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16 June 1942
The convoy from Gibraltar to Malta arrives, but the convoy from Alexandria is forced to turn back
Weather, good visibility with high Cirrus and slight ground haze. At 0435 hours, one flight was at readiness and one flight at 15 minutes . The Squadron was briefed for a sweep at 0930 hours. North Weald as to act as withdrawal support to Kenley. The Wing was to rendezvous at Southend at 1030 hours and orbit off Gravelines at 1058 hours. 121 Squadron was on the bottom at 25,000 feet, 222 Squadron at 26,000 feet, 403 Squadron at 27,000 feet and 331 Squadron at 28,000 feet.
Action S/L Deere DFC and Bar reports that the North Weald Wing arrived over Southend at 1034 hours. They set course for the French Coast, climbed to 22,000 feet when they arrived off of Gravelines at 1058 hours. We orbited and continued the climb to 28,000 feet and patrolled as directed. Friends were seen coming out but no enemy a/c. We remained over the area for five minutes, then set course for base. No flak was encountered and all of our a/c returned undamaged at 1135 hours. Those taking part in this sweep were:
Blue Section Red Section Yellow Section
F/L Darling S/L Deere F/L Walker
W/O Campbell Sgt Murphy P/O Gardiner
P/O Parr F/L O’Leary P/O Somers
Sgt Monchier P/O Wozniak P/O Johnson
The Squadron took off for Martlesham at 1505 hours to refuel for an anti-shipping attack. We were briefed at Martlesham, with the North Weald Wing as target support for 12 Bostons. We left Martlesham at 1750 hours with 222 Squadron on the bottom of the North Weald Wing followed by 121, 403 and 331 Squadrons. We started flying at ground level, then climbed to 18,000 feet over Haamstede. We flew South and turned West, coming out over Flushing where smoke from the bombing of the docks was observed. When North of Ostend at 18,000 feet, we saw 15 FW 190s flying towards us from the South at 25,000 feet and another seven or eight coming in from the North. The e/a in the North attacked 331 Squadron and part of the e/a formation coming in from the South attacked 403 Squadron. The Squadron kept together with the exception of Yellow 3 and 4 who got a little behind and were attacked by two FW 190s. Yellow 3, P/O Somers, and Yellow 4, Sgt Johnson turned to meet the attack and P/O Somers got in a 3 second burst at the range of 400 yards at the e/a but makes no claim. He then set course for home but was again attacked from his port quarter astern. He turned to attack and got in another burst of 2 seconds of cannon and M/G head on to the e/a and observed a piece of the FW 190 engine cowling drop off. At the same time, his a/c was hit in the port wing by a cannon shell, which tore a large hole. Yellow 3 spiralled down to 10,000 feet and headed for home, landing without further damage at 1935 hours. Sgt Johnson got in a 2-second burst at a FW 190 which came across his sight form starboard. While no claim was made, cine-gun film shows good aim and deflection with the range being not over 200 yards.
The Squadron encountered flak, accurate for height, over the target area and Sgt Johnson saw a Spitfire pilot bale out 10 miles off Ostend. He orbited and gave a ‘Mayday’. Those involved in this sweep were:
Blue Section Red Section Yellow Section
F/L Darling S/L Deere F/L Walker
P/O Parr Sgt Murphy P/O Gardiner
F/L O’Leary P/O Hurst P/O Somers
P/O Magwood P/O Wozniak P/O Johnson
Weather haze over the channel with 7/10ths thin cloud layer at 26,000 feet and good visibility. At 0426 hours, one section was on readiness and the balance of the Squadron was at 30 minutes. At 0635 hours, the Squadron was airborne on a sweep. The North Weald Wing made rendezvous at Southend and set course for Gravelines via Manston with 222 Squadron leading followed by 331, 403 and 121 Squadrons flying at zero feet. The Wing climbed as the French Coast was approached and we patrolled between Gravelines and Dunkirk at 20,000 to 25,000 feet. No enemy a/c were seen or flak encountered. Those taking part in this action were:
Blue Section Red Section Yellow Section
F/L Darling S/L Deere F/L Walker
W/O Campbell Sgt Murphy P/O Gardiner
P/O Parr P/O Hurst P/O Somers
P/O Magwood P/O Wozniak Sgt Hunt
The Squadron was briefed for another sweep at 0930 hours, which proved to be the worst combat the Squadron has experienced since its formation.
Briefing 403 Squadron was to form up with the North Weald Wing at Chatham and set course for Hastings with 333 Squadron leading, followed by 403 and 222 Squadrons. Rendezvous was to be made at Hastings with the Hornchurch Wing and then set course for Cap Gris-Nez at zero feet, climbing to 20,000 to 25,000 feet over the French Coast with the Hornchurch Wing below. We were to sweep East to St. Omer and then come out at Le Touquet and head for home.
Action S/L Deere DFC and Bar reports that the rendezvous was made as arranged and that we crossed the French Coast at Cap Gris-Nez, sweeping to St. Omer then we turned right at Le Touquet. Coming out at Le Touquet, we were the last Squadron out, flying at 24,000 feet when we were attacked from above by 15 or 20 FW 190s who came in from the South. The Squadron turned to meet the attack, when a further 15 plus FW 190s that had followed us attacked from above and behind. The Squadron split into pairs and our a/c were heavily engaged in dogfights. While thus engaged, we were attacked by more e/a who came in from the South, making a total of 40 to 50 Huns engaging our Squadron. The Squadron Leader was heavily attacked from all sides and exhausted all cannon and M/G in short bursts at close range, engaging enemy aircraft head on, astern and full deflection. Being continually attacked and having to fire short bursts, there was no time to observe the results and unfortunately the camera switch was not turned on. The S/L saw two a/c hit the sea about 10 miles East of Le Touquet, one of which was definitely a Spitfire that broke in half in mid-air with the pilot baling out. He also saw another parachute in the vicinity but was unable to give a fix as he was chased by a FW 190 to mid-channel, which he could not engage having no ammo left. After the e/a broke away and about 20 miles SE of Dungeness, the S/L saw a pilot bale-out of a Spitfire. He orbited the area and gave a ‘mayday’ three times but received no answer. 3 Spitfires joined in the patrol as the rescue boats appeared in the vicinity, coming from Dungeness. The S/L then left the area and 15 miles SW of Dungeness, he saw another Spitfire crash into the sea. He later observed a pilot in a dinghy, orbited several times and directed two rescue boats who were 15 miles to the West of the pilot. He was rescued and later identified to be F/S Aitken. S/L Deere then proceeded to Southend and landed at 1210 hours. He also reports that he saw a FW 190 go down pouring black smoke and definitely out of control from 20,000 feet during the melee over Le Touquet.
F/L B Walker, Yellow 1, reports that he saw 20 plus e/a come in from the South and turned left to meet the attack, when four FW 190s came down out of the cloud dead astern on Red and Blue Sections. F/L Walker turned right to head them off, followed by Yellow 2, but Yellow 3 and 4 continued turning left. F/L Walker gave a short burst at e/a coming down on Red and Blue Sections from a range of 400 yards, causing the e/a to break and dive away. Yellow 2 was then attacked from port beam and Yellow 1 turned to attack followed by Yellow 2. The e/a spiralled upwards and we followed but did not get within range. We finally broke into cloud and, on coming out, saw no trace of the Squadron and so set course for home. We were followed by e/a below us but were not attacked and landed at Southend at 1130 hours.
Sgt Murphy, Red 2, reports, “I was attacked at the same time as S/L Deere. I saw a FW 190 come up dead in front, gave a 2-second burst with cannon and M/G as the e/a climbed past me from a range of 200 yards. The FW 190 stalled, turned over on its back and spun away. I thought that I had him until I later saw another FW 190 do the same manoeuvre in combat without being fired upon. I should like to wait for the film before making any claim. I then saw a FW 190 and got on his tail and opened fire from a range of 200 yards from dead astern with only M/Gs as both of my cannons had jammed. The e/a/ rolled on his back and spun away. It was then that I was attacked by another e/a and took violent evasive action and found myself upside down, hanging on my straps before I pulled out at 3,000 feet heading for France. I passed many small villages which all seemed to have AA batteries which opened fire at me. I flew low at 1,500 feet, opened the throttle and got on the right bearing for home, never expecting to get there. I saw an e/a crash in the sea 3 miles off Le Touquet on the way out. After crossing the English Coast, I landed at Manston and refuelled before taking off for Southend.”
P/O Wozniak, Red 4, reports that several e/a came down on him from the starboard beam and opened up with cannon and machine gun. He felt a jolt and the radio went dead and the aircraft went into a spin from 24,000 feet. He pulled out quickly and, upon levelling off, was again attacked from the port and starboard beams, as well from above astern. M/G Bullets hit the engine and both wings. P/O Wozniak put the aircraft into a violent spin and did not pull out till reaching 8,000 feet. After setting course for home, Wozniak was not attacked again, he landed at Southend with his starboard tire punctured but made a good landing. Examination of his a/c showed a large cannon hole through the fuselage near the tail which severed the radio cable and one control wire, M/G hits on the engine, through the tail plane and both of the wings and is assessed as E category damage. ‘Wozy’ is lucky to be here.
F/S Aitken reports, “I was Blue 4 and heard P/O Hurst, Red 3, report six e/a behind. I looked back, following Blue 3, P/O Parr and then heard the CO say break. We broke left and I saw an e/a which I think was a ME 109F attacking P/O Parr from quarter port astern. I turned slightly to port and gave this e/a a long burst, sweeping him along the beam as he crossed my sight with cannon and M/G. I then felt M/G bullets hit the armour plate at my back as bullets perforated my cockpit cover. My a/c gave a lurch and the R/T went U/S. I went into a steep turn and then levelled out and started weaving. I saw nothing more of my section. I then saw an e/a on my starboard, about 500 feet above and approximately 400 yards away. I took a hasty look around and saw another on my port, about 500 yards away and several more some distance behind. The e/a on my starboard side dropped its port wing slightly so I figured he was coming in to attack. I turned right into him and opened fire from a range of 200 yards at his front quarter port. He fired as he came down and I saw tracer pass underneath. The e/a then broke away. I continued the steep turn to the right, then levelled out at 10,000 feet and headed for home. I then saw tracer pass on both sides and cannon hits on both wings together with M/G fire. I went into a steep left turn and levelled out at 5,000 feet. I throttled back, reduced boost and headed for the white cliffs. I had a look around to see what damage had been done to decide whether I could make Hawkinge. The nose wanted to go up so I trimmed fully forward, which took most of the pressure off of the stick. The engine started to sputter puffs of white smoke and flames came out of the exhaust, gasoline was leaking into the cockpit and the a/c was losing height. I then decided it was about time that I got out. Holding the stick with my left hand, I undid the straps and slid the hood back, then changed hands, removing my helmet with my left hand. I opened the door and throttled back and pulled the nose up, then I held onto the stick while I put my left foot on the wing, pulled the rip cord and fell backwards out of the a/c. My chute opened and almost got caught on the tail. This was done at 1,000 feet. As I went down, I saw the a/c hit the deck with a hell of a bang and sink immediately. I inflated my Mae West and turned the quick release and it seemed like no time before I hit the water. I had a hold of the dinghy strap as I cannot swim and I hit the water facing the wind with the parachute pulling me along my back. I struck the quick release, holding onto the dinghy strap and gave the strap a hard jerk to free the dinghy from the parachute. It inflated and I climbed in, found the paddles and looked for the shore. I saw a Spitfire circling (this was S/L Deere) and later saw several more a/c, recognizing SM (W/C Scott Malden who was in one of the Spitfires). I was picked up 25 to 30 mins later by a rescue launch, given a drink of Scotch, rubbed down and put to bed, eventually landing at Dover.”
P/O Gardiner, Yellow 2, was attacked with F/L Walker and stayed with him while they followed 2 FW 190s in a climbing turn but did not get within range. They returned to base without being hit.
The foregoing reports covers the accounts of the six pilots to return home out of the 12 who took off on this sweep. The Squadron was greatly outnumbered and the fighting so furious that no accurate assessment of the damage done to the enemy can be made. There is however, little doubt that the two e/a seen out of control by S/L Deere and Sgt Murphy were shot down by 403 Squadron as there were no other Spitfires in the area at the time of combat.
Our losses are: F/L M Darling DFC, P/O J. Parr, P/O D. Hurst, P/O L. Somers, W/O D. Campbell and Sgt Hunt, all seasoned pilots with the exception of Sgt Hunt. It is not necessary to state the loss this has meant to the Squadron and the loss to the Country, as they were all outstanding young men of much promise. The Squadron formation for this sweep was:
Blue Section Red Section Yellow Section
F/L Darling S/L Deere F/L Walker
W/O Campbell Sgt Murphy P/O Gardiner
P/O Parr P/O Hurst P/O Somers
F/S Aitken P/O Wozniak Sgt Hunt
Pilot Officer Amor (Engineering Officer) obtained delivery of 9 new Spitfires by 1730 hours and by working all through the night, had 13 a/c on the front line at 0900 hours the next morning.
Weather, clear and warm. One section was at readiness for Station defence, the balance of the Squadron was at 30 minutes. Word came through of the pending move. S/L Deere went to North Weald to discuss affairs. F/S Walker returned from leave. The Squadron was advised at 1200 hours to move to Martlesham by 1600 hours. Harrow arrived and transported men, material with 65 airmen set to go by train tomorrow morning. The Squadron got airborne at 1800 hours for Martlesham, landing there at 1825 hours. P/O Amor and F/O MacKay remained overnight at Southend to clear up loose ends.
Weather, warm and clear. 65 Airmen and material were loaded on the 1057 hours train for Woodbridge and the flights spent the day fixing up their new quarters. We have a very fine dispersal if properly kept. The Squadron did a/c cannon tests, a/c tests and sector reconnaissance. With only one exception, the nine new Spits were found unserviceable, requiring several adjustments, and considerable trouble with the cannons. F/S Olmsted returned from leave. Sgts Cabas and Fletcher were posted to the Squadron. F/O Dick returned from the hospital, being discharged as fit after he and a few friends squirted some of the hospital staff with a fire hose.
Weather, very hot with some ground haze. The Squadron continued a/c tests today and did a few convoy patrols all are a bit disgruntled at the prospect of all convoy work and no sweeps but this does look like a good spot. We have excellent food and quarters. The CO went away for a 48.
Weather, warm with considerable ground haze below 1,500 feet. The Squadron settled down to convoy work. Blue, Green and Black Sections went on Army co-op at 1704 hours. P/O Wozniak had difficulty spotting the convoy through the haze and had to ask for a vector. He flew for 30 minutes on a 070 degree heading, then turned back towards the Coast and saw 10 minesweepers out in the North Sea but failed to pick up the convoy. All pilots were told that the convoy lanes are never more than 15 miles off the Coast and therefore, they are not to venture beyond that. Word came through today that S/L Campbell is a prisoner of war. We are all very bucked up with this news. We hope that a few more of the lads will also show up.
Weather, 10/10ths cumulus with occasional showers and a cloud base at 2,000 feet. The Squadron was released for the day. We did formation to keep in battle form, which looked very good from the aerodrome. F/O Harry Francis arranged for the Officers to entertain the Sergeants at the ‘Rhodes’ House, our living quarters. It was a wonderful show, with plenty of light and dark ale. The batmen fried Spam, sausage and eggs, made a salad, macaroni and cheese and had orange juice, coffee and chocolates. Sgt Murphy proved to be a remarkable story teller using Indian, Jewish, Irish and Italian dialects his stories were very clever. He is an American and hails from Turkey Point, St. Clare, Michigan near Detroit. The Officers dressed in civvies and there was no formality, everything natural, free and easy. The CO came back early from his 48 to attend. We have a real fighter Squadron now, even after the serious losses. It is evident in the atmosphere of the dispersal and in the pilots and much credit, I think, goes to the S/L, as he has a way of instilling aggressiveness in all of his boys.
Weather, 5/10ths cumulus cloud at 2,000 feet, closing in towards the late afternoon. The Squadron was on convoy patrol all day and there was no time for anything else. They have all been told to keep a close lookout for anything unusual. A big circus went off today without us. G/C Barwell here for rendezvous. AC1 Bridon assigned as GD to dispersal to keep the place in shape. 65 Squadron was posted here for target practice as well as two Lysanders from Southend. We are to take any sweeps 65 would normally do. S/L Deere went to the hospital with Quiney he has been feeling tough for four days.
Weather 10/10ths cloud with a ceiling at 1,500 feet at 1000 hours, closing in towards late afternoon. The Squadron was on convoy patrol all day. F/S Aitken and Sgt Cabas saw an ME 110 about a mile away. F/S Aitken gave chase but the e/a dove to sea level and got away. F/S Aitken did not follow too far. F/S Olmsted saw one of the convoy escort boats destroy a mine with gunfire. Wellington bomber, BH-V from a Polish Squadron, made a crash landing on return from a raid to Essen it was attacked three times by a ME 110 from below and astern. The rear gunner was very badly shot up as was the port wing and engine. The second pilot baled out 20 miles west of Essen after the attack.
Weather, 7/10ths cumulus at 1,500 feet. The Squadron was on convoy patrol all day. P/O Gardiner, F/S Walker, Sgt Murphy and Sgt Johnson planned a rhubarb to Koksijde but they failed to get permission from Ops. The pilots were shown, at Station Intelligence the combat films of rhubarb done by P/O Parr, Sgt Johnson, Murphy and Anderson so that they can familiarize themselves with rhubarb targets. These showed that the barge involved was badly hit. North Weald was asked to assess Sgt Johnson’s combat film to see if he should be awarded a damaged barge. The dinghy lanyard strap was tested today for its strength and found it to be too weak. A letter was written to F/L Madden Simpson, suggesting that this be investigated. e/a reconnaissance was reported off Orfordness and Red Section got airborne in two and a half minutes to intercept but the e/a could not be seen. G/C Peel and W/C Debden Wing paid a visit to the dispersal. The Squadron was released from Ops at 2315 hours.
Weather 10/10ths cloud during the morning, clearing by noon. Ops called at 0334 hours giving permission for a rhubarb that was asked for yesterday. F/S Walker, P/O Gardiner, Sgt Murphy and Sgt Johnson were called out of bed and were airborne at 0419 hours, using lights for take-off. They hit Koksijde as planned and crossed the Coast penetrating to the Furnes Canal and turned left along the canal. Seeing a collection of barges in the canal halfway between Furnes and Nieuport, and meeting no AA fire they made a leisurely turn and made a line astern attack on one motor driven barge. The concentrated fire of the 4 a/c’s cannon and machine guns on the one barge completely destroyed it. The each member singled out one of the other barges for individual attacks, each damaging one. After this, they followed the canal to Nieuport where heavy AA fire was encountered. In the light, which was just breaking, flashes from many gun positions could plainly be seen. The batteries criss-crossed the town with an intense barrage of red and green flak which F/S Walker said looked like Christmas. Walker saw a post open fire on Johnson and he turned right opening fire on the battery from a range of 75 yards in a low attack that silenced the position. Sgt Murphy saw a gun post located in the Cathedral tower that he attacked and likewise silenced. Coming out, Sgt Murphy’s a/c was hit in the starboard wing and a 15-inch hole was torn in the trailing edge fortunately the aileron was not hit. The boys counted at least 8 gun positions scattered around the perimeter of Nieuport. They all landed safely at 0535 hours. This was a good effort although the pilots were briefed to turn out before hitting heavy flak concentrations at Nieuport, but from the results, it is just as well that they flew over the town. P/O Gardiner almost collided with a house and Walker nearly hit a smokestack as the light was not so good for low flying.
Weather, 10/10ths cloud at 1,000 feet, closing in the late afternoon with rain, visibility of one mile. New pilots, Sgt Sorensen, Sgt Mawson, Sgt Faircloth, Sgt Thomas, Sgt Ashworth, Sgt Jones and F/S Page did formation flying. Cannon and M/G stoppages were taken up with the Armament Section by F/L Walker. All of the London papers this morning carried an account of the rhubarb operation, with the Times having the most accurate description. Sgt Anderson, P/O Gardiner and F/S Walker requested permission to do a rhubarb to Knocke. F/L Walker would not allow it as the Squadron is due to move Tuesday back to operations. The Squadron was on convoy patrol all day.
Weather 10/10ths cloud at 1,500 feet. The Squadron had one section on readiness at 0428 hours. Ops advised us of AA practice off Walton from 0900 hours to 1130 hours. The pilots were advised of this and that Blenheims are to practice bombing from 3,000 feet at Sutton, five miles NE of the aerodrome all day till 1700 hours. A gas drill was conducted today at 0845 hours. F/L Walker went to London for a 48. The Squadron was on convoy patrol, reporting 27 ships Northbound off of Southwold. The new pilots did some aerobatics and formation flying. S/L Deere was released from Mrs Harvey’s rest home.
Weather 7/10ths cumulus cloud at 3,000 feet with a 20 to 25 mph wind from the Southwest. The Squadron had one section at readiness, with the balance released for training. We did aerobatics, tail chase, sector recco. One of the new pilots, Sgt Faircloth, hit a soft spot while taxiing and nosed over, damaging the prop on KH-A. Mrs and Mr Harvey had the pilots to their home for hamburgers, beer and smokes at 1500 hours. It was a very nice affair. They are a very charming couple and their hospitality was greatly appreciated. The afternoon was spent looking over the gardens and the livestock. The only girl in our party was Miss Joan Fenton, the CO’s pretty fiancée. The Sergeant’s Mess had a dance in the evening. We all had a good time. Sgt Johnson had a good looker with him from Ipswich Murphy, Cabas, Fletcher, Walker and Rawson played the field.
Weather, 8/10ths cumulus at 2,000 to 3,000 feet with a cold wind from the SW at 20 to 30 mph. At 0428 we had one section at readiness with the remainder at 15 minutes. We did convoy patrol and weather tests. A signal came through, indicating that F/L B. Walker is awarded the DFC by HM the King for devotion to duty, leadership and making 53 operational sweeps over enemy territory. All of the pilots, 62 ground crew, the IO, EO and MO have to go to Hawkinge tomorrow at 0730 hours for a short stay.
Weather, 10/10ths cumulus at 1,000 feet, threatening thunder storms with some rain and drizzle. The Squadron was on convoy patrol for the day. P/O Wozniak and Sgt Cabas scrambled at 1615 hours, saw no enemy a/c but reported a balloon, oval shape, 6 x 4 feet and cream in colour, flying at sea level at Lat. 51degrees 50 minutes Long 2 degrees East at 1615 hours. P/O Gardiner and P/O Amor are in the hospital with the flu.
Capt ‘Knobby’ Clark visited the Squadron with P/O Hogg (Canadian). A signal arrived today, advising us that the move to Hawkinge was cancelled. The Squadron, with the exception of one section at readiness, was released off the Station at 1700 hours. F/S Walker and Sgt Anderson planned a rhubarb to Knocke, but Ops would not give them permission.
Weather, 7/10ths cumulus at 1,500 feet with a cold NW wind at 10 to 15 mph. The Squadron went on convoy patrol for the day. A signal was received directing that we are to move to Catterick tomorrow. All sections packed and started loading into 10-ton trucks on the RR siding in the afternoon. Sgt Pilots Dowding and Haynes arrived today.
Weather, considerable ground haze, closing in towards the late afternoon. The Squadron departure for Catterick was delayed by the weather. F/O Francis, with the advance party, proceeded in Harrow a/c from Martlesham. The balance of the ground crew left today by train at 1600 hours, arriving at Catterick at 2359 hours. F/L Black acted as their Escorting Officer.
Weather, clear and warm with a heavy ground haze in the early morning. The Squadron took off from Martlesham at 0600 hours and arrived at Catterick at 0730 hours, having difficulty landing because of haze. ‘A’ Flight went to West Hartlepool for two weeks. ‘B’ Flight remains at Catterick the work here being defensive only, with one section at readiness from dawn to dusk each day. We had a welcome party in the Mess with the Station Staff. Also in attendance were S/L Deere, F/L Walker, F/O Francis, F/O Magwood, F/L Black, P/O McKay. They had a real bust up in which the Station staff proved themselves to be good fellows. While in London yesterday, the IO gave the Canadian Press (RCAF) full details of the rhubarb that was carried out by F/S Walker, Sgts Johnson, Murphy and P/O Gardiner as well as Sgt Murphy’s experiences of June 2, 1942.
Weather, clear, warm and very humid, with some ground haze. It closed in during the late afternoon, threatening thunderstorms. S/L Deere and F/O McKay intended to go to West Hartlepool to inspect ‘A’ Flight quarters, but the weather closed in and the trip was postponed. The CO arranged with the Station Commander for some furnishings for the dispersal at West Hartlepool. Lisk wrote a news column for ‘Wings Abroad’.
Sgt Murphy, Anderson, Johnson, F/S Aitken and Sgt Monchier were recommended for their commissions they are all excellent types who will be welcome members to our Mess. F/S Taylor distributed sweaters, pyjamas and socks that were donated by the Canadian YMCA. A letter of thanks was written as these articles were gratefully accepted by the Squadron and every article was excellently made and of good quality. Sgt Murphy went on a 48 with Monchier to Leeds F/S Aitken and Johnson went on 7 days leave. F/L Brad Walker DFC and F/O Harry Francis also got off on 7 days leave. Previous to this, they had tried to get away twice only to be recalled. We are not bust here so the chances are good that they will make it this time.
Weather 10/10ths cumulus, ceiling zero, clearing towards noon. A letter was received from the AOC, 11 Group, AVM Leigh-Mallory, thanking S/L Deere for the work done by 403 Squadron. This was really appreciated by the pilots as they felt that we had received little credit for the show put up. We still feel that the Squadron unquestionably should be credited with two FW 190s destroyed in the combat of June 2, 1942 and we are continuing to press this claim. S/L Deere and F/O McKay visited West Hartlepool in the Tiger Moth. For not having flown a Tiger for 3 and a half years it was a good effort by S/L Deere.
Weather, very heavy, hot haze and humid with no wind. The Squadron attempted some practice formation flying buy the weather was too bad. P/O G. Hoben arrived from Torquay at 2100 hours. Sgts Murphy and Monchier, and F/S Olmsted were interviewed by the Station Commander for commissions and were given very good reports. F/S Clare Walker received a well-earned commission and is now P/O Walker a very popular promotion.
Weather, very hot and hazy. The Squadron did dog fights and aerobatics. Ops told us that the Squadron is flying more here than the average fighter Squadron that they have had posted to the Station. P/O Gardiner arrived from Martlesham after having been released from the hospital. Sgts Fletcher, Haynes and Anderson did dog fights over the aerodrome below 5,000 feet and received a lecture from the Commanding Officer. Sgts Norman and Maffre arrived to join the Squadron today and Maffre was sent to Drem, having been posted here in error.
Weather, clear and warm with a 10 to 15 mph wind from the NW. The Squadron did formation flying and aerobatics. Cpl Milne arrived and took pictures of the CO and ‘Steve’ for a press write-up (Steve is his black Scottie). The 13 Group armament officer arrived here to supervise an anti-gas drill including the decontamination of an aircraft. The drill, conducted with 14 men, was carried out as follows:
Equipment 2 wheel barrows, 2 dust cans, 4 shovels, 1 pick, 1 ladder, 2 – 10 foot planks, 2 white-wash brushes, 1 water bucket, 4 gallons of petrol, 1 drum of bleaching powder, and an indicator sticks and rags.
Procedure First coat the tires with bleaching, then move a/c away from contaminated area. The 14 man crew, clothed with No. 5 equipment proceeds as follows 2 men on each wing, 2 on the a/c, 1 man on the prop, one on the engine cowling, 2 on the Perspex, 2 on the fuselage and tail assembly, 4 men on mixing and ground de-contamination. Head the a/c into the wind and work on windward side, using a dry cloth to thoroughly clean all of the surfaces, then finish off with rags soaked in petrol. This should take 1 hour to thoroughly clean an a/c. Allow ¾ of an hour for dressing for the first time. Some Halifax’s from Topcliffe came over to give our pilots some bomber attack practice. Sgt Pilots Murray, Johnson and MacKay arrived. F/S Taylor flew in the Magister to West Hartlepool to check up on billets.
Weather, clear and warm with a 10-mph wind from the SW. P/O Gardiner returned from 48 hour. The Squadron did aerobatics and sector recco today. Sgt Ashworth bent the prop tips on Spitfire 736 by allowing the tail to come up while taking off. Also damage was done to the Magister while it was starting up. The front cockpit switches were on and the rear cockpit switches were off and, while it was sucking in, the engine started and pulled forward, causing the prop to hit an oil drum. F/L Pitman, F/L Ivy, F/L Berry of 13 Group HQ paid a visit to the dispersal. F/O Crampton, RCAF, visited us for news items so we gave him an account of P/O Wozniak.
Weather, unsettled with heavy ground haze and clearing towards late afternoon to 10/10ths cumulus at 1,5000 feet. The Squadron did aerobatics and general flying. Many of the pilots went off on 48 hours passes. Sgt Pilots Faircloth, Mawson, Johnson, Ashworth, Jones, McKay and Murray were posted. LAC Peel of the Photographic Section was posted to 168 Squadron.
Weather, clear and warm. F/L Walker DFC and F/O Francis returned from 7 days leave. P/O Amor returned from convalescence at Martlesham. The AOC attended the decontamination practice. An actual mustard bomb was dropped on a Spitfire. The a/c was refuelled, re-armed and decontaminated in 15 minutes. The AOC appeared pleased and complimented the CO on the show. The Squadron carried out practice flying.
The weather was clear and warm. The Squadron did aerobatics and general flying and F/O McKay went to the hospital.
Word has just been received that P/O Amor, our EO and the oldest remaining Officer in the Squadron has been posted. He is going to 488 Squadron, a New Zealand Squadron at Church Fenton. We are extremely sorry to lose him, but it is a F/L posting that he is going to so we are happy to see him get the promotion. ‘Amy’, as we called him, has been the backbone of the Squadron his knowledge of publications, his experience in moving Squadrons, his intimate knowledge of the airmen and their trades has bee of tremendous importance in the successful operation of the Squadron. Good luck ‘Amy’. Word has been received of a secret operation in which the Squadron is to take part. It is in 11 Group, in the South of England. The pilots know only that there is a ‘do’ on and are quite bucked up about it. Practice flying has been discontinued so that 100% serviceability may be maintained for the next 36 hours. 20 planes, 20 pilots, the IO the MO and 62 men are to go. We are also to furnish 27 men to service the flight from another Squadron, which is to take over our state of readiness at West Hartlepool. F/O Rushworth assumes the IO’s duties.
S/L Deere returned from 48 hours. The advance party of 27 men and kit left by rail for the detachment to the secret operation. These men will not know their destination until they arrive. One flight of No. 243 Squadron (six planes and eight pilots) took over our readiness at West Hartlepool. Three of our pilots are detached to them and 27 airmen under F/S Klaponski will service their planes. The balance of our personnel returned to Catterick to prepare for the above-mentioned detachment. P/O Amor is cleaning up a bit of work prior to leaving the Squadron. P/O Magwood, P/O Hoben went on 48 hours. Seventy-five personnel attended the picture ‘Next of Kin’.
Summary Aircrew Establishment
Fighter Sweeps: 4 Officer 8 1
Convoy Patrols: 164 Airmen 16 Nil
Ground Crew Establishment
Officer 4 Nil
Airmen 107 44
Total 135 45
Total Operational Hours: 418:05
Total Non-Operational Hours: 447:30
Our Casualties, 6 Pilots missing, 7 a/c missing and 2 a/c Category ‘E’
Enemy Casualties, 2 FW 190s destroyed (awaiting confirmation) 2 FW 190s damaged.
Battle of Midway, Commander Task Force SIXTEEN, Serial 0144-A of 16 June 1942
Enclosure: (A) CO Hornet Serial 0018 of June 13, 1942, with enclosures thereto.
(B) CO Enterprise Serial 0133 of June 8, 1942, with enclosures thereto.
(C) CO Enterprise Serial 0137 of June 13, 1942, with enclosure thereto.
(D) Comcrudiv SIX Serial 058 of June 11, 1942, with enclosure thereto.
(E) CO Pensacola Serial 056 of June 8, 1942, with enclosure thereto.
(F) Comdesron SIX Serial 094 of June 12, 1942, less enclosure.
1. Enclosures are forwarded herewith. Where discrepancies exist between Enterprise and Hornet reports, the Enterprise report should be taken as the more accurate.
2. On 4 June, Task Force SIXTEEN consisted of 2 CVs, 5 CAs, 1 CL and 9 DD.
3. The following is a general outline of the operations of Task Force SIXTEEN during the three days, 4-6 June, during which attacks against Japanese forces took place off Midway. All times given are zone plus ten, which is two hours ahead of Midway time, zone plus twelve.
(a) We received our first contact report at 0740. Task Force SEVENTEEN was about 10 miles to the N.E. of us with search in the air. Task Force SIXTEEN headed toward the contact at 24 knots. When we got within striking distance, about 0900, we turned south into the wind and launched attack groups. The order of launching was: (1) VF for fighter patrol, (2) dive bombers armed some with 500, remainder with 1000 lb. bombs, (3) torpedo planes, (4) VF to accompany TBDs. Launching time was about one hour. Carriers then headed for contact at 25 knots.
(b) Our estimate of enemy CV movements was that he would continue into wind to close Midway, so as to recover, reservice and launch new attack. We felt that we had to hit him before he could launch his second attack, both to prevent further damage to Midway and to ensure our own safety.
(c) Unfortunately, our presence was discovered by an enemy seaplane scout while we were launching. As this plane was to the southward of us, I assume he may have come from a seaplane tender southeast of Midway. Whatever the cause, enemy CV turned back to the northward instead of continuing toward Midway, as we have figured he would. Our dive bombers who were conducting a modified search enroute to the target, failed to make contact at first and did not arrive until after the TBDs and their accompanying VF.
(d) By this time enemy CVs, had been recovering their planes and were preparing to launch their second attack, which would undoubtedly have been on our CVs and not on Midway. The presence of the third carrier was not know when we launched our attack and the presence of a fourth was not realized until much later, as she appears to have been somewhat separated from the first three.
(e) Very unfortunately for themselves but very fortunately for the fate of the action, our TBDs gallantly attacked without waiting for the arrival and support of our dive bombers. The torpedo plane attack, while not in itself very effective, caused the enemy to maneuver radically and prevented him from launching. Our dive bombers arrived in the nick of time, caught one enemy CV (Akagi) with most, if not all, of his planes on deck. The other carriers had some planes on deck. This resulted in the burning and subsequent destruction of the first three carriers. The wiping out of our torpedo plane squadrons was, I believe, done largely by enemy VFs. This seems to have pulled enemy VFs down and left the air clear for our dive bombers. The heavy losses in dive bombers appear to have occurred through forced landings, out of gas. We rescued the crew of one such Enterprise plane Friday afternoon. Others have since been sighted and rescued from Midway. Hornet dive bombers failed to locate the target and did not participate in this attack. Had they done so, the fourth carrier could have been attacked and later attacks made on Yorktown by this carrier prevented.
(f) The Yorktown air group played an important part in this first attack. Their search gave us that afternoon the information of the location of the fourth carrier. This enabled us to launch the late afternoon attack which crippled the fourth carrier and gave us incontestable mastery of the air. After the first attack on the Yorktown her planes then in the air landed on the Enterprise and Hornet. They took part in all subsequent attacks and were of the greatest value in making up for planes lost in the first attack.
(g) When the first attack was made on the Yorktown, she was nearly out of sight of us to the northwestward. From the heavy smoke that appeared, I judged that she had been hit. Our aircraft operations and the relative direction of the light wind prevailing prevented us from ever getting a good look at her until she had been abandoned after the second attack. I sent two CAs and 2 DDs to her assistance after the first attack and continued to furnish VF protection. Our late afternoon attack on the fourth carrier was, except for this, the best action we could take for the protection of all hands.
(h) After recovering our air groups following their second attack, Task Force SIXTEEN stood to the eastward and back to the westward during the night. A radar contact while on course north abut 0330 was responsible for some unscheduled movements. I did not feel justified in risking a night encounter with possibly superior enemy forces, but on the other hand, I did not want to be too far away from Midway the next morning. I wished tot have a position from which either to follow up retreating enemy forces or to break up a landing attack on Midway. At this time the possibility of the enemy having a fifth CV somewhere in the area, possibly with his Occupation Force or else to the northwestward, still existed.
(a) At daybreak Friday, Task Force SIXTEEN was headed to he westward at 15 knots in an area of bad flying weather. Our first contact was the one made by the Tambor reporting the enemy 90 miles west of Midway. This looked like a landing, so we took a course somewhat to the northward of Midway at 25 knots. As the forenoon drew on, reports began to come in which indicated a retreat and not an attack. While I had not believed that the enemy, after losing four carriers and all their planes, would remain in an offensive frame of mind, still that possibility could not be overlooked, especially with the uncertainty about a fifth carrier in the area. The Tambor's report might mean only that the retirement order had been slow in being issued or had failed to reach the ships she sighted.
(b) About 1100 we sighted at VP on the water. I sent the Monaghan to take off the crew, but told her not to destroy the plane. About 1300 the Monaghan signalled that the bombsight had been overlooked and was still in the plane. I sent her back to get the bombsight and ordered her to report to the Yorktown.
(c) As the general situation (and the weather) cleared, it became evident that a choice of objectives for chase and attack was the next matter for decision. We had reports of two groups either of which contained good targets. One was to the west of Midway, the other to the northwest. I chose the one to the northwest. It was farther away, but it contained the crippled CV and 2 BBs, one of them reported damaged.
(d) We stood to the northwestward at 25 knots, using the position reported during the forenoon by a VP. There were no trailing reports, and, as the day wore on, this position began to grow rather cold, but it was the best we had. About 1600 a flight of B-17's overtook us. Our challenge was unanswered, but I signalled them that we would launch an attack about 1700. We heard them report our position so we knew our movements were known to Midway. Later we received the disquieting information that B-17's were returning without having located their target.
(e) Our attack groups were launched after 1700, went out 250 miles, but only sighted and bombed two small vessels, reported as CLs or DDs. I believe they were DDs and I doubt if any hits were made, although one was claimed. Our aircraft got back in the growing darkness, which required lights and search lights. All landed safely, except one VSB of the Hornet which crashed astern of the Enterprise, personnel saved by DD. One Yorktown SBD was shot down by enemy A.A. fire.
(f) The situation which presented itself that night was that no targets had been sighted for 250 miles ahead on the last reported course of the enemy, and some planes reported the weather ahead as not so favorable. I figured that the enemy DDs would report our attack and that they might either get the protection of bad weather ahead or else change course to the westward to head for Japan and to throw us off. In either event a change in our course to the westward seemed desirable. Accordingly we took course 280?, speed 15 knots, for the rest of the night, and at daylight launched a 200 mile search, covering 180?-360?. That night the undesirability of running down any enemy BBs in the dark presented itself as a reason for slowing, as did the growing shortage of fuel in DDs.
(a) Our search was fortunate in finding two groups of enemy vessels to the southwestward about 40 miles apart. The more southerly group was reported as 2 CAs and 2 DDs the other as 1 CV and 5 DDs, later changed to 1 BB and 3 DDs. This second group has since been determined to have been 2 CAs, 1 CL or DL, and 2 DDs.
(b) The Hornet air group, VSBs and VFs, was launched to attack the BB and DDs. By the time the Hornet planes had returned, the Enterprise was ready and her air group was sent in to attack the BB group again. This was followed by a second attack by the Hornet on the same objective.
(c) As a result of these attacks, the following damage was inflicted: 1 CA sunk, 1 CA disabled and abandoned, one DD sunk, one DD strafed by VFs, and one or two hits on what was a CL or DL.
(d) After the last attack group had returned to Enterprise we launched two photographic planes, one with still, the other with movie camera. The stills have been forwarded and the movie film is also being sent in for development.
(e) All through the day there had been no question in our minds that a BB was involved. That evening, when questioning the pilots of the two photographic planes, I found one of them quite certain that a CA of the Mogami class, and not a BB, was involved. The photographs bore him out. The ship is the same as the one appearing in the 1940 Jane. Everyone who saw this ship says she appeared to be much larger than a CA. From this fact and from her toughness I suspect that her displacement may be considerably in excess of 10,000 tons. She was reported as definitely larger than the other cruiser accompanying her, which may have been a CL or DL. The smaller ship with a DD was last seen leaving a heavy oil streak about 15 miles away. These ships left many survivors on board the big CA and in the water. I believe the larger ship sank during the night.
(f) The high speed steaming on each of the three days had reduced our DD fuel on hand to a point where vessels were approaching the lower limit. I sent the Maury and Worden back to the rendezvous with the Cimarron. This left us with 4 DDs, below which number it seemed inadvisable to go on account of Jap SSs reported in the area.
7. Except for the Hornet dive bombers failing to find the target on the forenoon of 4 June, all operations were conducted approximately as intended, and the work of the carrier squadrons on which the success or failure of the action depended was beyond praise. This applies particularly to the first attack made on 3 CVs about noon on 4 June which decided the action. The attacks made at this time by the torpedo squadrons, prior to the arrival of the dive bombers, was of an especially gallant nature.
8. No ships of Task Force SIXTEEN except those sent to report to Commander Task Force SEVENTEEN after the first attack on the Yorktown on the afternoon of 4 June were in actual contact with any enemy forces. The Enterprise and the Hornet were ably handled. Cruisers and destroyers screened and supported these carriers without specific orders and in accordance with doctrine throughout the three days in a most satisfactory and efficient manner.
9. The following is a brief summary of the more important points brought out by the action:
(a) Losses in attacking planes are due primarily to enemy VF and not to A.A. fire.
(b) Ships unsupported by VF are easy prey for CV air attack.
(c) In duel between CVs side which is able to strike first blow without being itself hit wins.
(d) CVs are most vulnerable to damage from fire. This is especially true when they are caught with planes on deck.
(e) Carrier air groups should be complete units which have been highly trained while operating from a shore base before they go on board carrier.
(f) A carrier air group which has been in action and has suffered heavy losses should go ashore to receive its replacements and to train these until the squadrons and the group are again ready for combat duty. This means that replacement air groups must be ready.
(g) A.P. bombs suitable for our present dive bombers are required. With present 500 and 1000 lb. bombs attack against armored ships does not disable until ship has been knocked to pieces by many more hits than should be necessary.
(h) Strafing attack against DDs by VFs temporarily stops their A.A. fire by driving exposed personnel to cover.
(i) Dive bombing attacks on DDs are not profitable because of the difficulty of obtaining hits on such a small and highly maneuverable target. Such attacks should not be made if a larger and more valuable target is available.
(j) Early and accurate information of movements of an enemy force to be attacked is essential for successful carrier operations. This should be obtained, whenever possible, by other than CV aircraft, both to retain maximum CV striking power and to avoid disclosing the fact that any CVs are in the area.
(k) The performance of our F4F-4 is reported as greatly inferior to the Jap "Zero" fighter. The ammunition supply for 6 guns of our VFs in inadequate. For use against the unprotected "Zero," 4 machine guns instead of six in our F4F-4's, with the weight saved used for additional ammunition, merits consideration. A new VF with greater range and maneuverability is required.
(l) The new TBF should be substituted for the TBD as soon as possible.
(m) The advantages of operating at least two carriers together were manifest. The fact that the Enterprise and Hornet were in the vicinity of the Yorktown permitted many of her planes to go to these vessels after she was crippled and to continue to operate from them throughout the action. This both saved the Yorktown planes and made up for Enterprise and Hornet losses incurred in the first attack.
Life in the "Assembly Centers"
Induction, Housing, Mess Halls
At arrival a cursory medical check was made and soldiers inspected the baggage was for contraband. Weapons, straight-edged razors, short-wave radios and liquor were confiscated. 
Though the army claimed the space allotted to a couple was 10 x 20 feet (larger families receiving accordingly larger allotments) it failed to meet its own standards. In Tulare, the average living space was little more than 2 x 4 feet per person. In Tanforan, half of the inmates were housed in horse stables with three to six people occupying a stall that had formerly accommodated one horse. 
Barracks for housing were uniform in size and appearance, each measuring 20 x 100 feet and comprised of either five apartments each intended for six persons, or ten smaller apartments meant for three persons each. Smaller families often had to share one unit. All barracks had plywood partitions about eight feet high, leaving an open space between each partitioned room.
Each "apartment" was equipped with army cots and a light bulb. Apart from cots the only things the WCCA issued were a cotton mattress or a straw tick and two blankets per person. Consequently, barracks were little more than places to sleep. All other activities took place in the various communal barracks. Communal feeding was provided in central mess halls. Newly constructed barracks usually seated 150 persons who ate in two, sometimes three shifts. Again, the situation could vary considerably from camp to camp: In Santa Anita there were three large mess halls, and meals were served in three shifts of 2,000 each. During the induction weeks, the WCCA served A Rations and B Rations in most camps. Later the diet consisted of canned food including lima beans, Vienna sausages, and chili con carne. After the first two weeks food improved considerably, though inmates agreed that it left much to be desired. The average daily ration cost per capita for all "assembly centers" were
For More Information
Burton, Jeffery F., Mary M. Farrell, Florence B. Lord, and Richard W. Lord. Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites . Western Archeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service, 1999, 2000. Accessible online at http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/anthropology74/ce16.htm .
Commission of Wartime Internment and Relocation of Civilians. Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians . Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.
Fiset, Louis. Camp Harmony: Seattle's Japanese Americans and the Puyallup Assembly Center . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.
Kashima, Tetsuden. Judgment Without Trial: Japanese American Internment during World War II . Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004.
Modell, John (ed.). The Kikuchi Diary. Chronicle from an American Concentration Camp: The Tanforan Journals of Charles Kikuchi . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973.
Okubo, Mine. Citizen 13660 . New York: Columbia University Press, 1946.
Uchida, Yoshiko. Desert Exile. The Uprooting of a Japanese American Family . Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982.
U.S. Army. Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast, 1942 . Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1943..38. 
Sanitary Facilities, Medical Treatment
Latrines, washrooms, and laundries were located in separate buildings and in short supply. Latrines often lacked partitions, though after vehement protests the WCCA later installed them. Washrooms contained between eight and fifteen showers, partitioned, but without doors or curtains. The shower-inmate ration was usually around 1 to 23. Washrooms as well as laundries regularly ran out of hot water and often required a long wait in line. On the whole, the sanitary situation was an embarrassing hardship, especially for the elderly people, pregnant women, and the sick. 
Medical service was free but even for a prison the service was inadequate. Though most diseases were not critical, the inability to treat them properly added to the discomfort. Almost all evacuees had a cold most of the time, and due to malnutrition, skin problems were widespread, as were digestive problems. Most temporary detention centers had at least one major outbreaks of diarrhea. More serious illnesses were treated at nearby hospitals. During the first two months the Public Health Service vaccinated most inmates against typhoid and smallpox, and diphtheria.
Work and Employment
The WCCA decided to employ evacuees "to the fullest extent practicable" to lower the costs of running the camps. About one third of the inmates between 18 and 65 were employed. In Tulare (pop. 4,900) a total of 1,200 inmates were employed, 500 of them in the mess halls and kitchens and 200 in the works and maintenance division. 
Persons assigned to jobs worked on a 44-hour per week basis and were classified as unskilled, skilled or professional at monthly wage rates of $8, $12, and $16 respectively. No inmate was required to work, but once he accepted a job, he was expected to carry it out except in case of illness. To quit, a 48-hour notice of intent was required. The average income of the civilian WCCA staff was $200 per month.
About 200 evacuees from the fifteen "assembly centers" worked in the sugar beet fields of Idaho, Montana and Oregon. It remained the only case of private employment. California Governor Culbert Olson's plan to keep Japanese Americans in the temporary detention centers through fall to use them as fruit pickers was rejected by the War Department. In Santa Anita inmates manufactured camouflage nets for the army on a volunteer basis. 
Starting in June, inmates were given monthly allowances in coupons to purchase basic necessities such as clothing. The monthly coupon allowance was $1.00 for evacuees under 16, $2.50 for evacuees over 16, $4.50 for married couples, and a maximum of $7.50 for families. 
Although the military downplayed the prison-like nature of the "assembly centers," the features of confinement were impossible to ignore. There were fences and watchtowers, strict visiting regulations, and a 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. curfew, though on August 15, 1942, the WCCA declared that the detention centers could decide individually whether a curfew was necessary.
On June 17, the WCCA ruled that twice a day a roll call was to be held, one in the morning and once in the evening. A Nisei wrote to a friend outside: "[I]t's asinine, but it's army's orders. Imagine making such a count when we are enclosed within barbed wire fence and guards walking every 50 feet and sentries in watch towers every 100 yards with guns ready to kill." 
For every two hundred inmates, the army employed one civilian policemen who were authorized to enter all buildings and evacuee quarters without warrant.  Additionally, in most camps a sizeable number of Japanese Americans served as auxiliary policemen. Besides maintaining order within the compound, the Internal Police checked all visitors and incoming parcels to ensure that no contraband entered the camp. Mail, unlike parcels, was exempted from censorship. Bendetsen tried to get a blanket warrant to open and censor domestic mail but the War Department denied its approval.  However, even without authorization the army opened some letters, mostly inter-camp mail.
Education, Recreation, Religion, Camp Newspapers
Although the WCCA provided no formal system of education and recreation, comprehensive programs sprung up in most camps due to the inmates' initiative and outside support from private organizations, schools, and churches. Complementing nursery school, elementary school, and high school classes, a program for adults was usually set up, too, including Americanization classes in English, civics, and history, as well as flower arranging ( ikebana ) and paper folding ( origami ) classes. 
Recreation was organized cooperatively between the WCCA and the Japanese Americans. Barracks and open spaces were remodeled into makeshift gyms, basketball courts, and baseball diamonds. In most camps, inmates organized baseball and basketball leagues. Other sports to be found were football, table tennis, boxing, or judo, as well as go and shogi . Movies were shown regularly at many centers, and some centers even had libraries. 
The WCCA allowed the inmates to hold religious services within the camps and to request necessary assistance from outside leaders. Most inmates were either Buddhist or Protestant. Cooperation between the denominations was widespread, as was competition. In Tanforan, for example, the mother's day program was initiated by a Methodist minister, but during the program several Buddhist and Catholic priests spoke. Some camp directors exempted church service from the ban on Japanese language.
Army regulations required that all meetings within the camp be conducted in the English language except for adult classes. The use of spoken Japanese language was to be "held to an absolute minimum." Any news publication prepared or issued in the Japanese language was forbidden. Japanese prints of any kind with the exception of approved Japanese religious books and English-Japanese dictionaries were considered contraband and confiscated. 
Recognizing the need to disseminate information within the camps the army allowed for the publication of camp newspapers. All "assembly centers," except Mayer, had a mimeographed newspaper. The WCCA provided a Press Relation Representative who censored information that he deemed inappropriate, especially the topics relating to the incarceration. Camp newspapers were published in English exclusively. The papers contained official announcements such as visiting policies, roll call regulations, clarifications on scrip book allowances, as well as disclaimers of persistent rumors, schedules of church service and recreational activities, opening hours of the hospital and the post office. 
Administration and Self-government
The temporary detention centers were largely staffed by civilian personnel "borrowed" from the WPA. While Caucasians occupied all supervising positions Japanese Americans did most of the actual work.  Soon after induction informally elected house managers played an important role in organizing everyday needs and mediating between the inmates and their keepers. Eventually, Japanese Americans attempted to establish a more formal system of self-government. Although the WCCA never authorized self-government in the "assembly centers," its initial silence on the issue led to various democratic experiments. Almost all camps elected "evacuee councils." They were helpful in organizing day-to-day business and sometimes even influenced administrative policies.
The WCCA initially tolerated the inmate councils because they made running the camps easier, and because they served the propaganda effort. However, as some "assembly center" councils got increasingly involved in administrative tasks the WCCA abolished them. 
Submerged: the Jewish woman who hid from Nazis in Berlin
On 22 June 1942, Marie Jalowicz Simon woke to find a Gestapo officer standing by her bedside. "Get dressed. We need to interrogate you." In a moment of inspired improvisation, the 20-year-old Berliner managed to distract first the Nazi official in her bedroom, then his colleague waiting at the bottom of the stairs, and escaped back into "submerged" illegality as a Jew in Nazi Germany.
Now, 16 years after Jalowicz Simon's death, a new book tells the extraordinary story of her fate as one of around 1,700 "U-boats" – Jews who managed to survive the Nazi period submerged beneath the surface of everyday life.
Untergetaucht (Submerged) is based on 77 tapes of conversations between Jalowicz Simon and her son, Hermann, a historian. The last interviews were conducted in hospital, only a few days before her death on 16 September 1998. Until then Jalowicz Simon, who went on to become a professor in ancient literature and art history at Berlin's Humboldt University, had never relayed her story in public.
With a good dose of black humour and little pathos, the book describes how the daughter of a wealthy lawyer learned to look after herself following the deaths of her parents before she was 20.
After the Berufsverbot, the 1933 law that prohibited Jews and political opponents from seeking employment in certain professions, she worked as a slave labourer in the Siemens arms factory in the capital.
But in 1941 she slipped out of the official city records almost by accident: when the postman came to deliver a letter from the job centre, she simply said that her "neighbour" Marie Jalowicz Simon had been deported. "Moved to unknown destination in the east," the postman wrote down, using the common euphemism at the time, and the young woman vanished from the records. That same summer she started to walk the streets of Berlin without the Jewish star on her jacket.
In the coming years maintaining her anonymity required ingenuity and luck almost on a daily basis. Relying on the help of Germans willing to defy the Nazi regime or other "submerged" Jews, Jalowicz Simon moved between 13 homes in Berlin alone.
Many of the "submerged" Jewish women could not cope with life in illegality, she writes. "These women were pushed into the deep water. But some of them couldn't swim, and certainly not beneath the surface."
But Jalowicz Simon had a great talent for improvisation. In one flat she managed to share a home with a syphilitic Nazi who claimed that he could "smell Jews a mile off".
Feigned relationships helped her to pass unnoticed. In one instance a young Dutchman, with whom she lived in the Kreuzberg area of Berlin, hit her with his boot in a fit of rage. At first Jalowicz Simon was embarrassed, but then "I realised that only now I fitted perfectly into the social milieu I found myself in: my black eye didn't mark me out, it made me inconspicuous."
Small acts of rebellion helped to keep up her spirits. At the Siemens factory the workers learned to sabotage production without getting caught.
Later on, she walked the streets of Berlin at night and defecated in front of the doors with names "that sounded like Nazis. "What would the people think when they discovered my business on their doorstep the next morning?"
Towards the end of the war she tried to escape to Bulgaria, first to Sofia, then to Veliko Tarnovo, where she was moved by the sight of young schoolchildren and old men protesting against the deportations of their Jewish friends. But eventually she realised she could be nowhere more invisible than in her home town of Berlin. Increasingly, the product of an educated, middle-class household fell in love with the city's working-class dialect. This, she writes in the book, was the language of the people who were prepared to help: "It was above all the educated German bourgeoisie who had failed."
In an afterword to the book, Hermann Simon writes that, after the war, his mother struggled to return to normal life.
She told him how difficult it was to ever "resurface properly". Asking himself why it took her so long to finally tell her full story, he points to a remark she made in a lecture later in her career: "When I give testimony, then I do it truthfully, and there are many things that can only be told half a century later."
Japanese Strike Force
Pearl Harbor Hawaii shortly after 0755 Sunday, 7 December 1941
L-R Nevada (BB-36),, Arizona (BB-39) (inboard), Vestal (AR-4) (outboard), Tennessee (BB-43) (inboard), West Virginia (BB-48) (outboard), Maryland (BB-46) (inboard), Oklahoma (BB-37) (outboard) , Neosho (AO-23) and California (BB-44) 1st Air Fleet, Admiral C. Nagumo, IJN
Set on fire by planes from Enterprise (CV-6), 4 June 1942. Torpedoed and scuttled by destroyers Arashi and Nowaki on 5 June 1942 northwest of Midway Island
Set on fire by planes from Enterprise (CV-6) and sunk, 4 June 1942 northwest of Midway Island
Set on fire by planes from Yorktown (CV-5) and Enterprise (CV-6), 4 June 1942 Torpedoed and scuttled by destroyers Kazegumo and Yugumo, 5 June 1942. North West of Midway Island
Set on fire and blown up by planes from Yorktown (CV-5). Sunk northwest of Midway Island, 4 June 1942
Nautilus (SS-168) claims to have delivered the death blow by hitting Soryu with two torpedoes shortly after she was hit by Yorktown`s aircraft
Sunk by 3 torpedoes fired from Cavalla (SS-244) 140 miles north of Yap Island, 19 June 1944
Struck by 6 torpedoes and 7 bombs from aircraft from Essex (CV-9) and Lexington (CV-16) and sunk 220 miles east northeast of Cape Engano, 25 October 1944
Crippled by 50 shell hits of 8 inch or less during the first Naval Battle Of Guadalcanal. Struck by 4 torpedoes from aircraft of Enterprise (CV-6) and sunk off Savo Island, 13 November 1942
Disabled by gunfire from Washington (BB-56) during the Second Battle Of Guadalcanal. Kirishima received nine 16 inch and over forty 5 inch hits at a range of only 8400 yards and was scuttled, 15 November 1942
Sunk in shallow water by aircraft from Task Force 38 near Kure Island, 24 July 1945, broken up for scrap in 1948
CA - Chickuma
Torpedoed by aircraft from Task Force 77.4.2 northeast of Samar. Scuttled by torpedoes from destroyer Nowake October 25 1944
Bombed by U.S.A.A.F. aircraft 10 miles Southeast of Negros, Philippine Islands, 24 October 1944. Sank 26 October 1944
Torpedoed and sunk by Harder (SS-257) 90 miles South West of Basilan, 9 June 1944
Torpedoed and sunk by Sealion (SS-315) 65 miles north northwest of Keelung, Formosa, 21 November 1944
Damaged by aircraft of Task Force 58. Scuttled 150 miles southwest of Nagasaki, 7 April 1945
Sunk by aircraft from Hornet (CV-12) and Cabot (CVL-28) 150 miles Southwest of Nagasaki, 7 April 1945
Badly damaged by aircraft from Task Force 58. Scuttled 150 miles Southwest of Nagasaki, 7 April 1945
Torpedoed and sunk by Growler (SS-215) 7 miles east of Kiska Harbor, Alaska 5 July 1942
Damaged by a mine and sunk by US Navy aircraft 5 miles southwest of Rendova, 8 May 1943
Sunk by aircraft of Task Force 77 80 miles north of Panay, 27 October 1944
Torpedoed and sunk by Redfin (SS-272) 30 miles southeast of Zamboanga, 11 April 1944
Sailed with Pearl Harbor Task Force but was assigned to bombard Midway Island. Sunk by aircraft from Task Force 38 in Manila Bay, 13 November 1944
Sailed with Pearl Harbor Task Force but was assigned to bombard Midway Island. Ushio was the only Japanese ship that took part on the attack on Pearl Harbor not to be sunk during the war. Ushio surrendered badly damaged and was scrapped in 1946
Supply Group No.1, Captain, Masanao, IJN
Kyokuto Maru - Sunk by US Navy aircraft, 21 September 1944
Kenyo Maru - Sunk by Whale (SS-239), 23 March
Kokuyo Maru - Sunk By Bonefish (SS-223), 30 July 1944
Shinkoku Maru - Sunk by US Navy Aircraft at Truk, 17 February 1944
Supply Group No.2, Captain Kazutaka Niimi IJN
Toho Maru - Sunk by Gudgeon (SS-211), 29 March 1943
National Industrial Recovery Act
Touted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt as "the most important and far-reaching ever enacted by the American Congress," the National (Industrial) Recovery Act (NRA) was passed by Congress on June 16, 1933. That New Deal law was designed to promote recovery and reform, encourage collective bargaining for unions, set up maximum work hours (and sometimes prices) and minimum wages, and forbid child labor in industry. For a short time, Title I of the famous NRA prescribed the drafting and establishment of a code system of fair competition for every sort of industry. Those codes had the force of law and were exempt from antitrust provisions. The codes were to be designed by a group or association that would not impose inequitable restrictions on one company over another, not limit membership in the group drafting the code, nor would the code be designed to promote monopolies or to eliminate or oppress small enterprises. It also would not descriminate against small enterprises, and lastly it "will tend to effectuate the policy of this title." The president was given the executive power to not only approve the code — essentially giving the President the authority to make laws, which is the job of the Congress — but also he could impose his own conditions on those codes, make additions or deletions to them prior to approving them, and was free to write codes himself where none existed. A New Deal product of meetings among such Brain Trust advisors as Raymond Moley, big business leaders, and labor unionists, the NRA illustrated Roosevelt`s willingness to work with, rather than against, business interests. The Brain Trust was a group of academics put together to carve out the policies of the New Deal prior to Roosevelt`s inauguration. Members of the group were Raymond Moley, an American journalist and public figure Rexford Tugwell, Adolf Berle of Columbia University, attorney Basil O`Connor, and later, Felix Frankfurter of Harvard Law School. Most of those men served in official posts during Roosevelt`s presidency they never met as a group after his inauguration. The NRA was part of President Roosevelt`s first 99 days, which produced 16 pieces of relief legislation in 1933, including the following:
Education in the Philippines has undergone several stages of development from the pre-Spanish times to the present. In meeting the needs of the society, education serves as focus of emphases/priorities of the leadership at certain periods/epochs in our national struggle as a race.
As early as in pre-Magellanic times, education was informal, unstructured, and devoid of methods. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (3 Rs) by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors.
The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during the Spanish colonization. The tribal tutors were replaced by the Spanish Missionaries. Education was religion-oriented. It was for the elite, especially in the early years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. Education during that period was inadequate, suppressed, and controlled.
The defeat of Spain by American forces paved the way for Aguinaldo’s Republic under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for the time being but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of Interior. The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution.
An adequate secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission per instructions of President McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.
A highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission by virtue of Act No. 74. The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines 600 teachers from the U.S.A. They were the Thomasites.
|Year||Official Name of Department||Official Titular Head||Legal Bases|
|1863||Superior Commission of Primary Instruction||Chairman||Educational Decree of 1863|
|1901-1916||Department of Public Instruction||General Superintendent||Act. No. 74 of the Philippine Commission, Jan. 21, 1901|
|1916-1942||Department of Public Instruction||Secretary||Organic Act Law of 1916 (Jones Law)|
|1942-1944||Department of Education, Health and Public Welfare||Commissioner||Renamed by the Japanese Executive Commission, June 11, 1942|
|1944||Department of Education, Health and Public Welfare||Minister||Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Philippine Republic|
|1944||Department of Public Instruction||Secretary||Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Philippine Republic|
|1945-1946||Department of Public Instruction and Information||Secretary||Renamed by the Commonwealth Government|
|1946-1947||Department of Instruction||Secretary||Renamed by the Commonwealth Government|
|1947-1975||Department of Education||Secretary||E.O. No. 94 October 1947 (Reorganization Act of 1947)|
|1975-1978||Department of Education and Culture||Secretary||Proc. No. 1081, September 24, 1972|
|1978-1984||Ministry of Education and Culture||Minister||P.D. No. 1397, June 2, 1978|
|1984-1986||Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports||Minister||Education Act of 1982|
|1987-1994||Department of Education, Culture and Sports||Secretary||E.O. No. 117. January 30, 1987|
|1994-2001||Department of Education, Culture and Sports||Secretary||RA 7722 and RA 7796, 1994 Trifocalization of Education Management|
|2001 – present||Department of Education||Secretary||RA 9155, August 2001 (Governance of Basic Education Act)|
The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, school of arts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes were established in 1902 by the Philippine Commission. In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No. 1870 which created the University of the Philippines.
The Reorganization Act of 1916 provided the Filipinization of all department secretaries except the Secretary of Public Instruction.
Japanese educational policies were embodied in Military Order No. 2 in 1942. The Philippine Executive Commission established the Commission of Education, Health and Public Welfare and schools were reopened in June 1942. On October 14, 1943, the Japanese – sponsored Republic created the Ministry of Education. Under the Japanese regime, the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character Education was reserved for Filipinos. Love for work and dignity of labor was emphasized. On February 27, 1945, the Department of Instruction was made part of the Department of Public Instruction.
In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No. 94, the Department of Instruction was changed to Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.
In 1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture by virtue of Proclamation 1081 and the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1978 y virtue of P.D. No. 1397. Thirteen regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system.
The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports which later became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports in 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. 117. The structure of DECS as embodied in EO No. 117 has practically remained unchanged until 1994 when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and 1995 when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) were established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively.
The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report provided the impetus for Congress to pass RA 7722 and RA 7796 in 1994 creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), respectively.
The trifocal education system refocused DECS’ mandate to basic education which covers elementary, secondary and nonformal education, including culture and sports. TESDA now administers the post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development while CHED is responsible for higher education.
In August 2001, Republic Act 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed transforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district offices and schools). RA 9155 provides the overall framework for (i) school head empowerment by strengthening their leadership roles and (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens.
DepEd Management Structure
To carry out its mandates and objectives, the Department is organized into two major structural components. The Central Office maintains the overall administration of basic education at the national level. The Field Offices are responsible for the regional and local coordination and administration of the Department’s mandate. RA 9155 provides that the Department should have no more than four (4) Undersecretaries and four (4) Assistant Secretaries with at least one Undersecretary and one Assistant Secretary who are career service officers chosen among the staff of the Department.
In 2015, the Department underwent a restructuring of its office functions and staffing. The result of which was the Rationalization Plan for the new organizational structure. Details of the new structure are further explained in DO Series 2015 No. 52, also known as the New Organizational Structures of the Central, Regional, and Schools Division Offices of the Department of Education.
At present, the Department operates with four (4) Undersecretaries in the following areas:
Accordian Awareness Month
Adopt A Cat Month
African-American Music Appreciation Month
Caribbean American Heritage Month
Fight The Filthy Fly Month
Fresh Fruit and Vegetables Month
Gay and Lesbian Pride Month
Great Outdoors Month
Iced Tea Month
495 - John Cor made a note referring to the first known batch of Scotch whisky.
1792 - Kentucky joined the United States.
1796 - Tennessee joined the United States.
1813 - James Lawrence, the mortally-wounded commander of the USS Chesapeake, gave the now famous line: "Don't give up the ship!"
1831 - James Clark Ross discovered the Magnetic North Pole.
1986 - Thomas Edison received his first patent (#90646). It was for an "electrographic vote recorder."
1946 - The BBC started to grant television licenses, for legal access to broadcast TV, costing £2 annually.
1947 - The Doomsday Cock first appeared, on the cover of Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. It was initiallys et at 7 minutes until midnight.
1961 - Regular FM stereo radio broadcasting with a multiplexed signal began in Schenectady, NY, on WGFM.
1965 (Explosion) A coal mine explosion in Fukuoka, Japan at the Yamano mine killed 236 people.
1967 - Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band by the Beatles was released.
1968 - Blind and Deaf popular icon Helen Keller died. (born June 27, 1880)
1974 - The Heimlich maneuver, named after Dr. Henry Heimlich, was published in the journal Emergency Medicine.
1980 - The Cable News Network (CNN) began broadcasting
1991- The Comedy Network became Comedy Central
1994 - FX Network made its debut. It was the first cable TV network owned by FOX.
1996 - Major League Baseball debuted for the first time on FOX
2009 - The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien premiered on NBC
2009 - General Motors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
455 - The Sack of Rome: Vandals entered Rome, and plundered the city for several weeks.
1098 - First Crusade: The first Siege of Antioch ended as Crusader forces take the city. The crusades were a result of Muslim conquests of the Christian holy lands.
1835 - P. T. Barnum and his circus began touring the United States.
1858 - The Donati Comet was first seen and named after its discoverer, Giovanni Battista Donati, in Florence.
1865 - Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith, a commander of Confederate forces, signed the surrender terms offered by Union negotiators, ending the US civil war.
1928 - Kraft's Velveeta Cheese was made avaiable.
1953 - The coronation of the United Kingdom's Queen Elizabeth II.
1962 - Ray Charles hit Billboards Top 5 in both Pop and R&B with a country tune - I Can't Stop Loving You.
1966 - Surveyor 1 landed in Oceanus Procellarum on the Moon.
1991 - Liquid Television debuted on MTV
2004 - Ken Jennings began his 74-game winning streak on the syndicated game show Jeopardy.
1621 - The Dutch West India Company receives a charter for New Netherland (now eastern US) and the Caribbean.
1888 - The poem Casey at the Bat by Ernest Lawrence Thayer, was published in the San Francisco Examiner.
1889 - The first long-distance electric power transmission line in the United States was completed, 14 miles between a generator at Willamette Falls and downtown Portland, Oregon.
1948 - The 200-inch reflecting Hale telescope at the Palomar Mountain Observatory in California was dedicated.
1956 - Santa Cruz, CA authorities announced a total ban on rock and roll at public gatherings, calling the music "Detrimental to both the health and morals of our youth and community."
1965 - Major Edward White II, a Gemini 4 crew member, performed the first American spacewalk.
1968 - Valerie Solanas attempted to assassinate Andy Warhol by shooting him three times.
1992 - Presidential candidate Bill Clinton appeared on the Arsenio Hall Show and played the saxophone
1996 - Zenith introduced the first HDTV-compatible front projection TV in the U.S.
1989 - The government of China sent troops to force protesters out of Tiananmen Square after seven weeks of occupation.
2010 - Long suspected of his involvement in the 2005 disappearance of Natalee Holloway, Joran van der Sloot was arrested for the murder of Stephany Flores in Lima, Peru.
1784 - Elisabeth Thible was the first woman to fly in an untethered hot air balloon, flying for about 45 minutes.
1812 - Following Louisiana's admittance as a US state, the Louisiana Territory was renamed the Missouri Territory.
1876 - The Transcontinental Express arrived in San Francisco, California, in only 83 hours and 39 minutes after leaving New York City.
1895 - Joseph Lee was issued a patent (#540,553) for a "bread crumbing machine"
1912 - Massachusetts became the first state of the United States to call for a minimum wage, although it was non-specific, and for children under 18 and women.
1919 - The US Congress approved the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed voting for women, and sent it to the individual states for ratification.
1937 - The first shopping carts were introduced at the Humpty Dumpty Supermarket in Oklahoma City, created by the store's owner, Sylvan Goldman.
1957 - The first US commercial long-distance coal slurry pipeline, 108 miles long, began delivery from a coal mine, from the Georgetown Preparation Plant of the Hanna Coal Company in Cadiz, Ohio, to the Cleveland Illuminating Company power station, in Eastlake, Ohio.
1974 - During a 'Ten Cent Beer Night' inebriated Cleveland Indians fans started misbehaving, causing the game to be forfeited to the Texas Rangers.
1976 - 'The gig that changed the world.' A few dozen people saw the debut of the Sex Pistols at the Lesser Free Trade Hall in Manchester, England
1986 - Jonathan Pollard pled guilty to espionage for selling top secret United States military intelligence to Israel.
1989 - The 'Tank Man' halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour after the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
1851 - Harriet Beecher Stowe's anti-slavery serial, Uncle Tom's Cabin (or Life Among the Lowly) began a ten-month run in the National Era, an abolitionist newspaper.
1883 - The first regularly scheduled Orient Express left Paris.
1933 - US President Franklin D. Roosevelt took the United States off of the "Gold Standard", a result of the Great Depression. President Nixon, in 1971, completed the transition when he announced that the United States would no longer convert dollars to gold at a fixed value, $35 an ounce at that time.
1956 - Elvis Presley introduced his new single, Hound Dog, on The Milton Berle Show
1966 - The Beatles had a taped appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, debuting music videos for Rain and Paperback Writer.
1968 - Robert F. Kennedy was shot and killed at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian.
1977 - The Apple II went in sale.
1981 - The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that five people in Los Angeles, California, had a rare form of pneumonia seen only in patients with weakened immune systems, in what turns out to be the first recognized cases of AIDS.
1989 - The Tiananmen Square protests ended violently in Beijing by the People's Liberation Army, with at least 241 dead. Many western journalists had errantly speculated that the army would not fight against the people.
1995 - Singled Out with host Chris Hardwick premiered on MTV
2011 - Teen Wolf premiered on MTV
1844 - The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) was founded in London.
1882 (Cyclone) More than 100,000 people in Bombay, India were killed.
1889 - The Great Seattle Fire destroyed 25 blocks of downtown Seattle.
1912 (Volcano Eruption) Novarupta
1933 - America's first drive-in opened near Camden, New Jersey, opened today. The first feature was a 1932 film, Wives Beware, and admission was 25 cents per car and an additional 25 cents per person.
1942 - The first parachute jump in the US using a nylon parachute was made by Adeline Gray, in Hartford, Connecticut.
1944 - D-Day: the day the Allied powers crossed the English Channel and landed on the beaches of Normandy, France, turning the tide of the war against Germany.
1948 - BBC Television began broadcasting again for the first time since 1939.
1964 - The Rolling Stones made their American TV debut on The Hollywood Palace.
1971 - The Ed Sullivan Show aired for the final time on CBS.
1983 - Reading Rainbow premiered on PBS
1997 - Farrah Fawcett made a bizarre appearance on the Late Show With David Letterman. She went on long tirades and story-telling sprees that made little to no sense and was distracted by blinking lights in the studio.
1998 - Sex and The City premiered on HBO
2002 - A near-Earth asteroid, estimated at 30 feet in diameter, exploded over the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Libya.
2005 - In Gonzales v. Raich, the US Supreme Court upheld a federal law banning cannabis, including medical marijuana.
1692 (Earthquake) Port Royal, Jamaica, over 1,000 people were killed.
1753 - The British Museum was founded, starting the the collections of Sir Hans Sloane.
1755 (Earthquake) Tabriz, Iran
1893 - Mohandas Gandhi committed his first act of civil disobedience.
1914 - The Alliance was the first vessel to pass through the Panama Canal.
1954 - Rutgers Institute of Microbiology opened, it was the second dedicated microbiology laboratory in the world.
1955 - The $64,000 Question debuted on CBS.
1962 - Credit Suisse (then known as Schweizerische Kreditanstalt) opened the first drive-through bank, in Switzerland at St. Peter-Strasse 17, near Paradeplatz in downtown Zurich.
1976 - The Tribal Rites of the New Saturday Night by journalist Nik Cohn was published in New York Magazine. It was the inspiration for the film Saturday Night Fever.
1981 - The Israeli Air Force destroyed Iraq's Osiraq nuclear reactor during Operation Opera.
1990 - Universal Studios Florida opened in Orlando, FL.
2002 - Kim Possible premiered on The Disney Channel.
632 - Muhammad, the Islamic prophet, died in Medina.
1637 - René Descartes published Discourse on Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences.
1783 (Volcano Eruption) Laki, Iceland, killed over 9,000 over a period of months, and caused a 7 year famine.
1869 - Ives W. McGaffney of Chicago obtained the patent (#91,145) for a "sweeping machine"
1872 - The first US post card was authorized by Act of Congress.
1906 - Theodore Roosevelt signed the Antiquities Act into law, authorizing the President to restrict the use of certain parcels of public land with historical or conservation value.
1940 - The element 93, neptunium (Np) was announced by Edwin M. McMillan and Philip H. Abelson working at the University of California at Berkeley.
1948 - Texaco Star Theater (later The Milton Berle Show) was first broadcast on NBC
1949 - George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four was published.
1949 - The FBI reported notable Hollywood elite as communists, including John Garfield, Paul Robeson, Paul Muni, and Edward G. Robinson.
1953 (Tornado) Flint, Michigan
1953 - The US Supreme Court ruled that restaurants in Washington DC, could not refuse to serve black patrons.
1966 - National Football League (NFL) and American Football League (AFL) announced that they would merge.
1969 - Founder Brian Jones quit The Rolling Stones. He died a month later, at age 27.
1983 - The first triplets resulting from in-vitro fertilization, Aaron, Jessica, and Chenara Guare were born at the Flinders Medical Centre in Adelaide, Australia.
1990 - Charles Freeman, the owner of E-C Records store in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, was charged with illegally selling the 'legally obscene' 2 Live Crew's 'As Nasty As They Wanna Be' to an undercover officer.
1650 - The Harvard Corporation, one of the two administrative boards of Harvard, was established. It was the first legal corporation in the Americas.
1856 - 500 Mormons left Iowa City, Iowa, and headed west for Salt Lake City.
1902 - Horn & Hardart opened first restaurant with vending machine service at the Automat Restaurant at 818 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1934 - Donald Duck debuted in The Wise Little Hen.
1953 - John H. Kraft was granted his patent (#2,641,545) for "manufacture of soft surface cured cheese".
1973 - In horseracing, Secretariat wins the US Triple Crown (The Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes).
1978 - The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormans) opened its priesthood to "all worthy men", ending a 148-year-old policy of excluding black men.
1979 - The Sydney Ghost Train fire killed 7 people in Luna Park Sydney, Australia.
1984 (Tornado) Belyanitsky, Ivanovo, and Balino, Russia
1993 - 'Hollywood Madame' Heidi Fleiss was arrested.
1997 - Married With Children television series came to an end on FOX.
2006 - Disney's Cars was released in theaters.
1692 - Bridget Bishop was hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for "certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft & Sorceries."
1809 - The first steamboat to navigate the open seas, the Phoenix paddle wheel steamboat took 13 days to sail from New York City to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1829 - The first Boat Race between the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge took place. Oxford won.
1854 - The first class of United States Naval Academy students graduated.
1886 (Volcano Eruption) Mount Tarawera
1902 - The US patent (#701,839) for a window envelope was issued to Americus F. Callahan of Chicago, Ill., which he called the outlook envelope.
1916 - An Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire led by Lawrence of Arabia began.
1935 - Alcoholics Anonymous is founded in Akron, Ohio, United States, by Dr. Robert Smith and Bill Wilson.
1943 - Laszlo Biro filed for a British patent (British #564172) on a practical ball point pen with quick-drying ink.
1944 - 15-year-old Joe Nuxhall of the Cincinnati Reds became the youngest player ever in a Major League Baseball game.
1947 - Saab produced its first automobile.
1952 - Mylar was registered as a DuPont trademark for an strong polyester film that grew out of the development of Dacron, product of the early 1950s.
1991 - 11-year-old Jaycee Lee Dugard was kidnapped in South Lake Tahoe, California she was freed in 2009.
1994 - Pay television content descriptors which describe the varying degrees of suggestive or explicit content in a series and movies began being broadcast by pay channels such as HBO, Cinemax and Showtime.
2007 - HBO's critically acclaimed, multi-award-winning Mob-family drama The Sopranos ended with a sudden cut to black and silence, leaving many fans to wonder whether Tony Soprano was dead or still alive.
323 BC - Alexander the Great died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II in Babylon.
1509 - Henry VIII of England married Catherine of Aragon.
1742 - Benjamin Franklin invented the Franklin stove. He chose not to patent it.
1793 - Robert Heterick was issued the patent (#X000063) for a stove design of cast iron
1837 - The Broad Street Riot occurred in Boston, fueled by ethnic tensions between Yankees and Irish.
1895 - Charles E. Duryea was granted he first US patent (#540,648) for a gasoline-driven automobile.
1949 - Hank Williams, Sr. debuted at the Grand Ole Opry.
1955 - Eighty-three spectators were killed and at least 100 are injured after an Austin-Healey and a Mercedes-Benz collided at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the deadliest accident to date in motorsports.
1962 - Frank Morris, John Anglin and Clarence Anglin (allegedly) became the only prisoners to escape from the prison on Alcatraz Island. They were never seen again after escaping on an inflatable raft.
1963 - Faget, Meyer, Chilton, Blanchard, Kehlet, Hammack and Johnson were granted the patent (#3,093,346), for NASA, for the Mercury space capsule.
1963 - Alabama Governor George Wallace (D) stood at the door of Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama in an attempt to block two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending the school.
1979 - Actor John Wayne died afrer a decade-long fight with cancer.
1982 - E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial was released in theaters.
1986 - Ferris Bueller's Day Off was released in theaters. The rare Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California was not really destroyed in the film.
2001 - Timothy McVeigh was executed for his role in the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing.
2002 - American Idol premiered on FOX
2002 - Antonio Meucci was acknowledged as the first inventor of the telephone by the United States Congress. His 1871 patent was not as detailed as Alexander Graham Bell's 1876 patent.
1790 - A 'Red Globe' was being reported by many people, flying over France.
1849 - A gas mask "inhaler or lung protector" was patented (#X006529) by Lewis Phectic Haslett of Louisville, Ky.
1899 (Tornado) New Richmond, Wisconsin
1906 - Sound movies were patented (#823,022) by John Ballance.
1913 - John Randolph Bray exhibited the first animated cartoon, a movie called The Artist's Dream (aka The Dachsund) in which a dog atesausages until he exploded.
1924 - US President George Bush, born June 12, 1924 in Milton, Massachusetts.
1939 - The Baseball Hall of Fame opened in Cooperstown, New York.
1942 - Anne Frank received a diary for her thirteenth birthday.
1964 - Anti-apartheid activist and ANC leader Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison for sabotage in South Africa.
1967 - The US Supreme Court in Loving v. Virginia declared all US state laws which prohibit interracial marriage to be unconstitutional.
1972 - Fast food restaurant chain Popeyes was founded in Arabi, Louisiana.
1979 - Cyclist Bryan Allen flew the Gossamer Albatross across the English Channel, it was powered solely by human power.
1987 - "Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall." - Ronald Reagan, referring to the Berlin Wall.
1998 - Geraldo ended (syndicated show)
1994 - Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman were murdered outside her home in Los Angeles, California.
1997 - Queen Elizabeth II reopened the Globe Theatre in London.
1999 - The Style Network made its debut.
1373 - Anglo-Portuguese Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest international agreement in the world which is still in force.
1525 - Ex-Catholic priest Martin Luther married Katharina von Bora, against the celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for priests and nuns.
1611 - Astronomer Johannes Fabricius published Narratio de maculis in sole observatis et apparente earum cum sole conversione (Narration on Spots Observed on the Sun and their Apparent Rotation with the Sun), after his doscovery of sunspots.
1774 - Rhode Island became the first of Britain's North American colonies to ban the importation of slaves.
1844 - A safe lock was patented by Linus Yale (#3,630)
1886 - Great Vancouver Fire destroyed much of the Canadian city.
1898 - Yukon Territory was formed, with Dawson chosen as its capital.
1904 - PS General Slocum fire and sank, East River, New York
1927 - Aviator Charles Lindbergh received his famous ticker-tape parade down 5th Avenue in New York City.
1962 - Stanley Kubrick's controversial Lolita was released.
1966 - The United States Supreme Court rules in Miranda v. Arizona that the police must inform suspects of their rights before questioning them. It is a bit more detailed than what police say in most televised crime dramas.
1971 - The New York Times published the Pentagon Papers. 1983 - Launced in 1972, Pioneer 10 crossed the orbit of Neptune and became the first man-made object to leave our Solar System.
1994 - A jury in Anchorage, Alaska, blamed recklessness by Exxon and Captain Joseph Hazelwood for the Exxon Valdez disaster, allowing victims of the oil spill to seek $15 billion in damages.
2012 - Dallas, originally on CBS, returned to television, this time on TNT
1158 - Munich (in what is now Germany) was founded by Henry the Lion on the banks of the river Isar.
1775 -The Continental Army was established by the Continental Congress, marking the birth of the United States Army.
1777 - The Stars and Stripes was adopted by Congress as the Flag of the United States. Today, June 14 is officially 'Flag Day' in the United States.
1789 - Whiskey distilled from maize was first produced by American clergyman the Rev Elijah Craig. It is named Bourbon because Rev Craig lived in Bourbon County, Kentucky.
1834 - The first sandpaper was patented (#X08244, #X08245, #X08246, #X08247) and issued to Isaac Fisher, Jr., of Springfield, Vermont
1872 - Trade unions were legalized in Canada.
1884 - New York was the first state in the US to enact legislation requiring the burying of utility wires.
1938 - Dr. Benjamin Gruskin of Philadelphia, Pa. patented (#2,120,667) chlorophyll as a "therapeutic agent for the use in the treatment of infection" of the blood stream, infected parts, and for open cuts and wounds.
1951 - The Univac1 was unveiled in Washington, DC. and dedicated as the world's first commercial computer.
1954 - US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a bill that placed the words 'under God' into the United States Pledge of Allegiance.
1959 - Disneyland Monorail System, the first daily operating monorail system in the Western Hemisphere, opened to the public in Anaheim, California.
1966 - The Vatican announced the abolition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum ("Index of Prohibited Books"), which was originally instituted in 1557.
1967 - The People's Republic of China tested its first hydrogen bomb.
1972 As of DEcember 31, the insecticide DDT was banned from use in the US.
2002 - The Bourne Identity was released in theaters.
763 BC - Assyrians recorded a solar eclipse, and that detail was later used to fix the chronology of Mesopotamian history.
1215 - The signed (sealed) Magna Carta guaranteed King John would respect feudal rights and privileges, uphold the freedom of the church within his kingdom. This was probably the same King John of Robin Hood lore.
1648 - Margaret Jones was hanged in Boston for witchcraft in the first such execution for the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1752 - Benjamin Franklin proved that lightning is electricity (traditional date, the exact date is unknown).
1776 - Delaware Separation Day: Delaware voted to suspend government under the British Crown and officially separate from Pennsylvania.
1844 - Charles Goodyear received a patent (#3,633) for vulcanization, a process to strengthen rubber.
1846 - The Oregon Treaty established the 49th parallel as the border between the United States and Canada, from the Rocky Mountains to the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
1878 - Eadweard Muybridge took a series of photographs to prove that all four feet of a horse leave the ground when it runs the study becomes the basis of motion pictures. The purpose of the shoot was to determine whether a galloping horse ever lifts all four feet completely off the ground during the gait, since the human eye could not break down the action. It is considered by many to be the first 'motion picture.'
1896 (Earthquake & Tsunami) Meiji-Sanriku, Japan
1919 - The first US patent (#228,904) for a safety razor was issued to (brothers) Frederick and Otto Kampfe of New York.
1934 - The Great Smoky Mountains National Park was founded.
1985 - Rembrandt's painting Danaë is attacked by Bronius Maigys (later judged insane) who threw sulfuric acid on the canvas and cut it twice with a knife.
1991 (Volcano Eruption) Mount Pinatubo
1994 - Israel and Vatican City established full diplomatic relations.
2012 - Nik Wallenda became the first person to successfully tightrope walk over Niagara Falls.
1816 - Lord Byron read 'Fantasmagoriana' to his four house guests - Percy Shelley, Mary Shelley, Claire Clairmont, and John Polidori, and inspired his challenge that each guest write a ghost story.
1858 - Abraham Lincoln gave his "a house divided against itself cannot stand" speech.
1884 - The first public roller coaster, LaMarcus Adna Thompson's "Switchback Railway" (patent #310,966) opened in New York's Coney Island amusement park.
1893 - Cracker Jack, invented by R.W. Rueckheim, was introduced at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago's World Fair.
1903 - The Pepsi-Cola Co. registered the Pepsi-Cola trademark.
1903 - The Ford Motor Company was incorporated by Henry Ford and 11 investors.
1904 - Bloomsday is a commemoration and celebration of the life of Irish writer James Joyce during which the events of his novel, Ulysses, takes place.
1911 - IBM as founded as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company in Endicott, New York.
1961 - Dancer Rudolf Nureyev defected to the US from the Soviet Union.
1963 - Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space on Vostok 6.
1967 - The Monterey Pop Festival began.
2010 - Hot in Cleveland premiered on TV Land.
1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempted to assassinate Mehmed II, forcing him to retreat from Wallachia, in Romania.
1631 - Mumtaz Mahal died during childbirth. Her husband, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan I, spent the next 17 years building her mausoleum, the Taj Mahal.
1837 - Charles Goodyear obtained his first rubber-processing patent (#240). The success of his company came after he died in 1860.
1852 - W.H. Fancher and C.M. French of Waterloo, N.Y. received a patent (#35,600) for a combined plow and gun. Yes, you rwad that correctly.
1885 - The Statue of Liberty arrived in New York Harbor.
1944 - Iceland declared independence from Denmark and becomes a republic.
1963 - The US Supreme Court ruled 8 to 1 in Abington School District v. Schempp, against requiring the reciting of Bible verses and the Lord's Prayer in public schools.
1971 - President Richard Nixon declared the US War on Drugs.
1987 - Florida's Dusky Seaside Sparrow became extinct when 'Orange band', the last known of the species, died.
1994 - All major networks provided live coverage of the O.J. Simpson low-speed car chase in the White Bronco. The chase concluded with Simpson's surrender to authorities in front of his mansion in Brentwood, CA.
1178 - A meteor crached into the Moon or exploded between Earth and the Moon.
1812 - The US Congress declares war on Great Britain, Canada, and Ireland, starting The War of 1812.
1815 - Napoleon defeated at Waterloo, in Belgium.
1873 - Susan B. Anthony was fined $100 for attempting to vote in the 1872 presidential election.
1923 - Checker Taxi put its first taxi on the streets of Chicago.
1930 - Groundbreaking ceremonies for the Franklin Institute were held in Philadelphia, PA.
1940 - Winston Churchill gave his "Finest Hour" speech.
1965 - The first large solid-fuel rocket - a Titan 3C - rocket was launched into orbit.
1979 - SALT II was signed by the United States and the Soviet Union.
1983 - The space shuttle Challenger launched into space on its second mission, with Dr. Sally Ride, making her the first American woman in space.
1984 - Conservative talk radio host Alan Berg - "the man you love to hate" - was gunned down and killed in the driveway of his home in Denver, Colorado.
1586(?) - English colonists leave Roanoke Island, and disappeared. The only clue found was the word "CROATOAN" carved into a tree.
1718 (Earthquake) Gansu, China
1846 - The first officially recorded, organized baseball game was played under Alexander Cartwright's rules on Hoboken, New Jersey's Elysian Fields with the New York Base Ball Club defeating the Knickerbockers 23-1.
1862 - The US Congress prohibited slavery in United States territories, nullifying Dred Scott v. Sandford.
1905 - The first nickelodeon theater opened in Pittsburgh, PA.
1910 - The first Father's Day was celebrated in Spokane, Washington.
1941 - Cheerie Oats, later renamed Cheerios, was invented.
1949 - The first ever NASCAR race was held at Charlotte Motor Speedway.
1952 - I've Got A Secret premiered on CBS
1953 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed for spying for the Soviet Union, at Sing Sing, in New York.
2011 - Falling Skies premiered on TNT
2012 - WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange requested asylum in London's Ecuatorian Embassy for fear of extradition to the US after publication of previously classified documents.
1214 - The University of Oxford received its Royal charter.
1782 - Congress adopted the Great Seal of the United States, with the Bald Eagle clutching both an olive branch and thirteen arrows.
1837 - Queen Victoria succeeded to the British throne.
1840 - Samuel Morse received the patent (#1647) for the telegraph.
1863 - West Virginia joined the United States.
1893 - Lizzie Borden was acquitted of the murders of her father and stepmother.
1945 - The United States Secretary of State approved the transfer of Wernher von Braun (and other Nazi rocket scientists) to America.
1948 - Toast of the Town, a variety series hosted by Ed Sullivan, premiered on CBS. It was later renamed The Ed Sullivan Show.
1963 - The United States and the Soviet Union agreed to establish a "hot line" communication system between the two nations.
1975 - Hollywood's first major summer 'must see' blockbuster, Jaws, opened in theaters.
1788 - The United States Constitution was ratified.
1788 - New Hampshire joined the United States.
1834 - Cyrus Hall McCormick received a patent (#X008277) for his grain reaping machine,
1877 - The Molly Maguires, ten Irish immigrants convicted of murder, were hanged in Pennsylvania prisons, in Schuylkill County and Carbon County.
1893 - The first Ferris wheel premiered at Chicago's Columbian Exposition, and could hold up to 2000 people on 36 cars, and was 264 feet tall.
1913 - The first successful parachute jump from an airplane by a woman was made by Georgia Broadwick, age 18, over Griffith Field, Los Angeles, California.
1940 - The first successful west-to-east navigation of Northwest Passage begins at Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
1948 - Columbia Records introduced the long-playing record album (33 1/3 revolutions per minute) in a public demonstration at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York, New York. The first was released in 1949 - ML 4001, Nathan Milstein performing the Mendelssohn violin concerto.
1990 (Earthquake) Rudbar, Iran
2006 - Pluto's recently discovered moons were officially named Nix and Hydra.
1633 - The Holy Office in Rome forced Galileo Galilei to recant his view that the Sun, not the Earth, is the center of the Universe
1870 - US Congress created the United States Department of Justice.
1937 - Joe Louis won the world heavyweight boxing title when he defeated Jim Braddock.
1942 - Pledge of Allegiance was formally adopted by Congress.
1950 - The publication 'Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television' listed many suspected communists in American media, including Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, Lena Horne, Pete Seeger, Artie Shaw and Orson Welles.
1969 - Cleveland, Ohio's Cuyahoga River caught fire.
1978 - Pluto's Moon Charon was discovered by James W. Christy, at the Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz.
2001 - The Fast and the Furious was released in theaters.
2009 - Eastman Kodak Company announced that it would discontinue sales of the Kodachrome Color Film.
1683 - William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania.
1860 - The United States Congress established the Government Printing Office.
1868 - Christopher Latham Sholes received the patents (#79265 & #79868) for an invention he called the "Type-Writer." He also invented the 'QWERTY keyboard' in 1873.
1894 - The International Olympic Committee was founded at the Sorbonne in Paris.
1926 - The College Board administered the first SAT exam.
1938 - The first 'Oceanarium' opened at Marineland in St. Augustine, Florida
1944 (Tornado) Shinnston, West Virginia
1953 - Frank J. Zamboni was issued a patent (#2,642,679) for his ice resurfacer.
1960 - The US Food and Drug Administration declares Enovid to be the first officially approved combined oral contraceptive pill in the world.
1973 - A fire at a house in Hull, England which killd a six year old boy, was the first of 26 deaths by fire caused over the next seven years by arsonist Peter Dinsdale.
1980 - The David Letterman Show debuted on NBC daytime. It was cancelled a few months later.
1982 - A record low temperature of -117ºF. was recorded at the South Pole.
1989 - Batman, starring Micheal Keaton, was released in theaters.
2013 - Nik Wallenda became the first man to successfully walk across the Grand Canyon on a tight rope.
1374 - An early morning, sudden outbreak of 'St. John's Dance' caused people in the streets of Aachen, Germany, to experience hallucinations and begin to jump and twitch uncontrollably until they collapsed from exhaustion.
159 - Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon were crowned King and Queen of England.
1873 - Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) received a patent (#140,245) for a self-pasting Scrapbook.
1916 - Mary Pickford became the first female film star to sign a million dollar contract (with Adolph Zukor/Paramount).
1938 - Pieces of a meteor, estimated to have weighed 450 metric tons when it hit the Earth's atmosphere and exploded, landed near Chicora, in western Pennsylvania. A cow was reportedly injured.
1947 - Kenneth Arnold reported seeing the Mount Rainier UFO
1948 - Veteran Pilots Clartence Chiles and Charles Whitted, in Alabama, saw a cigashaped vehicle, with windows, flying beside them.
1949 - The first television western, Hopalong Cassidy, aired on NBC, starring William Boyd.
1957 - Jack Parr became the host on The Tonight Show on NBC,
1997 - US Air Force officials released a 231-page report dismissing all of the claims of an alien spacecraft crash in Roswell, New Mexico, in 1947.
2004 - In New York, capital punishment was declared unconstitutional.
2008 - Wipeout premiered on ABC.
1788 - Virginia joined the United States.
1867 - Barbed wire was patented (#66,182) by Lucien B. Smith of Kent, Ohio.
1876 - Native American forces, led by Chiefs Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, defeated the US Army troops lead by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer in a battle near southern Montana's Little Bighorn River.
1910 - The US Congress passed the Mann Act, which prohibited interstate transport of females for "immoral purposes."
1910 - Igor Stravinsky's ballet The Firebird premiered in Paris,
1914 - The Greal Salem Fire, Massachusettes
1944 - The final page of the comic strip Krazy Kat was published, months after the author, George Herriman died.
1947 - The Diary of a Young Girl (better known as The Diary of Anne Frank) was published.
1949 - The cartoon classic, Long-Haired Hare starring Bugs Bunny, was released in theaters.
1967 - The special Our World was the first live worldwide "via satellite" TV broadcast, transmitting to 30 countries via the BBC. The Beatles closed the show ith All You Need Is Love. Performers include Mick Jagger, opera singer Maria Callas, Vienna Boys' Choir, Keith Richards, Keith Moon, Eric Clapton, Pattie Harrison, Jane Asher, Graham Nash, and others. The show lasted 2 and a half hours.
1978 - The rainbow flag, representing gay pride, was flown for the first time in the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade.
1996 - The Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia killed 19 US servicemen.
2009 - Michael Jackson died after suffering from cardiac arrest caused by a fatal combination of drugs given to him by his personal doctor, Conrad Murray.
1498 - The bristle toothbrush was invented in China.
1797 - Charles Newbold was issued a patent (#X000177) for an improvement for the cast-iron plow
1807 - Lightning struck a gunpowder factory in Luxembourg, killing more than 300 people.
1819 - The first US patent (#X003115) for a velocipede, a predecessor of the bicycle, was issued to William K. Clarkson Jr. of New York.
1870 - Christmas was declared a federal holiday in the United States.
1906 - 1906 French Grand Prix, the first Grand Prix motor racing event was held. Ferenc Szisz, driving for the Renault team, won the two day event.
1926 - Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises novel was released.
1927 - The Cyclone roller coaster opened on Coney Island.
1934 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Federal Credit Union Act, which established credit unions in the US.
1936 - The first flight of the Focke-Wulf Fw 61, the first working helicopter, in Berlin, Germany.
1945 - The United Nations Charter was signed, in San Francisco.
1948 - Shirley Jackson's short story, The Lottery, was published in The New Yorker magazine.
1963 - US President John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech.
1974 - The Universal Product Code was scanned for the first time to sell a package of Wrigley's chewing gum at the Marsh Supermarket in Troy, Ohio.
1977 - Elvis Presley performed the final concert of his life in Indianapolis, Indiana.
1997 - The US Supreme Court ruled that the Communications Decency Act violated the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
2000 - The completion of a working draft reference DNA sequence of the human genome was announced at the White House by President Bill Clinton, and representatives from the Human Genome Project (HGP).
1556 - The thirteen Stratford Martyrs were burned at the stake near London for their Protestant beliefs.
1844 - Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Mormons, and his brother Hyrum Smith, were murdered by a mob at the Carthage, Illinois jail.
1898 - The first solo circumnavigation of the globe was completed by Joshua Slocum from Briar Island, Nova Scotia.
1949 - The first sci-fi TV show, Captain Video and His Video Rangers debuted. 1966 - ABC's dark shadows premiered.
1968 - Elvis Presley filmed his Comeback Special.
1976 - Air France Flight 139 (Tel Aviv-Athens-Paris) was hijacked en route to Paris by the PLO and redirected to Entebbe, Uganda.
1985 - US Route 66 was officially removed from the United States Highway System.
1635 - Guadeloupe became a French colony.
1832 - The first American case of a cholera epidemic was reported in New York City.
1838 - Coronation of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
1846 - Adolphe Sax patented the saxophone.
1894 - Labor Day became an official US holiday.
1895 - The US Court of Private Land Claims rules James Reavis' claim to Barony of Arizona is "wholly fictitious and fraudulent."
1914 - World War One (orginally 'The Great War') began with the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Serajevo.
1926 - Mercedes-Benz was formed by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz merging their two companies.
1964 - Malcolm X formed the Organization of Afro-American Unity.
1969 - Stonewall Riots began in New York City, marking the start of the Gay Rights Movement.
1992 (Eathquakes) Landers, California, about 100 miles east of Los Angeles.
1997 - Mike Tyson bit Evander Holyfield's ear in the third round of their heavyweight rematch, earning a disqualification.
2007 - Burn Notice premiered on USA
1613 - The Globe Theatre in London burned to the ground.
1889 - Hyde Park and several other Illinois townships voted to be annexed by Chicago, forming the largest United States city in area and second largest in population.
1956 - The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 was signed, officially creating the United States Interstate Highway System.
1967 - Actress Jayne Mansfield died in car crash on Interstate 90, east of New Orleans, Louisiana.
1974 - Mikhail Baryshnikov defected from the Soviet Union to Canada while on tour with the Kirov Ballet.
1995 - STS-71 Mission Atlantis Space Shuttle docked with the Russian space station Mir for the first time.
1998 - The Lifetime Movie Network made its debut.
2007 - Apple released its first mobile phone, the iPhone.
2014 The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS/ISIL) self-declared its caliphate in Syria and northern Iraq.
1831 - A patent for a platform scale was issued to brothers Erastus and Thaddeus S. Fairbanks of St. Johnsbury, Vermont.
1859 - Jean-Francois Gravelet, known as Emile Blondin, became the first daredevil to walk across Niagara Falls on a tightrope.
1860 - The 1860 Oxford evolution debate (Huxley-Wilberforce debate or the Wilberforce-Huxley debate) at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History took place.
1886 - The United States Division of Forestry was recognized and established by an Act of Congress
1894 - The Tower Bridge across the River Thames in London was officially opened
1906 - The United States Congress passes the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act.
1908 - The Tunguska Event happened near Lake Baikal, Russia. Destroying 770 square miles in Eastern Siberian Taiga. It was probably a big meteor. Or was it?
1936 - Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind was published.
1952 - The Guiding Light premiered on CBS.
1953 - The first Chevrolet Corvette rolled off the assembly line in Flint, Michigan.
1966 - The National Organization for Women (NOW) was founded.
1971 - Ohio ratifies the 26th Amendment to the US Constitution, reducing the voting age to 18, putting the amendment into effect.
1972 - The first leap second was added to the UTC time system.
1987 - Iran-Contra hearings aired during daytime television, pre-empting most programming.
Italian Genealogical Group, Inc.
The Italian Genealogical Group is dedicated to promoting Italian family history and genealogy. As a non-profit organization, we are dedicated to furthering genealogical research, through educational initiatives and the curation of resources. Established in 1993, the IGG exists to provide support for those interested in researching their Italian ancestry.
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The Italian Genealogical Group (IGG) is a not for profit organization that was established in 1993 to provide support for those interested in researching their Italian ancestry.