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1881. The French Minister of Public Instruction Jules Ferry passed a law establishing the free public schoole. The foundations of public and secular education in the Third Republic are thus laid.
1940. Philippe Pétain, Marshal of France and until then Vice Chairman of the Board of the Reynaud cabinet, is appointed Chairman of the Board. He will immediately devote himself to obtaining a armistice with the Germans who took Paris two days earlier.
1963. The soviet cosmonaut 26-year-old Valentina Tereshkova is the first woman to take space travel. It will make 48 revolutions around the Earth in 71 hours, aboard a Vostok capsule.