Combat of Kosen, 21 October 1813

Combat of Kosen, 21 October 1813


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Combat of Kosen, 21 October 1813

The combat of Kosen (20 October 1813) was a rearguard action during the French retreat from Leipzig.

On 18 October Napoleon realised that he was losing the battle of Leipzig, and prepared to retreat. Bertrand was ordered to lead his corps west to Weissenfels, to guard the potential crossing points over the Saale. Bertrand reached Saale without any problems, brushing aside what little opposition there was.

On 19 October the main French army abandoned Leipzig. The retreat began well but turned chaotic, especially after the last bridge leading west out of the city was blown early. Bertrand, at Weissenfels, was largely unaware of these disasters until the French columns began to appear at Weissenfels. This had a big impact on him, and when Napoleon reached Weissenfels he pleaded with him to leave the army so it would have more freedom of maneuver, without having to worry about protecting the Emperor (shades of 1812). Napoleon didn't agree with this, crossed the Saale, and spent the night of 20-21st resting in a pavilion in a vineyard on the west bank.

On 20 October the main body of the French army crossed the Saale at Weissenfels. The Allied pursuit was rather limited, but on 21 October Gyulai's corps reached the Saale at Kösen, south-west of Naumburg. The town of Kösen is on the eastern side of the Saale, with the suburb of Neu Kösen on the east bank. Just to the west of the river a very steep bank rises up to some heights that overlook the town. The west bank was defended by one of Bertrand's divisions.

Gyulai's corps found Bertrand's rearguard defending the heights on the left bank of the Saale at Kösen. The allies wanted to capture the bridge over the Saale, which was still intact. Gyulai's first attack swept across the bridge and almost reached the top of the heights.

Bertrand counterattacked and drove the Allies back across the bridge.

Gyulai then attacked in larger numbers, and took command of the force in person. This attack forced the French back across the Saale, and the Allies captured Neu Kösen.

The fighting dragged on to 10pm when Bertrand retreated. Both sides lost 1,000 killed and wounded, and the French also lost 649 prisoners.

On the same day Yorck attacked the French rearguard at Freiburg, where the French were crossing the Unstrut. The French fought off this attack and were able to complete the crossing intact.

Napoleonic Home Page | Books on the Napoleonic Wars | Subject Index: Napoleonic Wars


Project Leipzig (1813)

A fter their defeat at Bautzen (20-21 may, 1813) the Allied retreated towards the south-east in two columns of weary soldiers in order to cross the Neisse River. Their rearguard, commanded by Eugen of Wurttemberg and comprising his 2nd Russian Corps, remained in Reichenbach and was catched by Reynier's VII Corps (not fighting in Bautzen) and the 1st Cavalry Corps. Napoleon himself arrived to the battlefield and engaged the Guard Light cavalry, including the famous Red Dutch Lanciers, a "new spectacle" for Wurttemberg, as it had been a long time since he did seen a force of French cavalry.
This will be my next battle. It will be fought using the 'one-half' Napoleon's Battles version and for the OOB's and basic narrative I will use the Nafziger' s book (Lutzen and Bautzen. Napoleon's Spring Campaign of 1813, The Emperor press, 1992) and the Digby 's Databook (The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book, Greenhill Books, 1998).
The picture is taken from The red Lancer Inc.

2 comments:

Rafa,
I'll be looking forward to the battle report and photos of that one!
Ian


Project Leipzig (1813)

T he combat of Benavente , 29 December 1808 , was a rearguard action during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna. After winning a minor cavalry battle at Sahagun on 21 December 1808, Moore had been forced to order his army to retreat at full speed towards Corunna in north western Spain, pursued by Napoleon himself.
The first major obstacle in Moore’s way was the River Esla . The British and French became involved in a “ race to Benavente ”, where there was a bridge across the river at Castrogonzalo . The British won the race, and on 28 December the bridge was destroyed. Moore’s infantry continued the retreat, while part of the cavalry was left on the Esla to delay any French advance.
On 29 December General Lefebvre-Desnouettes , the commander of the cavalry vanguard and Colonel of the Chasseurs à Cheval of the Imperial Guard , decided to make an attempt to cross the river. He led three squadrons of his chasseurs and a small detachment of Mamelukes, in all about 550 men. At first the French outnumbered the British pickets and the first British counterattack, made by 130 men from the 18th Light Dragoons under Colonel Otway, was easily defeated. They were then reinforced by men from the 3rd Dragoons of the King’s German Legion , under Major Burgwedel, and a second attack was launched. This time the dragoons broke through part of the French front line, and only just escaped being encircled.
The allied pickets then retreated back towards Benavente , where Lord Paget had placed 450 men of the 10th Hussars .

Lefebvre-Desnouettes advanced towards Benavente without waiting for reinforcements to cross the river. When he approached the village, Pag e t launched his surprise attack. This time the French were outnumbered, for the British now had 650 men. The French cavalry put up a short resistance before breaking. A two mile chase then followed, as the French attempted to escape back to the safety of the ford. A second French attempt to cross the river was called off after Paget brought up a battery of horse-artillery.
The exact number of casualties in this action is uncertain. Paget's report claimed that the French suffered 30 killed, 25 wounded and 70 prisoners, but their accounts state 9 killed, 98 wounded and 42 captured. Among the later was Lefebvre-Desnouettes (who spend the next three years in Britain). The British suffered 60 casualties, of whom 46 were from the German legion hussars, including three killed.

I am including two letters of Napoleon , the first addressed to Lefebvre-Desnouettes

Valderas, 29 décembre 1808
Au général Lefebvre-Desnouettes, commandant les chasseurs de la Garde impériale
Je reçois votre lettre. Je suppose que vous avez appelé à vous les Polonais qui étaient à Villafrechos. Le général Durosnel était arrivé ici. Il part à la pointe du jour pour vous rejoindre il part pour vous rejoindre si l'ennemi occupe le pont avec l'infanterie. S'il n'est pas possible de le forcer, ne compromettez point ma Garde . Ce qu'il m'importe de savoir, c'est si l'ennemi prend sa retraite sur la route de Zamora ou sur celle d'Astorga. La route de Benavente à Zamora fait un angle très-aigu avec la route de Rio Seco à Benavente. Ainsi, en jetant des partis sur votre gauche, on devrait avoir des nouvelles, quoique je suppose que l'ennemi aura abandonné le pont, le maréchal Ney passant le gué à Villafer .

and the second addressed to the Emperatrice describing the incident

Benavente, 31 décembre 1808
A l'Impératrice Joséphine, à Paris

Mon amie, je suis à la poursuite des Anglais depuis quelques jours mais ils fuient épouvantés. Ils ont abandonné les débris de l'armée de la Romana, pour ne pas retarder leur retraite d'une demi-journée. Plus de cent chariots de bagages sont déjà pris. Le temps est bien mauvais.
Lefebvre (Lefebvre-Desnouettes) a été pris. Il m'a fait une échauffourée avec 300 chasseurs ces crânes ont passé une rivière à la nage , et ont été se jeter au milieu de la cavalerie anglaise. Ils en ont beaucoup tué mais, au retour, Lefebvre a eu son cheval blessé : il se noyait le courant l'a conduit sur la rive où étaient les Anglais, il a été pris. Console sa femme .
Adieu, mon amie. Bessières, avec 10,000 chevaux, est sur Astorga.
Bonne année à tout le monde.


More information
Battle of Benavente (1808)
Histoire du Consulat et du Premier Empire - Correspondance de Napoléon 1er
Corunna 1809. Sir John Moore's fighting retreat. Philip Haythornhwaite. Campaign 83. Osprey Military Publishing, 2001


The History of Hurricanes in Bermuda

It’s no secret that Bermuda has a long-standing relationship with hurricanes. In fact, if it weren’t for the hurricane of 1609, the Sea Venture would not have run aground on Bermuda’s reefs and our tiny island would have gone uncolonized.

Although direct hits from hurricanes are rare for Bermuda, our tiny island is situated within Hurricane Alley (the most frequent path taken by Atlantic Hurricanes). Most storms that come close to Bermuda form in the central Atlantic or the Western Caribbean Sea before gaining strength and making their way to the island.

Map of Hurricane Alley with Bermuda in the middle

According to the Bermuda Weather Service, the islands of Bermuda experience on average one damaging tropical cyclone once every six or seven years, with smaller, lesser systems affecting the island more frequently. Landfalls (with the eye partially or fully going over the island) are rare but not unheard of. According to the Official Atlantic Hurricane Database (started in 1851), only nine landfalls have occurred in Bermuda. In October 2014, hurricanes Fay and Gonzalo both made landfall, making that season the first to produce two landfalls.

A study of recorded storms between 1609 and 1996 found that storms occurring in September and October were more likely to make landfall in Bermuda than storms formed at any other time.

Despite many dealings with major storms, Bermuda tends to fair fairly well. This is because our homes and building are constructed using stone versus wood (after the storm in 1712 destroyed most wooden structures, the decision was made to use stone going forward) making them strong and worthy to fair even the strongest of gusts. As a result, hurricane deaths are uncommon. 129 people have died in Bermuda due to storms: 110 of them were a result of shipwrecks along the south shore in 1926 and 4 people died in 2003’s Hurricane Fabian – the only system in the weather satellite era to cause storm-related deaths in Bermuda. Hurricane Fabian was the most intense storm to impact the island in modern times and though it did not officially make landfall, it is the only storm to have its name retired due to loss of life.

Historically, Bermuda has danced with 186 storms, some being small tropical systems that have kept their distance from our shores, while others have been major and monstrous and have threatened to devastate our island. Fabian (followed closely by Gonzalo) was the costliest storm in Bermuda’s history, with damages estimating $300 million (a cost of $650 million today) – Gonzalo was the cause of between $200 and $400 million in damages.

Timeline of the Most Destructive Storms in Bermuda’s History

1500s
1543 – A Portuguese sailing vessel wrecks upon Bermuda’s reefs in a hurricane. It’s sailors survive for 60 days, during which time they construct a new vessel from the remains of the wrecked one. While on island, they carve their initials into a rock at Spittal Pond Nature Reserve, a historical landmark we call “Portuguese Rock”.

1600s
July 28, 1609 – A hurricane is a cause for the wreck of the Sea Venture, an English ship bound for Jamestown, Virginia. The ship had battled for four days to stay afloat and on the fourth day, Admiral Sir George Somers spotted Bermuda and drives the ship into the reef deliberately to prevent her from sinking. All 150 passengers made it to shore safely.
July 1612 – A hurricane destroys St. Peter’s Church
November 1619 – Two hurricanes strike, sinking at least one ship, uprooting trees, ruining the entire winter corn crop and destroying a wooden watchtower. The two storms leave the island experiencing a food shortage.
August 1629 – The island experiences its most damaging hurricane to date. Crops are destroyed, as are several forts, a prison and the rebuilt watchtower.
October 20, 1639 – Two Spanish ships ground out in a hurricane, the occupants are brought ashore and charged monthly accommodation fees until their departure in February.
August 24, 1669 – One ship is wrecked by a hurricane along the shore of Castle Island. Five men die. Another ship capsizes roughly 20 miles off Ireland Island.
1686 – Government House is left in a state of disrepair after a hurricane batters the island.

1700s
September 8, 1712 – A major hurricane destroys most of the island’s churches, highlighting the need to build using limestone versus wood.
1715 – Another major hurricane destroys the rest of the wooden churches left standing after the 1712 hurricane.
1726 – Two hurricanes strike in rapid succession. Many homes and buildings are damaged and the crops are a complete loss. A small supply of gunpowder is also comprised.
October 18, 1780 – The Great Hurricane of 1780 devastates Bermuda. Some 50 ships are driven ashore due to the storm surge and many trees are uprooted. St. George’s is left devastated and famine and a smallpox epidemic break out.
October 23, 1793 – A violent hurricane passes near Bermuda, leaving “inconceivable” damage in its wake. Every vessel in St. George’s is driven aground and numerous wharves are lost. Most of the 40 or so fish ponds on the north shore of St. David’s (containing 5,000 fish) are destroyed.

1800s
November 4-5, 1800 – A hurricane destroys “every shrub in its direction”. Many vessels are also wrecked ashore. This hurricane underscores Bermuda’s need for a lighthouse and the establishment of a Marine Society to assist families of lost sailors.
August 4-5, 1813 – The war of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain sees St. George’s harbor congested with warships, as well as merchant ships detained in Bermuda. Between August 4th and 5th of 1813, winds increased to 90 mph, ripping ships from their moorings. There were massive collisions between ships and nearly every one of them was washed ashore or wrecked. One person was killed aboard General Doyle.
September 11-12, 1839 – One of the worst storms to ever affect the island bringing with it an 11-foot storm surge. Boats were lifted from the water and rehomed in a field across the south shore, while many fish were also resituated hundreds of yards inland. Many families were forced to flee their homes in the middle of the night and endure the storm outdoors and many water tanks were contaminated with saltwater. Despite the extensive damage, no lives were lost. This storm is typically referred to Reid’s Hurricane after Governor William Reid who studied the storm extensively.
September 19-22, 1891 – A category 2 hurricane impacts Bermuda, causing a Spanish brig carrying lumber to wreck along the south shore.
September 12-13, 1899 – A direct hit from a category 3 hurricane greatly affects the island. Residents were preoccupied with the cleanup from a lesser storm that hit a week prior and the category 3 system catches them off guard. St. George’s is cut off from the mainland, Dockyard is severely impacted. Estimated damage is reported to be £100,000.

1900s
September 28, 1903 – A category 2 hurricane with sustained winds of 74 mph causes significant damage. Two fatalities are reported: one man drowns at Ireland Island and another is crushed in St. George’s by a collapsing wall.
September 8-9, 1906 – A major hurricane leaves one man dead after he was blown off Watford Bridge. Another fatality occurred in Hamilton Harbour when a sailboat unsuccessfully took on a severe squall. A fire aboard a ferry threatened to make its way to land but was extinguished.
September 3-8, 1915 – A category 3 hurricane meanders around the island for several days. Enormous waves lead to the wreck of the SS Pollockshields, on the reefs off Elbow Beach. The captain drowns after unsuccessfully attempting to procure a life jacket for a crew member. The wreck of the Pollockshields is shown in the featured image of this article (at the top).
September 4, 1917 – Huge waves and high tides caused by a major hurricane lead to the flooding of the St. George’s Square, including the Town Hall. A large part of Higgs’ Island is swept away.
September 21, 1922 – Bermuda is hit with a category 3 hurricane, bringing with it an 8-foot storm surge and 60-foot waves along the south shore. Many homes and buildings were submerged and some small houses on White’s Island are blown into the water. One fatality is reported after a sailor falls overboard in Dockyard. Estimated damage totals $250,000.
October 22, 1926 – A strong category 3 makes landfall on Bermuda, becoming tied with Hurricane Five of 1899. Sustained winds of 114 mph are recorded. 40% of homes incurred roof damage but only two are demolished. 88 fatalities are reported after the HMS Valerian sinks less than 5 miles from Dockyard. Another ship, the cargo steamer SS Eastway is lost near Bermuda with 22 of her 35 crew drowning.
October 20, 1947 – A category 3 hurricane results in a reported $1 million in damage. In the aftermath of the storm, a Belco lineman is killed after falling from a pole during restoration efforts.
September 13, 1948 – A category 3 storm passes 50 miles to the west, cutting St. George’s off from the mainland. Rainfall totals 5 inches, triggering flooding.
October 7, 1948 – A direct hit from a category 2 storm results in the uprooting of thousands of trees and leaves the entire island without power. Total losses equal $1 million.
September 9, 1951 – Hurricane Easy passes by the island, resulting in one of the strangest phenomena in weather history.
September 17, 1953 – Category 3 Hurricane Edna passes by the island, wreaking havoc on boats in Hamilton Harbour. Three people report storm-related injuries.
August 9, 1963 – Hurricane Arlene causes loss of many citrus and avocado trees in Bermuda. In addition to vegetation, Arlene destroys a yacht club in Devonshire, along with every boat homed there.
September 25, 1987 – Unexpected and fast-moving, category 1 Hurricane Emily made landfall early morning, bringing with her destructive winds, waterspouts and tornadoes. Of the 2,500 homes damaged during the storm, 200 report major roof damage. Losses are estimated at $35 million and over 100 people report storm-related injuries.
August 6, 1989 – Category 2 Hurricane Dean his Bermuda, causing damage to 648 buildings and injuring 16 people. A parking lot at the airport is washed out, along with several vehicles that were parked. An estimated $8.9 million in damages is reported.
October 29, 1991 – Hurricane Grace passes by the island severely eroding beaches. Grace contributes to the formation of the 1991 “Perfect Storm”.
August 18, 1995 – Hurricane Felix passes by Bermuda, leaving 18,000 residents without power, and delays the Independence Referendum.

2000s
September 5, 2003 – The island is hit by Hurricane Fabian, a category 3 storm cited as being the most destructive hurricane in Bermuda since 1926. Gusts exceeding 150 mph are recorded with an estimated 10-foot storm surge. Water compromises the Causeway, where four people tragically lose their lives when their vehicles are swept away in the rushing water. Total damages to the island are reported to be $300 million. Fabian is the only tropical cyclone in the weather satellite era to cause direct fatalities. As a result, the name Fabian is retired and replaced with Fred.
September 19–20, 2010 – Category 1 Hurricane Igor was predicted to be the most destructive hurricane in Bermuda’s modern history but thankfully, its destruction was less than expected. Still, 29,000 residents were without power after the storm and damages totaled $500,000.
October 12, 2014 – Category 1 Hurricane Fay surprises the island with an unexpected degree of damage. Wind gusts over 100 mph leave many roadways compromised as well as numerous boats. The airport also suffered flooding. Damage from Fay likely totaled in the tens of millions of dollars.
October 17-18, 2014 – Five days after Hurricane Fay hit Bermuda, category 2 storm, Hurricane Gonzalo made landfall. The hurricane further destroys boats, homes, roadways and cuts off power to tens of thousands of residents. Cited as the most destructive hurricane since Fabian, total estimated damages from Gonzalo were between $200 and $400 million.
October 13, 2016 – Category 3 Hurricane Nicole passes over the island, bringing with her winds as high as 136 mph. Power is cut off to nearly 90% of residents and dozens of boats are damaged. There was a recorded rainfall of 6.77 inches, making Nicole the wettest storm to impact Bermuda.
August 3–4, 2017 – Bermuda experiences rain and thunderstorms which are the remnants of Tropical Storm Emily, which makes its way over the island.
September 18–19, 2017 – Hurricane Jose moves slowly across the island. Winds are recorded to be as high as 46 mph and the island receives almost 2.5 inches of rain.
July 9, 2018 – Tropical Storm Chris brings with it moderate showers but otherwise makes no mark on the island.
July 13, 2018 – The remnants of Hurricane Beryl passes between Bermuda and the United States, leaving in its wake a separate subtropical cyclone 290 miles north of the island.
September 18, 2019 – Bermuda is hit with Category 3 Hurricane Humberto, with the system’s southern eyewall passing over the island. Sustained winds were recorded at 110 mph with higher winds affecting the north-west of the island, damaging roofs of 600 buildings and downing many trees. Nearly 28,000 homes were without electricity and farmers reported a severe loss of crops. Overall damage to the island is estimated to be $25 million.
September 24–25, 2019 – The remnants of Hurricane Jerry directly pass over the island, which results in 1 inch of rain.
September 29 – October 1, 2019 – Tropical Storm Karen lingers for several days bringing with it light rain for several days. At the same time, the distant but powerful Hurricane Lorenzo is causing major swells on the south shore Horseshoe Bay is closed to swimmers.
September 14–15, 2020 — Bermuda experiences a direct hit from Hurricane Paulette, a category 2 storm. 70% of the island lost power and wind gusts reached 115 mph.

Months in which Storms have been Recorded in Bermuda
January – 1
February – 0
March – 0
April – 1
May – 0
June – 3
July – 11
August -30
September – 70
October – 53
November – 10
December – 0

For information regarding how to prepare for an impending storm, contact BF&M.


Black Belt Magazine Celebrates 60 Years of Martial Arts Coverage

Black Belt Magazine has a storied history that dates back all the way to 1961, making 2021 the 60th Anniversary of the world's leading magazine of martial arts. To celebrate six decades of legendary martial arts coverage, take a trip down memory lane by scrolling through some of the most influential covers ever published. From the creators of martial art styles, to karate tournament heroes, to superstars on the silver screen, and everything in between, the iconic covers of Black Belt Magazine act as a time capsule for so many important moments and figures in martial arts history. Keep reading to view the full list of these classic issues.

The First Cover - 1961

This is where it all began. This 34-page first issue contained feature articles about kendo, aikido, and the AAU National Judo Championships. Legends like Jigoro Kano, Ed Parker, and Koichi Tohei are all mentioned. The first page even explains where Black Belt got its name!

Tak Kubota - September 1965

The September 1965 issue had some international flavor, with articles featuring karate practiced "The Tokyo Way" by Tak Kubota and a piece titled Judo in Yugoslavia. There is also a write-up about the All-Japan Judo Championships and a story on the Judo icon Wally Jay.

1st Chuck Norris - June 1967

Black Belt tried out a hand-painted art style for many of the covers in 1967. This cover was the first to feature Chuck Norris after he narrowly defeated Joe Lewis at S. Henry Cho's North American Karate Championship. The final score was 27.5 to 25.5.

1st Joe Lewis - September 1967

Joe Lewis would avenge his loss to Norris earlier in the year by winning Jhoon Rhee's U.S. Karate Championships with Bruce Lee in attendance. The feature article tells how Lewis defeated John Wooley in the finals in front of 8,000 fans in Washington, D.C.

1st Bruce Lee - October 1967

The first issue featuring Bruce Lee on the cover had to be one of Black Belt's most iconic issues. Action fans everywhere were tuning into The Green Hornet and "Kato" was a superstar. Also, the results of a survey showed that karate was gaining popularity over judo in the U.S.

1st Fumio Demura - December 1967

Young kobudo master Fumio Demura shared the secrets of the sai in a feature article that included photograph tutorials of various grips and techniques. A four-year judo university called "Yudo College" in Korea was also featured in this issue.

Capoeira - June 1969

In this issue, Capoeira was described as an art that captured Brazil's history and culture. Another sign of the times, a study was published suggesting that karate can be learned from films for the first time. Pat Johnson described films as the "finest single aid to karate training".

Jhoon Rhee - July 1970

The cover article of this issue featured the legendary Jhoon Rhee, who was deemed the "Father of U.S. Tae Kwon Do" in the story. The Bornean Dyak tradition of Kenjah was also featured, which prepared boys for murder in a bloody ritual that was required for manhood.

Gene LeBell - August 1971

In the first issue featuring Gene LeBell on the cover, he compares judo and its limitations to professional wrestling. Another feature article provides self-defense information from law enforcement advisors after recent increases in violent crime were observed.

Kung Fu TV Series - January 1973

David Carradine was prominently featured in the cover piece about the Kung Fu television series. Black Belt also claimed that Japan's reign on Olympic judo had ended, as Dutchman Willem Ruska took two gold medals and the Russians won four total medals (one gold).

Bob Wall - January 1974

In this issue, Bob Wall of Enter the Dragon tells all about how mastering pain helped him achieve success in competition, business, and acting. Black Belt also sponsored the "First Oriental Fighting Arts Expo" with 35 martial artists performing for over 10,000 fans.

Ed Parker - February 1975

The Father of American Kenpo is prominently featured in a piece titled And in the Beginning There was Ed Parker. There is also a forward-thinking article about informing the media of martial arts in order to grow participation in martial arts schools and tournaments.

Bill Wallace - April 1975

"Superfoot" gets his own Black Belt cover and discusses his fighting career. He said that he liked the then-new innovation of safety gear because he can "really hit the guy". Successful martial arts businesswomen Pauline Short, Julie Webb, and Py Bateman were also featured.

Dan Ivan - September 1976

Southern California karate pioneer Dan Ivan gets a a cover article about his career in this issue. The magazine also contains advertisements for Jhoon Rhee's Safe-T gear and Braschi protective equipment as endorsed by Chuck Norris, early competitors in martial arts supply.

Chuck Norris - December 1977

Chuck Norris finds himself on the cover of another issue and is famously quoted in the feature article stating, "I would really like to become a white Bruce Lee". The issue also shares a photograph tutorial for elbow techniques designed to defend women against rape.

C.S. Kim - March 1979

Tang Soo Do gets a national spotlight as C.S. Kim graces the cover of this issue. Century Martial Arts had their classic Kickin' Jeans advertisement featured. The art of Chi Kung is also prominently featured in the piece Harnessing Internal Powers with Chi Kung.

Joo Bang Lee - May 1981

Joo Bang Lee shares his knowledge of Hwarangdo and how it can be used for knife defense in his cover piece. There is also a write up about Mas Oyama's 2nd World Karate Tournament, where overtime bareknuckle matches were determined by breaking competitions.

William Cheung - April 1983

A four-part feature series about William Cheung concluded in this issue as he was pictured on the cover. The issue also contains an exclusive interview with Hirokazu Kanazawa, who was one of the premier instructors in the Japan Karate Association.

Ninjamania - December 1984

The ninjutsu craze earned Ninjamania the cover, but this issue included other big stories like Chuck Norris reflecting on his toughest opponents and the U.S. Olympic Judo team making history by winning their first-ever silver medal.

Benny "The Jet" Urquidez - March 1985

Benny "The Jet" Urquidez lands on his first Black Belt cover in this issue and stresses the importance of striking to the legs when fighting. There was also a special update piece on previous Hall of Famers, such as Ed parker, Joe Lewis, Jeff Smith, Ark Wong, and more.

Thai Kickboxing - November 1986

Thai boxing gets some notable American press in this issue, and Jhoon Rhee is featured again for teaching multiple United States congressmen. Fumio Demura is also pictured in the issue breaking glass for an article titled Hand Strikes of Karate.

Masaaki Hatsumi - January 1987

Masaaki Hatsumi continues the 80's ninja craze on the cover of this issue. The WUKO World Championships were also covered, where American superstar Hakim Alston defeated an opponent in under 22 seconds. This prompted a drug screening that he passed without issue.

Mike Swain - October 1988

Judo legend Mike Swain gets the cover in October of '88 as the United States Olympic Judo Team gets a spotlight for all of their members. The U.S. Taekwondo team was also given a feature, recognizing notable athletes like Jimmy Kim and Arlene Limas.

Hee Il Cho - March 1990

Taekwondo Master Hee Il Cho shared his art's amazing jumping kicks for this cover. Various martial arts weapons also received a spotlight in articles about lesser-known Samurai weapons like the sickle and chain, as well as a Kung Fu piece about the Wu Dang sword.

Ted Wong - July 1990

Ted Wong is featured on this cover as he tells Black Belt about his training under Bruce Lee. Another feature article tackles a question that is still prevalent today- What's Wrong with Tournament Karate? in an attempt to figure out how to make martial arts a mainstream sport.

Suh In-Hyuk - September 1991

Suh In-Hyuk graced this cover because he was a notable professor for the Rockwell College of Applied Arts and Science that offered doctorates in martial arts through the mail. This issue also provided one of the first major national spotlights for Gracie JuJitsu.

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar - July 1992

The NBA's all-time leading scorer, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, is featured on this cover for an exclusive interview in which he talks about training with Bruce Lee. Other features include a piece about stunt performers and cross training in martial arts for other athletes.

Kathy Long - August 1992

Kickboxing champion Kathy Long tells all in this issue about being the stunt double for Michelle Pfeiffer as Catwoman. David Lea is also prominently featured for his work as a stunt double for Michael Keaton in Batman and the sequel, Batman Returns.

Brandon Lee - July 1993

Brandon Lee wields a three-sectional staff on the cover of this issue shortly after his tragic passing. In addition to the memorial, champions on the tournament circuit at the time such as Cynthia Rothrock and Kenn Firestone share secrets about designing a winning tournament form.

Royce Gracie - December 1995

UFC 1 tournament winner Royce Gracie gets the cover in this issue as he explains why he had been inactive at the time. There's also a write up of the Ocean State Grand Nationals, where over 1,000 competitors attended while Richard Branden and Mafia Holloway won titles.

Ken Shamrock - March 1996

MMA legend Ken Shamrock is pictured on the cover with challenger Kimo Leopoldo in the background ahead of their superfight. In other news, Team USA took home multiple WAKO world titles as Richard Plowden, Mike Chaturantabut, and Willie Johnson all won gold.

Marco Ruas - February 1997

This cover features Marco Ruas as he tells the Black Belt readers about Vale Tudo, an intense martial art that helped him earn the title of King of the Streets. Another feature article discusses the appeal of martial arts movies and what made them so popular in this era.

Rickson Gracie - May 1998

Rickson Gracie, arguably the greatest jiu jitsu practitioner of all time, is seen on this cover for his feature article about the No-Holds-Barred Fighting association. A fascinating article about learning Tae Kwon Do in Korea is also featured in the issue.

Shannon Lee - February 1999

Shannon Lee, daughter of icon Bruce Lee, is featured for her piece that dives into her training in a variety of martial arts. Gary Alexander, winner of Mas Oyama's first North American Championships, also earns a prominent feature to discuss the state of martial arts at the time.

Steve DeMasco - February 2000

Steve Demasco shares how Chinese Kempo maximizes striking power in the cover issue. In another feature, Meredith Gold shares one of many women's self-defense articles. Century's iconic BOB also makes one of its first advertising appearances in the issue.

Steven Seagal - May 2001

This cover features Steven Seagal after his return to the big screen for Exit Wounds, and discusses his influential role as a promoter of Aikido in the United States. Bare-knuckle karate is also featured as part of the classic debate between Budo and Bujutsu.

40th Anniversary - July 2001

Black Belt celebrates four decades of martial arts history with a mosaic of many impactful covers over the years. A feature article explains how grappling skills are useful for self-defense and "Hwa Rang Do's Golden Child" Taejoon Lee landed an article/photo tutorial as well.

Michael Jai White - February 2002

Michael Jai White credits his Hollywood success to mastery of traditional karate and kobudo in the cover piece of the February 2002 issue. There is also a somewhat controversial piece about the art of trapping and wether or not it is effective in the real world.

Joe Rogan - December 2002

The now ultra-famous podcast host Joe Rogan gets the cover in this issue when he was the host of Fear Factor and was known for training in Taekwondo and Jujutsu. There is also a story about a martial arts "Celebrity Roast" to honor Bob Wall featuring the likes of Chuck Norris.

Helio Gracie - February 2003

Co-Founder of Gracie Jiu Jitsu alongside his brothers, Helio Gracie, graces the cover of this issue for an article about his life and legacy. Also, after new rules were implemented by the World Karate Federation, John Fonseca shares his kumite secrets.

David Carradine - December 2003

Following the release and success of Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill Volume 1, David Carradine gets a long-overdue feature on the cover of Black Belt. In other news, K-1 legend Bob Sapp confronted Mike Tyson after knocking out Kimo Leopoldo.

Liddell & Couture - March 2005

Ahead of the premiere of The Ultimate Fighter, UFC stars Randy Couture and Chuck Liddell appear in the cover article and give tips for any readers that may want to give the reality show a try. A feature article titled "High-Tech Training" discusses the use of instructional DVDs as well.

Jet Li - June 2005

Wushu superstar Jet Li sheds his hero archetype in Unleashed and gets a spot on the cover for it. The legendary Morihei Uyeshiba is also prominently featured in an article that details the striking and pressure points used in Aikido.

Scott Adkins - February 2011

Leading up to Black Belt's 50th anniversary, this issue is the second in a series of five that features a decade-by-decade timeline of martial arts history as told by Black Belt. Scott Adkins gets the cover as one of seven featured individuals that define the "21st Century Martial Artist".

50th Anniversary - June 2011

Martial arts icons like Jhoon Rhee, Stephen K. Hayes, Dan Inosanto, and more write personal notes to Black Belt in celebration of the 50th anniversary. There is also a prominent write up of Ip Man 2: Legend of the Grandmaster starring Donnie Yen.

Mike Dillard - August 2011

Black Belt's 2011 Man of the Year and the founder/CEO of Century Martial Arts, Mike Dillard, is featured on the cover of this issue. Anthony "Showtime" Pettis is also featured in the issue after his signature knockout of Ben Henderson by jumping off the cage with a round kick.

Ronda Rousey - May 2012

Ronda Rousey gets featured on the cover after medaling in Judo at the olympics and having some early MMA succes, but before fighting for the UFC title. Sport Karate legend Steve "Nasty" Anderson does an exclusive interview about the Superman Punch vs California Blitz.

Kayla Harrison - November 2012

Kayla Harrison lands on this cover after winning her first gold medal and bringing United States Olympic Judo to prominence. The 2012 Black Belt Hall of Fame is also announced in this issue, featuring Jae Chul Shin, Ronda Rousey, Sage Northcutt, and more.

Master Ken - December 2014

YouTube superstar Master Ken dons the signature red Ameri-Do-Te sleeveless uniform on this cover. He and his true self, Matt Page, answer questions separately in a truly one-of-a-kind feature article. The rest of the 2014 Hall of Fame class is also announced in this issue.

Cobra Kai - February 2021

This brings us to 2021, the modern era of Black Belt. The stars of Netflix's Cobra Kai are featured as their show captures the attention of martial artists and fans around the world. Black Belt celebrates their 60th anniversary and looks ahead to many more years of martial arts.


New York State Court of Chancery

Under the Duke's Laws, equity jurisdiction was vested in the Court of Assizes. On November 1, 1683, a Court of Chancery was established by name. It consisted of the Governor (or his designee) assisted by the Council and held sessions in the Council Chamber. The court was continued by the Judicature Act of 1691, expired by operation of law in 1698, was revived by ordinance in 1701, was suspended in 1703 and finally re-established in 1704.

The Assembly, although aware of the need for a court of equity, opposed the Court of Chancery on the grounds that the Crown did not have the right to establish courts in the Colony. The Assembly also objected to the composition of the court (the Governor and Council acting as a court) and considered the decrees of the court oppressive.

The Court of Chancery was continued by the Constitution of 1777. The Chancellor, assisted by Masters and Examiners, was appointed by the State Council of Appointment. The Court of Chancery ceased to exist in 1847 when the third State Constitution went into effect. The 1846 constitution reorganized the judiciary, vested equity and common law jurisdiction in the Supreme Court, and established the New York Court of Appeals as the court of final appeal.


Thursday, 10 October 2013

Grunberg. The strategic situation and the forces

T he actual combat of Grunberg , which forms the basis for this Lasalle scenario, was a skirmish that took place between the pickets of the advance guard of the Austrian Murray's division (3rd Abteilung) and a French mixed force of infantry ( II Corps ) and light cavalry ( I and V Cavalry Corps ). The combat was fought in the area between the Zschopau and Floha streams . Taken by surprise initially, the Austrians resisted the attacks of the French cavalry and finally r etreated westward over the Zschopau in Erdmannsdorf , leaving the field to the victorious French.

The above map shows a schematic representation of the movements of the involved forces, according to the narrative in the p. 74 of the Nafziger'sNapoleon at Leipzig: The Battle of Nations 1813” book, where the combat is named Schellenberg . The map itself was found in the GeoGREIF repository (see this post)

The orders of battle were taken initially from the Nafziger OOB's for the battle of Leipzig, with some additions and reshuffling to make a more interesting game. and also to add the French Hussar Regiments in 'shako-rouleau' recently finished!

French Army
16 Battalions/8 Regiments/3 Batteries
Army Moral 47 Break point 16


Marechal Claude-Victor Perrin (a.k.a. Victor)

C-i-C Victor (-/-)

6th Division Vial (+1/-)
1st Brigade Valory (-/*)
1/11th Légère Regiment R/A/SK1
2/11th Légère Regiment R/A/SK1
1/4th Line Regiment R/A/SK1
2/4th Line Regiment R/A/SK1
4/4th Line Regiment R/A/SK1
2nd Brigade Bronikowski (-/-)
1/2nd Line Regiment R/A/SK1
2/2nd Line Regiment R/A/SK1
1/18th Line Regiment R/A/SK1
2/18th Line Regiment R/A/SK1
25/3rd Foot Artillery Foot 3Guns/M/1Hw
26/3rd Foot Artillery Foot 3Guns/M/1Hw

1st Light Cavalry Division Berckheim (+1/¶)
7th Light Cavalry Brigade Dommanget (-/*)
5th Hussar Regiment R/E/Pu
9th Hussar Regiment R/E/Pu
3rd Light Cavalry Brigade Picquet (-/*)
5th Chevauléger-lancier Regiment R/E/Pu/La
8th Chevauléger-lancier Regiment R/E/Pu/La

Reinforcements
5th Division Dufour (-/¶)
1st Brigade Estko (+1/*)
1/26th Légère Regiment R/A/SK1
2/26th Légère Regiment R/A/SK1
1/93rd Line Regiment Godard (+1/-))
2/93rd Line Regiment R/A/SK1
4/93rd Line Regiment R/A/SK1
2nd Brigade Brenaud (-/-)
1/46th Line Regiment R/A/SK1
1/72nd Line Regiment R/A/SK1
13/5th Foot Artillery Foot 3Guns/M/1Hw

V Cavalry Corps Pajol (-/-)
9e Light Cavalry Division Subervie (-/-)
32 Light Cavalry Brigade Klicky (+1/-)
3e Hussar Regiment R/E/Pu
26e Chasseurs à Cheval R/A/Pu
33 Light Cavalry Brigade Vial (-1/-)
14e Chasseurs à Cheval R/A/Pu
27e Chasseurs à Cheval R/A/Pu


Austrian Army
14 Battalions/2 Regiments/4 batteries
Moral 52 Break point 17

General Ignácz (Ignaz) Gyulay Graf von Maros-Németh und Nádaska

C-i-C Gyulai (-1/-)
2nd Division Murray (+1/-)
1st Brigade Lamezan-Salins (-1/-)
1/Erzherzog Ludwig IR R/E/SK1 +
2/Erzherzog Ludwig IR R/E/SK1 +
1/Würzburg IR R/E/SK1 +
2/Würzburg IR R/E/SK1 +
6pdr Brigade Battery Foot 4guns/M
2nd Brigade Löwenwarth (-/¶)
1/Mariassy IR R/E/SK1 +
2/Mariassy IR R/E/SK1 +
1/Gyulai IR R/E/SK1 +
2/Gyulai IR R/E/SK1 +
6pd Brigade Battery Foot 4guns/M

Reinforcements
1st Division Crenneville (-/¶)
Brigade Hecht (-/¶)
1/Warasdiner Kreuzer Grenz R/A/SK1 + R/I/SK2 +
1/Warasdiner St. George Grenz R/A/SK1 + R/I/SK2 +
Klenau Chevauleger R/E/Pu +
Rosenberg Chevauleger R/E/Pu +
6pdr Cavalry Battery Horse 2guns/M/1Hw

3rd Division Hessen-Homburg (-/-)
1st Brigade Czollich (-/¶)
1/Kottulinsky IR R/E/SK1 +
2/Kottulinsky IR R/E/SK1 +
1/Kaiser Franz IR R/E/SK1 +
2/Kaiser Franz IR R/E/SK1 +
6pdr Brigade Battery Foot 4guns/M


Napoleons Light Horse: The Chevau-Legers Lanciers of the Line

Warlord’s own David Matthews takes a look at our plastic Napoleonic French Line Lancers and delves into the background detail of Napoleons Light Horse – The Chevau-Legers Lanciers of the Line:

“The Polish lancer, as well as the French lancer distinguished himself by his elegant appearance but the looks of this last were softer and the colors of his origin moderated, in respect to the military roughness of the first figure. As brave as the Polish lancer, the French lancer had a lively mood”
St. Hilaire

While the history and reputation of the Lancers of the Imperial Guard is well documented, what is not so well known (or, maybe, popular), are the more numerous regiments of the line, named light horse or ‘Chevau-legers’. The other nations named their light cavalry using the term ‘Uhlan’ adulterated from the original Turkish/Tartar Oghln. They differed from the Austrian and Prussian equivalents in their main weapon being the Lance.

Employed on the battlefield as shock troops they fulfilled a similar role to the more numerous Chasseurs, scouting, pursuit and gathering intelligence, protecting the flanks of the army and threatening the flanks of the opposing force (at Waterloo the lancer brigades deployed to the right and left flank of the line, the right flank being a fortuitous disposition as will become clear later). This ensured the usefulness of the Lancer regiments, as a combination of heavy and light cavalry making a multi-purpose unit.

History

On the 5 and 6 July 1809, north of Vienna, took place one of the most important confrontations in human history until then, the battle of Wagram. An Austrian army led by Archduke Charles faced the French, and allies from Germany and Italy, under the command of Napoleon.
Napoleon in the grip of victory observed the Polish Light Horse pick up Lances discarded by the routing Austrian Uhlans and use them to good effect on the fleeing Austrian infantry and artillery. Impressed by this, Napoleon ordered a squadron of the 3rd Hussars to begin experimental training with the Lance.

Giving lances to poorly trained men
didn’t make them good lancers.
They were rather ‘men with sticks’ than lancers.

Convinced, and with Napoleon’s desire to combat the Russian Cossacks in June 1811 for the forthcoming 1812 campaign, six regiments of Dragoons were converted to lancers. The Vistula Uhlans and the Old Guard Lancers sent their troopers as instructors to the newly formed French units. The Poles at that time were acknowledged to be the finest lancers in Europe.

“It took a lot of extra training to produce a competent lancer. A British training manual produced some years after Waterloo stated that he had to master 55 different exercises with his lance – 22 against cavalry, 18 against infantry, with 15 general ones thrown in for good measure.”

(Adkin – “The Waterloo Companion” p 247)

The 1st, 3rd, 8th, 9th, 10th and 29th Dragoons were converted to 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th Lancers. The 7th and 8th Lancers were formed from Poles, by conversion of the 1st and 2nd Vistula Uhlans.
They wore their traditional Polish style uniforms (no helmets). The 9th Regiment was considered also Polish but actually, it was made of Germans and a small number of Poles and Frenchmen. This regiment was formed by conversion of the 30th Chasseurs.

Actions and service

1er Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers
1812: Smolensk and La Moskowa1813: Dresden, Leipzig, and Hanau.1814: Reims and Paris1815: Waterloo
Battle Honours: None given.

2e Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers
1812: Moskowa, Winkowo, Beresina, and Wilna 1813: Buntzlau, Katzbach, Bischoffswerda, Weimar, Francfort, Hanau, and Mayence 1814: Rothiere, Montmirail, Vauchamps, Bar-sur-Aube, Troyes, Craonne, Villenauxe, and Fere-Champenoise 1815: Genappes and Waterloo
Battle Honours: None given

3e Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers
1812: Polotsk and La Beresina 1813: Bautzen, Reichenbach, Dresden, Leipzig, and Hanau 1814: Champaubert, Vauchamps, and Troyes 1815: Ligny and Waterloo
Battle Honours Polotsk 1812, Bautzen 1813, Dresde 1813 and Champaubert 1814

4e Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers
1812: La Moskowa, Mojaisk, and Winkowo 1813: Leipzig and Hanau 1814: Champaubert and Vauchamps
1815: Waterloo and Fleurus
Battle Honours La Moskowa 1812, Hanau 1813, Vauchamps 1814, and Fleurus 1815

5e Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers
1812: La Moskowa and Winkowo 1813: Wachau and Hanau. 1814: Montmirail 1815: Ligny and Waterloo
Battle Honours La Moskowa 1812, Bautzen 1813, Dresden 1813, and Champaubert 1814

6e Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers
1812: Krasnoe, Smolensk, Valoutina, La Moskowa, Wiasma, and La Beresina 1813: Jauer, Leipzig, and Hanau
1814: Champaubert, Montmirail, Vauchamps, Arcis-sur-Aube, and Saint-Dizier 1815: Fleurus and Waterloo
Battle Honours La Moskowa 1812, Hanau 1813, Champaubert 1814, and Fleurus 1815

7e Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers
1811: Spain 1812: No specific actions given 1813: Magdebourg, Dresden, Naumbourg, and Hanau
1814: Montereau, Neuilly-Saint-Front, Chalons, and Chartres
Battle Honours: None given

8e Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers
1812: Jakubowo, Polotsk, and La Beresina 1813: Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, and Leipzig 1814: Champaubert
Battle Honours Polostk 1812, Bautzen 1813, Dresde 1813, and Champaubert 1814

9e Regiment de Chevau-Legers-Lanciers
1812: Witepsk, Ostrowno, La Moskowa, and La Beresina 1813: Mockern and Kulm 1814: Vauchamps
Battle Honours: None given.

The lancers of the Vistula legion, soon to become the 7th and 8th of the line were part of Latour -Maubourg’s command at Albuera in 1811. Watching the discomfort of the V Corps being ripped apart by the artillery of Cleeves’ KGL, they noticed the British brigade of Colborne suddenly wheel out of line to finish the French and present an open flank. Without hesitation the order was given and the two Vistula regiments, followed by the 2nd Hussars, 10th Hussars, and the 20th Dragoons swept through the sudden cloudburst of rain into Colbourne’s men. The entire British brigade disintegrated – the poles captured several cannon, colours, and hundreds of prisoners.

In 1815 at Quatre Bras the lancers again created havoc among the Netherlands and British troops.

Neys lancers broke the 42nd’s square, routed the 44th and hit the Hanoverian Verdan Battalion whilst forming square, this battalion basically then ceased to exist.
Then at Waterloo the blown horses and disorganized cavalry of the Union Brigade met their fate at the points of Jaquinot’s Lancer brigade, stationed on the French right wing. Fate had given the Lancers their day of glory at the expense of the proud Union Brigade.

Weapons and Organisation

The lance is 9ft1in (275cm) long and its shaft is made of hardwood such as ash and steel. The bottom has a steel ‘shoe’ to protect the wood when the lance was rested on the ground. The centre of the shaft has a whitened leather grip and a loop for the fingers called a martingale. The lance was decorated with a small red and white flag called a pennon. The steel point was made with a flattened diamond section which allowed it to easily penetrate an enemy soldier’s body. It is secured by long steel straps called langets which made it harder to chop off the point with a sword.

Armed also with sabres and carbines the Regiments only issued the lances to the front rank in the individual squadrons.
In 1813 the 125-men strong company of French lancers was armed as
1st rank
. . . . . . . 2 sergeants each with a saber and 2 pistols
. . . . . . . 4 corporals each with a saber, 1 pistol, musketoon with bayonet and lance
. . . . . . . 44 troopers each with a saber, 1 pistol and a lance
2nd rank
. . . . . . . 4 corporals each with a saber, 1 pistol, and a musketoon with bayonet
. . . . . . . 44 troopers each with a saber, 1 pistol, and a musketoon with bayonet
Supernumerary rank
. . . . . . . 1 sergeant-major, 1 farrier and 2 sergeants each with a saber and 2 pistols
. . . . . . . 3 trumpeters, and 2 farriers each with a saber and 1 pistol
. . . . . . . 9 troopers each with a saber and a carbine
. . . . . . . 9 troopers each with a saber and a lance
(Total of 125 sabers, 109 pistols, 57 lances, 52 musketoons with bayonets and 9 carbines.)

Regimental Organisation consisted of 4 squadrons, each of 2 companies, the 1st squadron having 1 company of elite troopers, and 1 regular company. There were also 2 non-combatant depot squadrons.

1st squadron: 1st (elite) and 5th companies
2nd squadron 2nd and 6th companies
3rd squadron 3rd and 7th companies
4th squadron 4th and 8th companies

Uniforms and Facings

The uniform of the light cavalry (or chevau-legers) of the line consisted of a green Spencer coats and breaches with turnbacks and lapels of the regimental facing color, which could be crimson, red, blue, pink or yellow. The collar and cuffs were of the facings color, the green shoulder straps and the breeches were piped with the facing color.

The uniform comprised pewter buttons, black boots, a brass Carabinier style helmet with a brass crest supporting a woollen comb over a sealskin turban (a result of the previous dragoon role), black leather visor, brass chin scales and red epaulettes for elite companies.

The full dress uniform had the facing colour on the front lapels of the jacket however on campaign green light cavalry overalls were worn with the facing colour on collar and cuffs. Normal light cavalry horse furniture being standard, with a sheepskin over the pistol holsters and the blanket in the regiments facing colour, (see the chasseur a cheval article).

The only variation on this were the 7th,8th and the mainly German 9th regiments that wore blue coats, white epaulettes and a blue polish czapka. Musicians had reversed colour schemes until 1812 when the Green-coat for infantry musicians was introduced.


The relevant facing colours for the regiments are:

Regiment Colour Facings on which worn
1st Scarlet Collar, cuffs, turn backs, piping, breeches stripe
2nd Lt Orange Collar, cuffs, turn backs, piping, breeches stripe
3rd Pink Collar, cuffs, turn backs, piping, breeches stripe
4th Crimson Collar, cuffs, turn backs, piping, breeches stripe
5th Sky Blue Collar, cuffs, turn backs, piping, breeches stripe
6th Madder Red Collar, cuffs, turn backs, piping, breeches stripe
7th Yellow Collar, cuffs, turn backs, piping, breeches stripe
8th Yellow with Blue Collar Collar (Blue), cuffs, turn backs, piping, breeches stripes.
9th Buff Collar, cuffs, turn backs, piping, breeches stripe

Horses

During peacetime the regiments of light and line cavalry had colour of horses according to squadron: this would have been the same for the lancers and their previous guise as Dragoons.

I Squadron: 1st ‘elite’ company rode on blacks, 5th company on browns and blacks
II Squadron: 2nd company rode on bays, 6th company on bays
III Squadron: 3rd company on chestnuts, 7th company on chestnuts
IV Squadron: 4th and 8th company on greys and whites

However, by 1805 only some colonels insisted on keeping up these peacetime practices.

John Elting wrote about the horse care in French cavalry:

“Too many French were careless horse masters, turning their animals loose at night into fields of green grain or clover without supervision. Thousands overate and died of the colic. Germans and Poles were more careful.”

Further Reading:

Elting – “Swords Around a Throne”
Elting – “Napoleonic Uniforms” (superb book)
Hourtoulle – “Soldiers and Uniforms of the Napoleonic Wars”
Haythornthwaite – “Uniforms of Napoleon’s Russian Campaign”
Bukhari-“napoleons cavalry” (courtesy of John Stallard)
Oliver & Partridge- “Napoleonic Handbook II France and her allies.”


Weapons in the War of 1812

On June 18, 1812, the U.S. entered the War of 1812 as Congress declared war on Britain due to disagreements over neutrality laws and the impressment of American sailors by the British Navy. North Carolina soldiers fought for the national army and for local militia during the war. A variety of weapons were available, ranging from traditional muskets to gunships. The war led to improvements in existing weaponry and the development of new weapons.

Infantry (foot soldier) weapons

The majority of the weapons in the war were infantry small arms weapons. The main weapon for American foot soldiers was the Springfield Model 1795 Musket. Manufactured in Springfield Armory, located in Springfield, Massachusetts, this muzzle-loaded, smooth-bore firearm was the first model manufactured by the US government. It was a copy of the French flintlock musket model of 1763. The musket had overall length of around 60 inches, a caliber of .69 inches, and weighed about 9 pounds with a bayonet attached. The bayonet was a 15 inch long, spade type blade used for hand to hand combat. The firing quality of this model was assumed to be better than most models of the time since it was copied from the French musket. Even so, with every shot the carbon buildup within the barrel caused the bullet to bounce around in the barrel, leaving with an unpredictable flight pattern. With observed flaws seen in this musket, a new model, the 1812, was developed but it would not see action in the war. The United States’ capability to provide their army with adequate weapons showed the independence of the nation and its ability to arm itself without help. The army even developed special regiments for certain specialized situations.

One of the newest technological advances was the introduction of the rifle. Rifles were significantly more accurate than the smooth-bore muskets due to the spiral grooves called rifling made inside the barrel. The rifling gave the bullet, or ball, a spin on exit, stabilizing the projectiles flight and increasing accuracy. The accuracy did come with a downside -- the reloading was slower than a musket, and burnt gunpowder buildup from repeated firing made it eventually impossible to fire without cleaning. Regiments of riflemen had already been established in 1808 in reaction to the war in Europe. These companies were provided the U.S. Model 1803 Rifle also manufactured at the Harper’s Ferry Armory. The rifles were flintlock, .54 inch caliber, and 32 inches long. No bayonet was provided with the rifle, giving the soldiers a major disadvantage in close combat. With these overwhelming shortcomings, however, the musket was still relied on as the prominent infantry weapon. Rifled muskets would eventually become the standard, with the invention of the French Minié ball bullet, and would become the common weapon in the American Civil War.

Cavalry (soldiers on horseback) weapons

A special regiment of soldiers raised on a needed basis were the Light Dragoons. These dragoons consisted of a small group of soldiers on horseback. During the War of 1812, pistols and sabers were only issued to dragoons. The prominent pistol issued was the Model 1805 Flintlock Pistol. The Model 1805 was made at Harper’s Ferry Armory in Virginia, making it the first American manufactured military pistol. They were .56 inch caliber, muzzle-loaded, smooth-bore and were about 16 inches in length. The pistols were built in pairs and given the same serial number.

The sabers provided were most commonly Starr sabers. Leading up to and during the war, Nathan Starr was granted multiple contracts to supply horsemen’s swords based off a pattern by William Rose, who also provided sabers for the dragoons. The saber was a single-edged, curved iron blade. It was 38 ¾ inches in length with a 1 ⅜ inch wide blade. The difference between the two designs was that Starr’s model had a leather scabbard instead of iron. With only a handful of light dragoons called into service, not many of these weapons were used, and swords were becoming more of an officer’s weapon.

Field Artillery

The war also saw use of field artillery. Field artillery was comprised of guns and howitzers. Guns, often referred to as cannons, were large barreled weapons designed to fire their projectiles at the highest possible velocity in an attempt to have the greatest range and maximum impact speed. The most common field gun was the 6-pounder, named for the weight of the iron ball projectile associated with a 3.67 inch bore diameter. America had a very good supply of high grade iron ore, leading to casting the guns in heavier iron which was cheaper and stronger than bronze guns which were used by the British. The cast was then drilled out from the muzzle to the specified bore size. At the breech, or back of the gun, a vent was drilled allowing for ignition of the powder propellant. On either side of the barrel were trunnions, or projections, used to seat the gun on a carriage that could be pulled by horse allowing for easy movement. The combined weight of the weapon was about 2,000 pounds and had recoil between four to six feet. This required it to be returned to firing position which took large individuals thus, only the biggest, strongest soldiers operated the guns.

Howitzers were smaller guns, or cannon, used to launch projectiles on a curved path at short ranges. They were shorter and designated by the bore diameter in inches. Typical bore size was 5 ½ inches and could accommodate multiple types of ammunition. It could fire large iron balls like the guns, and it could fire explosive balls filled with gunpowder. The ball would explode after its fuse burned to the powder, sending shrapnel over the battle area.

The artillery at the Battle of Chippewa on July 5, 1814 was a force supporting the charge of General Winfield Scott’s brigade. The American artillery was faster and more accurate than the British leading to victory. The British also failed to take Baltimore on September 13, 1814, when they lost the artillery battle to capture Fort McHenry. This would lead to the penning of our Nation Anthem by Francis Scott Key while watching this battle.

Fortifications

The use of forts was continued from their use in the Revolutionary War. Forts were military structures built for defense. In 1807, when the U.S. saw that war was imminent with Britain, officials began plans for a new chain of coastal forts. One such fort was North Carolina’s Fort Hampton located at the point of Bogue Banks on the west side of Beaufort Inlet for protection of Beaufort Harbor. In November 1807, the North Carolina Assembly encouraged the federal government to build the fort and construction began in 1808. The fort was finished in January, 1809, and named for North Carolina Revolutionary War hero Colonel Andrew Hampton.

The fort was the smallest of the federal government forts of the time, but was typical of the others in its shape. It had a horseshoe-shaped barrier wall facing the inlet made of oyster shell cement 14 feet thick at the bottom and 8 feet at the top. Behind the wall were 5 18-pounder guns which had a range of about one mile. At the back of the fort in each prong of the horseshoe were gaps for riflemen to fire through. The barracks building closing off the horseshoe could house 50 men and was next to a brick building housing the gunpowder. During the war, the British warships kept their distance in belief that the fort was formidable, even though they had never attacked it. This was fortunate because at many times the fort was un-manned and deteriorating. Many times, army regulars were called away for other service leaving the fort empty, only to be filled by local militia after being dispatched by Governor William Hawkins. The fort never saw any real battle and was abandoned after the war. Eventually years after, beach erosion claimed the fort to the sea. After the war, the government built a third wave of advanced forts along the east coast, shoring up the defense of the Atlantic coast.

Due to the British naval impressment, much of the War of 1812 was fought at sea. To combat Britain’s warships, the U.S. had many gunboats commissioned in advance of the war by President Thomas Jefferson. These Jeffersonian gunboats were planned for coastal defense and for use on the western rivers. These small ships ranged from 50 to 75 feet long and 18 feet wide and sat shallow in water for use in shoal and inland waters. They were furnished with many types of sails, oars, and crews of around 20. Each ship carried two to three guns ranging from swivel-mounted 18- to 24-pounders to 32-pounders on traversing carriages. North Carolina port cites were responsible for building 177 of these gunboats, three of which were contracted to Amos Perry. Gunboat 166, named Alligator, was used in the war as a patrol for the southern coast and saw action against the British.

North Carolina was also home to naval heroes Otway Burns and Johnston Blakeley. Burns was captain of the Snap Dragon, the most successful North Carolina privately owned and crewed ship in combat with the British navy. Blakeley was captain of the privately owned and crewed Wasp. His successful combat was against British shipping along the western coast of Europe. After the war, most of the gunboats were sold out of service. The U.S. capacity to create gunboats and other warships provided the assurance of that the nation would be defended at sea, and that the battle could be taken to the enemy, to prevent casualties in the home land.

In the War of 1812, many weapons were used to combat the British. They ranged from small arms as small as pistols to structures as large as forts. For this war, the U.S. armories manufactured the first American-made military weapons, leading to a confidence that the U.S. was an independent nation that could arm and defend itself in world and civil conflicts. The weapons created were innovative and tested, and some innovations would become standard attributes for all future weapons such as rifling. The continued advancement of weapons from this point on would make the United States armed forces the most powerful in the world.

Norris, David A. 2006. “War of 1812,” NCpedia. https://ncpedia.org/war-1812 (accessed November 11, 2013).

Cole, David. “Weapons and Accoutrements.” 2007. Survey of U.S. Army Uniforms. U.S. Army Center of Military History. http://www.history.army.mil/html/museums/uniforms/survey_uwa.pdf (accessed November 13, 2013).

Peterson, Harold L.. 2003. The American Sword, 1775-1945 Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications. http://books.google.com/books?id=x-jHvwHa0oAC&printsec=frontcover&source. (accessed November 13, 2013).

“History of the War of 1812: Artillery.” The Official War of 1812 Bicentennial Website. http://www.visit1812.com/history/Artillery.html (accessed November 11, 2013).

“History of the War of 1812: U.S. Rifle,” The Official War of 1812 Bicentennial Website. http://www.visit1812.com/history/USRifle.html (accessed November 11, 2013).

Hicks, James E. "United States Military Shoulder Arms, 1795-1935." The Journal of the American Military History Foundation 2 (1938): 40-42. https://www.jstor.org (accessed November 13, 2013).

Brenner, James T. ”The Green Against the British Red: U.S. Rifle Regiments in the Northwest Army.” Ohio War of 1812. (accessed November 11, 2013). (page no longer active, August 22, 2019)

Nash, Jaquelin Drane. 2006. “Snap Dragon.” NCpedia. https://ncpedia.org/snap-dragon (accessed on November 11, 2013).

“Jefferson’s Gunboat Navy, 1805-1812.” The Mariners’ Museum. http://www.marinersmuseum.org/sites/micro/usnavy/07.htm (accessed on November 14, 2013).

Cross, Jerry L. 2006. “Wasp”, NCpedia. https://ncpedia.org/wasp (accessed on November 11, 2013).

Babits, Lawrence E. 2006. “Gunboats, Wooden.” NCpedia. https://ncpedia.org/war-1812 (accessed on November 11, 2013).

“The Evolution of Artillery.” Naval Science UC Berkeley. Evolution of Warfare.

Additional Resources:

Springfield Armory National Historic Site. National Park Service. https://www.nps.gov/spar/index.htm (accessed October 21, 2014).

"U.S. Model 1805 Rifled Flintlock Pistol." The National Museum of American History. http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_1082453 (accessed October 21, 2014).

"The War of 1812." The National Museum of the United States Navy War of 1812 Digital Exhibit. http://starspangled200.org/Resources/Documents/NMUSN%20War%20of%201812%2. (accessed October 21, 2014).

"The War of 1812: A Guide of Battlefields and Historic Sites." The War of 1812, PBS.org. (accessed October 20, 2014).

Peterson, Harold L. 1965. The American sword, 1775-1945 a survey of the swords worn by the uniformed forces of the United States from the Revolution to the close of World War II. Philadelphia: Ray Riling Arms Books Co.

Hicks, James E. 1940. Nathan Starr (the first official sword maker) U.S. sword & arms maker. Mt. Vernon, N.Y.: (the author).

"Nathan Starr's Cutlass Fought the War of 1812." ConnecticutHistory.org. http://connecticuthistory.org/nathan-starrs-cutlass-fought-the-war-of-1812/ (accessed October 21, 2014).

"USS Constitutution in the War of 1812." USS Constitution America's Ship of State. Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/ussconstitution/history.html (accessed October 21, 2014).

Gardner, Robert E. Col. 1963. Small Arms Makers: A Directory of Fabricators of Firearms, Edged Weapons, Crossbows and Polearms. New York: Crown Publishers Inc.

Smith, Samuel E. and Edwin W. Bitter. 1986. Historic Pistols: The American Martial Flintlock 1760-1845. New York: Scalamandre Publications.


Saturday, 3 October 2009

French infantry in greatcoat (a size comparison)

T he Newline figures are true 20 mm , i.e. they measure 20 mm from the soil to the eye's height (Edited: really around 18-19mm after measuring with a rule tape!) . Therefore, they are somewhat smaller than typical 1/72 plastic figures, and they will look like dwarves when standing at the side of figures such the the last Italeri products.
The solution lies on (1) Don't mix the Newline figures with the other figures and (2)Add a 2 mm carboard 'sabot' under the base.
You can see the comparison of Newline figures vs. several HäT figures (HäT 8042 Bavarian Line Infantry, HäT 8095 1808-1812 French Line Infantry and HäT 8042 Napoleonic French Light Infantry) as well as vs. AIRFIX Waterloo Line Infantry (home-made metal clones)


However, the problem is not visible in the wargaming table when seeing from above !
Remember that all information is in the main web site


Watch the video: 1870


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