more touches and less time on the ball, over time developing superb ball control.

Brazil soccer history includes 5 World Cup titles to date, and great soccer players that came from this country including Original Ronaldo, Bebeto, Cafu, Ronaldinho, Adriano, Romario, Zico, Rivelino, Garrincha, Roberto Carlos, Dunga, Kaka and many more.

A lot of players throughout Brazilian soccer history came from the streets of Brazil, which is where the roots of every Brazilian soccer players are.

This game served as a way out of poverty for many players, including Pele.

"I learned all about life with a ball at my feet." A cool quote by another great Brazilian Ronaldinho.

Brazil holds 5 World Cup Titles, 3 of them with Pele.

This is a Country known for the yellow color filling the stands and supporting the greatness we are about to witness on the pitch.

For more information on Brazilian Soccer History visit Brazilian Football.

History of Soccer

Soccer Word Origin comes from shortening Football Association. Read more about the origin of the word soccer, and how Football Association ended up simply Soccer. 

Who Invented Soccer? Where was the first soccer ball kicked with purpose to score a goal? When did the game get organized with a much needed rules?

Soccer Quotes to inspire, educate, motivate, laugh, think etc.

Soccer Ball History shows when the first soccer ball was invented, and where it originated.

History of soccer in America goes back much further than I originally thought.

Brazil Soccer History is filled with great moments, trophies, and great soccer players.

Mexico Soccer History is not as rich, as many other Central, and South American Countries.

Italian Soccer History is filled with trophies, great players, and many scandals.

England Soccer History is very old, and dates back to 1324, when a young man got hurt during a game as he kicked the ball.

Soccer Timeline takes you through the history of soccer, and important years throughout soccer history.

History of Soccer Cleats dates back to 1525, when the first pair of soccer cleats were discovered in England's King Henry VIII wardrobe.

World Cup History Timeline covers all the important years, dates, and information about the greatest tournament ever organized. World Cup is played every 4 years, in a different Country.

An In-depth Look at the Carnival History

The Carnival History of Brazil is quite intriguing and informative. The first pre Lent carnivals happened in Italy. Carnival came from the word Carne Vale which translates to ‘Goodbye to Meat”. Since then the term carnival was used to signal the start of a 40 day abstinence period known as Lent.

Ramon Moreira | Bookers International

The carnivals that were conducted in Italy were quite similar to the carnivals in South America, minus all the wild partying and Samba music. The carnivals of Italy were simple costumed festivals which were accompanied by merry making and music. The practice of the carnivals first spread to Spain, France, and other European countries and then it reached the Americas and spread into Portugal and Brazil.

The African influence

Although the practice of carnivals originated from Europe, African influence is evident in the Brazil carnivals that we see today. Carnival history dictates that this began when Brazil became a colony of Portugal. Due to the African slave trade, the carnivals adapted the tribal practices which included parading around the village which was actually done to ward off all the bad spirits in the area. People began to use costumes and tribal masks during the celebrations. Feathers were also used in many of the African costumes and this symbolized rebirth and the rise of the spirits which are also important components of the modern day Brazilian carnival.

The birth of Samba in Brazil

In Brazil, places like Praca Onze and Cidade Nova are considered as the heart of Samba dance and music. According to Carnival history, back in the 1600s slave trading was practiced in South America. The slaves that came to Brazil brought with them their culture and love for music. As time went by, slaves who originated from Angola and West Africa started to mingle with the locals of Brazil and shared with them their love for Samba. Since then Samba has become an integral part of the Brazilian Carnival.

The Samba Schools of Brazil

One of the most important moments in carnival history happened in the early 1920s when Samba started to become popular among the locals of Brazil. People who had a passion for samba, whether it be dance or the music itself, started to meet up with each other and started forming clubs and groups to share and enhance their love for Samba.

Brasiliana Fotográfica

These small social gatherings then evolved into associations that we know off today. As time went by, the leaders of each Samba school decided to hold competitions to develop a healthy competition between each school and to promote each school’s love for Samba. According to carnival history it was in 1932 when the very first Samba School Parade happened. The Association of Schools of Samba City was also created and they now organize the parades at the Rio Carnival.

The Sambodromo

The Sambodromo is the heart of the Rio Carnival. It is where all 13 top Samba Schools will perform and show the audience which Samba School is the best. In the olden days, the parades where not held at a Sambadrome or any specific location.

Ramon Moreira | Bookers International

The parades were held in the old streets of Rio. But because of the improvement of the performances, the Governor of Rio commissioned the Sambadrome and was this venue was first used in the 1984 Brazil Carnival. The Sambodrome is composed of stands and a 700 meter avenue where you will find food courts and waiting areas. The Samba carnival that we know off today is the result of continued improvement. The Carnival in Brazil is one of the most popular Carnivals to attend and is also known for impeccable performances, groovy samba music, and colorful costumes.

Brazilian History

The indigenous Indian population in Brazil was widely scattered when Admiral Pedro Cabral, a Portuguese explorer, reached the coast of Brazil on April 22, 1500. During the first permanent Portuguese settlement in Brazil history the Portuguese found a widely scattered group of about one million people, all indigenous to the country. The initial important economic cycle in Brazil history was based upon sugarcane which was in great demand in Europe at the time. The sugarcane fields which were found along the coastline were worked fiercely by native labor and so sugarcane planted its roots in Brazilian economy and society with many people prospering greatly from the crop. Once the Portuguese realised that the number of indigenous people they had toiling in the fields for them would not be enough they started importing millions of slaves from Africa and history began writing quite an interesting story.

According to Brazilian history the field laborers and common slaves became really unhappy with their situations and started revolting against their superiors. They started escaping from the plantations and tried to build their own settlements in more secluded regions so they could have their own communities. The largest settlement of runaway slaves in the Americas was in the 1670's and 1680's and grew into a kingdom of roughly 30,000 people. Eventually the settlements that the previous slaves erected were destroyed by armed troops and government which in some cases ended in violence and bloodshed. The end of slavery as it was known ended in 1888 and by then the Africans had started to mix with the European Brazilian population through work rights and and basic merging of cultures and they became a significant section of the Brazilian population.

In Brazilian history during the first two centuries of the colonial period, other European powers took a stab at establishing their own colonies in several areas of Brazilian territory. There was a major attraction to the abundant natural resources and massive area of virgin land. As the history of colonial Brazil played out, Spanish and Portuguese looked for new land to colonize in defiance of the Treaty of Tordesillas, which essentially created a deep rift between the Portuguese and the Spanish.. From 1555 to 1567 French colonists made an attempt to settle in present-day Rio de Janeiro and again from 1612 to 1614 in the area which is now São Luís.

Brazil Map

In the history of colonial Brazil their was yet another invasion, this time by the Dutch. This attempt the Dutch made at colonizing the area went on for some time was seen as a major problem to the Portuguese who had already settle on the land and thought of it as exclusively theirs. . The Dutch began pillaging the coast and between 1630 and 1654 and they managed to set up a more permanent and well controlled stretch of the coast. The Dutch receded from the area in 1661 after many years of open and sometimes vicious war. The initial Brazil attraction was said to be the tropical soil as it was believed to be extremely fertile according to the first Portuguese settlers. In present day Brazil's soils produce 70 million tons of grain crops per year but the output is attributed more to the amount of land being worked and not so much because of the fertility of the soil. A more present-day Brazil attraction would include their plentiful natural resources which are in abundance and consist of timber, petroleum, uranium, tin, platinum, phosphate, nickel iron, ore, gold and bauxite.