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1993: The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to Nelson Mandela, leader of the ANC, and South African President Frederik de Klerk.
1990: The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to Mikhail Gorbachev.
1964: Nikita Khrushchev is removed from his post as first secretary of the CPSU.
1946: Hermann Goering commits suicide in prison, on the eve of his execution for war crimes.
1917: Mata Hari, accused of espionage for the benefit of Germany, was taken up by arms in the ditches of the Château de Vincennes.
1894: Arrest of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, accused of treason for the benefit of Germany.
1815: Napoleon arrives at Saint Helena.
1582: The Gregorian calendar comes into effect in countries under the influence of Pope Gregory XIII.