Unlocking the secrets of the world's most intriguing codices - History

Unlocking the secrets of the world's most intriguing codices - History

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Unlocking the secrets of the world's most intriguing codices

By David Frank

A codex is an ancient, hand-painted, or written manuscript, often with a fascinating origin and history. These manuscripts or entire books are an endless source of fascination to scholars who seek to decode their mysteries. Here are just a few of the most famous to whet your appetite.

The Dresden Codex

Uncovered in Dresden, Germany, this is apparently the oldest surviving manuscript from the Americas (the Mayan Codices), as it dates from the 11th or 12th century. The pages unfold, like an accordion, creating an unbroken manuscript that is 12 feet long. The intricate Mayan hieroglyphs, intriguingly mention an undiscovered text from 3-400 years earlier, which recounts the history of the region and provides astronomical tables. The codex can be viewed in the museum of the Saxon State Library.

The Codex Leicester

Consists of 32 pages of scientific writings by Leonardo da Vinci. In it, he discusses his scientific theories and observations on a variety of subjects including astronomy; water; rocks and fossils, air, and the moon's light. It was purchased in 1994, by Bill Gates, for the equivalent, in today's values, of $54 million. It has been unbound and is displayed each year in a different city around the world.

The Cologne Mani Codex

Dated from the 5th century AD, at 4.5cm x 3.8cm is the smallest ancient Codex discovered so far. It draws on earlier sources the tiniest ancient codex yet discovered, measuring only 4.5 x 3.8 cm. According to the website Evidence Central, the brief text can be related to Nephi's vision in the Book of Mormon.

The Codex Gigas

At three foot high the Codex Gigas is the largest known illustrated manuscript. It's also known as 'The Devil's Bible', due to an astonishing full-page illustration of the devil. There are several intriguing legends related to its creation. Although it appears to be the work of a single hand, experts estimate that it should have taken over 20 years to create. However, the style of the text and illustrations is absolutely consistent, betraying no signs of deterioration or improvement in the skills and abilities of the author. For this reason, the legend that the author was a monk who sold his soul to the devil, and produced the work in a single night, grew up. Scholars still argue about whether the portrait of Satan was intended as a tribute or a warning.

The Gospel of Judas

Created 280AD, and written in Coptic, this gnostic text purports to represent a series of conversations between Jesus and Judas Iscariot. According to one translation, this codex may present Judas as carrying out the will of Jesus Other translators claim that it describes him as a 'demon', and as there is no consensus, the interpretation remains influenced by religious belief.

The Treatise of the Vessels

Dated to 1648, this manuscript claims to reveal the location of the legendary treasure of King Solomon's temple. It also mentions the Ark of the Covenant, which it claims, will only be revealed upon the arrival of the Messiah. Whereas some have taken its guidance literally and attempted to pinpoint the treasure's hiding place, other scholars claim it was written more as entertainment than as a literal guide for treasure hunters.

The Grolier Codex

Although it is named after the private New York club where it was displayed, this fascinating hieroglyphic text has been authenticated as a genuine Mayan work. Dating from the 13th century, it is, therefore, one of the oldest known manuscripts from South America. It is covered with ornate depictions of the gods and also tracks the movements of the planet Venus, as well as offering tantalizing insights into the everyday life of the Mayan civilization. Can be viewed in Mexico City's Museo Nacional de Antropologia.

De Arte Venandi cum Avibus

This beautiful manuscript, written in Latin around 1240, is a comprehensive treatise about ornithology and falconry, on the orders of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. The surviving texts exist in two-book versions (now in Rome, Vienna, Paris (2x), Geneva, and Stuttgart, as well a six-book 'comprehensive' version, which can be viewed in Bologna, Paris, Nantes, Valencia, Rennes, and Oxford. It provides a unique insight into the hunting and bird-watching practices of the 13th-century aristocracy.

The Rohonc Codex

A true mystery, the Rohonc codex was uncovered in Hungary in the early 1800s. The author is unknown, the text is in an unknown language and even the system of writing is all unknown. A source of fascination for academics and amateur detectives, it has been widely studied, though with no tangible conclusions being reached, and many Hungarian experts believing that it is nothing more than an elaborate 18th-century fake. The paper on which it is written has been dated to the 16th century, however, the Codex could have been produced much later. The manuscript can be viewed in the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences

The Voynich Codex

This mysterious manuscript, discovered in 1912, and carbon-dated to the 1400s, is packed with spectacular illustrations of plants, and symbols of cosmology as well as a fair number of naked women. There has been an ongoing debate about the language in which it's written as, to date, it has proved undecipherable: despite efforts to crack the linguistic code (including the use of AI) many experts have claimed it is either written in a sophisticated code, the evidence of a lost language, or gibberish. Certainly, no interpretation has proved to be conclusive and the most intriguing mystery which surrounds it is that of the author him (or her)self, and the intention behind the years of painstaking work involved in its creation. The Voynich Codex is currently housed in the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Yale University.
These are just a few of the better known ancient codices which continue to fascinate scholars and amateur historians alike. Others contain the earliest versions of the New and Old testaments, treatises on the culture of South America before the Spanish colonization, or works of poetry and literature that speak to us from across the ages. We hope this brief overview will encourage you to carry out more research to uncover these treasure troves of historical interest.

The Secret World Unlock the Illuminati Tunnels

The Secret World Illuminati Tunnels - match the correct combination of symbols in the correct order to proceed.

History Gems Dr Nicola Tallis

Welcome to History Gems, the podcast that follows historian and author Dr Nicola Tallis as she seeks to unpick the stories behind some of history's most famous and intriguing jewels.

With a different expert on every episode, Nicola delves into a daring attempt to steal the Crown Jewels, the secrets of a supposedly cursed diamond, the creation of the world's most famous Easter eggs, and plenty more.

Check out @historygemspod on social media to see pictures of each week's gems!

Nicola's books include:
Crown of Blood: The Deadly Inheritance of Lady Jane Grey
Elizabeth's Rival: The Tumultuous Tale of Lettice Knollys, Countess of Leicester
Uncrowned Queen: The Fateful Life of Margaret Beaufort, Tudor Matriarch

Find her on social media:
Twitter: @NicolaTallis
Instagram: @historian_nicola

Girls in Pearls: with Sue Prichard

Dr Nicola Tallis delves into the history of pearls with Sue Prichard, Senior Curator of Arts at the National Maritime Museum, in Greenwich.

The House of Kutchinsky: with Serena Kutchinsky

Historian and author Dr Nicola Tallis explores the internationally renowned House of Kutchinsky with journalist Serena Kutchinsky.

Queen Christina of Sweden: with Amy Saunders

Historian and author Dr Nicola Tallis explores the story of Queen Christina of Sweden with Amy Saunders.

Nazi Gold: with Callum McKelvie

Historian and author Dr Nicola Tallis explores the topic of Nazi gold with Callum McKelvie, the Features Editor at All About History Magazine.

Jane Austen: with Sophie Reynolds

Historian and author Dr Nicola Tallis explores the incredible story of one of the world's most famous authors, Jane Austen.

John of Gaunt: with Helen Carr

Dr Nicola Tallis is joined by fellow historian and author Helen Carr to explore the story of English prince, military leader, statesman - and the third of the five sons of King Edward III - John of Gaunt

The Dogon Tribe and Atlantis

In 1971, the American author Robert Temple published a controversial book entitled The Sirius Mystery where he claimed that the Dogons (an ancient African tribe from Mali) knew details about Sirius that would be impossible to know without the use of telescopes (You’d need one like the Orion here to make this possible). According to him, the Dogon understood the binary nature of Sirius, which is, in fact, composed of two stars named Sirius A and Sirius B. This lead Robert Temple to believe that the Dogons had “direct” connections with beings from Sirius. While some might say “you can’t be Sirius” (sorry), a great number of secret societies (who have historically held within their ranks some of the world’s most influential people) and belief systems teach about a mystic connection between Sirius and humanity.

In Dogon mythology, humanity is said to be born from the Nommo, a race of amphibians who were inhabitants of a planet circling Sirius. They are said to have “descended from the sky in a vessel accompanied by fire and thunder” and imparted to humans profound knowledge. This lead Robert Temple to theorize that the Nommos were extraterrestrial inhabitants of Sirius who traveled to earth at some point in the distant past to teach ancient civilizations (such as the Egyptians and Dogons) about the Sirius star system as well as our own solar system. These civilizations would then record the Nommos’ teachings in their religions and make them a central focus of their Mysteries.

The Dogon’s mythology system is strikingly similar to the ones of other civilizations such as the Sumerians, Egyptians, Israelites, and Babylonians as it includes the archetypal myth of a “great teacher from above”. Depending on the civilization, this great teacher is known as Enoch, Thoth or Hermes Trismegistus and is said to have taught humanity theurgic sciences. In occult traditions, it is believed that Thoth-Hermes had taught the people of Atlantis, which, according to legend, became the world’s most advanced civilization before the entire continent was submerged by the Great Deluge (accounts of a flood can be found in the mythologies of countless civilizations). Survivors from Atlantis traveled by boat to several countries, including Egypt, where they imparted their advanced knowledge. Occultists believe that the inexplicable resemblances between distant civilizations (such as the Mayas and the Egyptians) can be explained by their common contact with Atlanteans.

“Was the religious, philosophic, and scientific knowledge possessed by the priestcrafts of antiquity secured from Atlantis, whose submergence obliterated every vestige of its part in the drama of world progress? Atlantean sun worship has been perpetuated in the ritualism and ceremonialism of both Christianity and pagandom. Both the cross and the serpent were Atlantean emblems of divine wisdom. The divine (Atlantean) progenitors of the Mayas and Quichés of Central America coexisted within the green and azure radiance of Gucumatz, the “plumed” serpent. The six sky-born sages came into manifestation as centers of light bound together or synthesized by the seventh – and chief – of their order, the “feathered” snake. The title of “winged” or “plumed” snake was applied to Quetzalcoatl, or Kukulcan, the Central American initiate. The center of the Atlantean Wisdom-Religion was presumably a great pyramidal temple standing on the brow of a plateau rising in the midst of the City of the Golden Gates. From here the Initiate-Priests of the Sacred Feather went forth, carrying the keys of Universal Wisdom to the uttermost parts of the earth.


From the Atlanteans the world has received not only the heritage of arts and crafts, philosophies and sciences, ethics and religions, but also the heritage of hate, strife, and perversion. The Atlanteans instigated the first war and it has been said that all subsequent wars were fought in a fruitless effort to justify the first one and right the wrong which it caused. Before Atlantis sank, its spiritually illumined Initiates, who realized that their land was doomed because it had departed from the Path of Light, withdrew from the ill-fated continent. Carrying with them the sacred and secret doctrine, these Atlanteans established themselves in Egypt, where they became its first “divine” rulers. Nearly all the great cosmologic myths forming the foundation of the various sacred books of the world are based upon the Atlantean Mystery rituals.” [3. Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages]

Is Thoth-Hermes-Trismegistus the equivalent of the Dogon’s Nommos, who are believed to originate from Sirius? Ancient texts concerning Hermes describe him as a teacher of mysteries who “came from the stars”. Furthermore, Thoth-Hermes was directly connected with Sirius in Egyptian mythology.

“The dog-star: the star worshipped in Egypt and reverenced by the Occultists by the former because its heliacal rising with the Sun was a sign of the beneficient inundation of the Nile, and by the latter because it is mysteriously associated with Toth-Hermes, god of wisdom, and Mercury, in another form. Thus Sothis-Sirius had, and still has, a mystic and direct influence over the whole living heaven, and is connected with almost every god and goddess. It was “Isis in the heaven” and called Isis-Sothis, for Isis was “in the constellation of the dog”, as is declared on her monuments. Being connected with the Pyramid, Sirius was, therefore, connected with the initiations which took place in it.” [4. Helena Blavatsky, Theosophical Glossary]

“The Trismegistic treatise ‘The Virgin of the World’ from Egypt refers to ‘the Black Rite’, connected with the ‘black’ Osiris, as the highest degree of secret initiation possible in the ancient Egyptian religion – it is the ultimate secret of the mysteries of Isis. This treatise says Hermes came to earth to teach men civilization and then again ‘mounted to the stars’, going back to his home and leaving behind the mystery religion of Egypt with its celestial secrets which were some day to be decoded.” [5. Robert Temple, The Sirius Mystery]

Interpreting the mythology of ancient cultures is not an exact science and connections are inherently difficult to prove. However, the symbolic link between Sirius and occult knowledge has constantly appeared throughout History and has seamlessly traveled through the ages. In fact, it is as revered today as it was millenniums ago. Modern secret societies such as the Freemasons, the Rosicrucians and the Golden Dawn (which are considered to be Hermetic Orders due to the fact their teachings are based on those of Hermes Trismegistus) all attribute to Sirius the utmost importance. An educated look at their symbolism provides a glimpse at the profound connection between Sirius and occult philosophy.

This summer, the National Institute on Aging renewed funding for Northwestern’s Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer’s Disease Center (CNADC), marking 25 years of continuous support for the center and its research to cure and prevent the devastating neurodegenerative disease.

“Alzheimer’s disease is not only an area of tremendous need, but an area of tremendous opportunity for studying degenerative diseases and issues related to aging,” said Marsel Mesulam, MD, director of the CNADC. The $8.6 million grant helps finance the SugerAging project and several other studies, including:

Searching for the Golden Ratio

Sacred geometry also involves geometric proportions. One of the best-known of these is the golden ratio, which is known by many other names, including phi, the divine proportion, and the golden mean. The golden ratio may be defined as follows:

“the ratio of a line segment cut into two pieces of different lengths such that the ratio of the whole segment to that of the longer segment is equal to the ratio of the longer segment to the shorter segment.”

The nautilus shell is a popular example of a golden ratio in nature. ( CSIRO / CC BY 3.0 )

In mathematics, it is an irrational number represented by the Greek letter φ (phi). Its value is approximately 1.618, derived from the quadratic equation . Although this ratio was first described by Euclid, it was only referred to as ‘golden’ much later on, i.e. in 1835, when it was designated as such by the German mathematician Martin Ohm. Incidentally, it was also during the 19th century that the ratio was given the Greek letter φ to represent it. The letter was assigned by an American mathematician, Mark Barr.

Apparently, the ancient Greeks found that the golden ratio provided “the most aesthetically pleasing proportion of sides of a rectangle,” and are alleged to have applied it in their architecture. It has been claimed, for instance, that the façade of the Parthenon in Athens was designed using the golden ratio. This has been disputed, as it has been pointed out, for instance, that the claim is not supported by actual measurements, and that the Parthenon was built about a century before Euclid’s birth.

Leonardo da Vinvi is alleged to have used the golden ratio widely in his works. ( myper / Adobe Photo)

The golden ratio only attained its notorious reputation during the Renaissance, long after it was first described by Euclid. In 1509, the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli wrote a book called De divina proportione (which translates as “The Divine Proportion”), which explored the concept of the golden ratio. Additionally, the book was illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci , who is alleged to have used the golden ratio widely in his works. The polymath’s Vitruvian Man , for example, is often claimed to have been drawn according to the golden ratio, though it has also been pointed out that there is no concrete proof to support this claim. It has also been asserted that the golden ratio exists in nature, though this is not entirely true either. A popular example is the growth of the nautilus shell, in which it is claimed that the golden ratio can be seen. It has, however, been pointed out that the shell grows in a “spiral that turns by a constant angle along its entire length”, and that a constant angle does not equal to the golden ratio.

The golden ratio is discernible in artworks such as Leonardo’s Mona Lisa. ( Public domain )

In any event, the golden ratio is a significant concept in sacred geometry, and it is claimed to appear in both nature and the works of man. The Great Pyramid, Mozart’s musical compositions, and the growth of plants are all said to follow the golden ratio. As a result, this ratio has been imbued with symbolic value. For instance, it has been said that the golden ratio “symbolically links each new generation to its ancestors, preserving the continuity of relationship as the means for retracing its lineage.”

Main Story [ edit | edit source ]

Tenno's Awakening [ edit | edit source ]

Awakening [ edit | edit source ]

Warframe Cinematic Intro - TennoCon 2019

For countless centuries, the Tenno have been dormant, but with the Grineer Empire on the rise, the Lotus begins tracking down and awakening the Tenno. Unfortunately for the Lotus, Captain Vor has been one step ahead of her so far and has been killing off the Tenno as they awaken, before they are strong enough to stop him. His latest find takes him to Earth, near an Ostron village, where he finds a dormant Tenno just as the Lotus reawakens them.

This time, however, he has a different plan—to capture said Tenno. He attaches an Ascaris device to the Warframe, ordering his soldiers to spare it he intends to use the Ascaris to control the Tenno, and take it to the Twin Queens as his prize. Presumably the first of many or a proof of concept, Vor would then seek to capture more Tenno once armed with loyal Tenno soldiers, the Grineer Empire would become unstoppable.

The player must evade Vor and his soldiers, arm themselves, restore a ship to functioning order with the help of ship Cephalon Ordis, and ultimately confront Vor to put a stop to his plans.

Vor's Prize [ edit | edit source ]

Continuing with their efforts to stop Captain Vor, the newly awakened Tenno travels around Earth, looking for parts to repair their Orbiter ship with. With the help of ship Cephalon Ordis at the helm, they manage to rescue a Corpus black marketeer named Darvo who was imprisoned by the Grineer for being sympathetic to the Tenno cause. Darvo helps the Tenno retrieve ship segments that unlock basic functionality such as Market or Foundry access.

In the end, the Tenno successfully disables the Ascaris device, freeing them from Vor's control. However, the device has an anti-tampering failsafe that will cause it to detonate if it is not disarmed. They then seek to assassinate the captain, defeating him on a mining asteroid off Earth's orbit, ultimately disarming the Ascaris device.

The Lotus counts on the Tenno to travel across the Star Chart to bring balance to the Origin System from the dominating forces of the Grineer and Corpus factions.

Once Awake [ edit | edit source ]

Dr. Tengus, a Grineer doctor, has been experimenting with a bio-weapon of some sorts and the player is tasked to investigate. The player discovers that this bio-weapon the Grineer was working on was a strain of the Infestation that survived the events of The Old War. After a failure in a testing lab, the Infested broke out from quarantine and invaded Grineer outposts and ships on Mercury. As the possibility of an Infested outbreak was a threat to the Origin System, the Lotus commands the player to eradicate the Infestation. With the help of a Cascade Bomb infused with Void energy, the player successfully eliminated the source of the Infestation. However, because of the continued research efforts of Dr. Tengus, the System is not immune from future outbreaks.

The Archwing [ edit | edit source ]

The threat of a Grineer Balor Fomorian, the capital ship of the Fomorian fleet, tips the balance of power within the Solar System. Councilor Vay Hek declares war on the Corpus and the Chairman of the Corpus Board of Directors, Frohd Bek, in an attempt to seize total control over the Origin System.

The player is forced to construct an Orokin-era mechanical wings, an Archwing, along with an Arch-gun and Arch-melee, to destroy it in space combat. To do so they will need to find the Odonata component blueprints that are scattered across Orokin archives throughout Venus. After obtaining their new gear, the player tries to sabotage the Fomorian, only to realize that they do not have enough firepower to do so. After destroying dozens of Grineer fighters, the player performs a tactical retreat, leaving the real battle with the Fomorian to happen another day.

Discovery of the Arcane Machine [ edit | edit source ]

Stolen Dreams [ edit | edit source ]

Lotus tasks the player to search for the mysterious Arcane Codices. Their importance is unknown, but the Grineer had sought it for a potential cure to the Cloning Decay Syndrome that has plagued its faction and the Corpus had sought to strike riches with them.

In search of these codices, the player captures a thief named Maroo who recently stole a piece of the codices and went into hiding. Upon interrogating Maroo, the player finds out that she has been hired by Grineer scientist Tyl Regor to steal them from an Orokin Derelict. However, after the Corpus outbid the Grineer for the codex, she broke her contract and deceived Regor, swapping the real codex with a fake one, and sold the real codex to Corpus hands.

In exchange for protective custody, Maroo reluctantly join forces with the Tenno after cheating the Grineer. Maroo then revealed the locations of the codices, and after a series of Spy missions, the player successfully retrieved all six codices with Maroo's guidance. After Ordis' musings on transcribing the codices, she then informs the player that she had found a machine in the Orokin Derelict where she found an Arcane Codex. Upon entering an Orokin Void gate on Mars, the player reached the Derelict that housed the enigmatic Arcane Machine. Uploading the codices to the machine yielded a cryptic message, to which the Lotus cannot ascertain its meaning. In confusion, the player returns to their ship, empty-handed, while Maroo sets off in her own path.

The New Strange [ edit | edit source ]

Close up on object on Arcane Machine

Cephalon Simaris, a Cephalon construct that seeks to immortalize creatures into data for knowledge, requires the Tenno's assistance to free his Sentinels from custody of the Grineer. After freeing his Sentinels, the Lotus discovered "fragments of a biological signature" within the prison's security logs. Ordis plays the log and a mysterious message came up, with a voice similar to the one found from the Arcane Machine from the end of Stolen Dreams.

After refusing the answer on the subject, Simaris tells the Tenno that, in exchange for deciphering this mysterious biological signature, they must assist him in Synthesis, the process of scanning targets to be uploaded for storage in his Sanctuary. After helping Simaris, he says that the signature is of Tenno origin. A blueprint for a beacon derived from the signature is given to the player to help track down this creature. Crafting this beacon sends a signal which turns out to be a transmission from the Arcane Machine:


The Lotus informs the Tenno that this creature has been going to locations where the Arcane Codices were found, slaughtering Grineer and Corpus to cover somebody's tracks somebody doesn't want people to know the existence of such codices or the Arcane Machine. After extracting information from a Corpus network, this creature turns out to be the Warframe Chroma   Chroma who has gone rogue — not controlled by any Tenno. The hunt leads the Tenno back to the Arcane Machine where they encounter a hostile Chroma who destroyed the machine. Simaris asks the Tenno to synthesize it for its unusual behavior. However, Chroma escapes being synthesized after being scanned once. As a result, Simaris reveals to have a piece of the Arcane Codices of his own and discloses another location that holds an Arcane Machine. Luring Chroma to this particular machine results in a successful Synthesis and the Tenno receives a Chroma blueprint for their troubles. Unbeknownst to the Lotus and the Tenno, this second Arcane Machine contains a projection of a Sentient relic, hinting at future events to come.

Natah [ edit | edit source ]

Oculyst [ edit | edit source ]

The Second Dream [ edit | edit source ]

The Sentient Hunhow awakens from his slumber, seeking revenge on the Tenno for their actions during The Old War. Allying with the Stalker, they seek to destroy the "womb in the sky", later revealed as the Tenno's weakness: a Reservoir on Lua that was hidden within the Void by the Lotus to protect the Tenno from the Sentients.

The player is tasked with finding Hunhow, who infiltrated the Lotus' mind during the events of Natah. With the unexpected help of Alad V, all traces lead to a Sentient relic on Uranus, dug up by the Grineer. Interacting with the relic, the Lotus tries to ascertain the location of Hunhow, only to be foiled by allowing Hunhow to know the location of the Reservoir. With the Stalker en route, the player chases after him to prevent him from reaching the Reservoir first. The player follows the Stalker through a Void Gate into an Orokin Tower in the Void, realizing that this Reservoir is on Earth's moon that was hidden within the Void. Disabling the Orokin Tower's Void mask mechanism allows the moon, known as Lua, to reappear in the Solar System. Successfully thwarted the Stalker's attempt to destroy the moon from a Void collapse, the only thing left to do is to protect the Reservoir.

The truth behind the Reservoir is that in it lies the Tenno's true form, the Operator. In the Reservoir, the Operator directs their Void energy to control the Warframes remotely, a process called Transference. The Stalker rendezvous with the player but upon seeing the Operator, he hesitates to kill, leaving the player to deal with hordes of Sentient fighters with their newfound power: the ability to channel Void energy to fight in their Operator form.

Upon the Orbiter, the player has to put their Operator into a new Transference vessel: the Somatic Link at the back of the ship. In the final clash between the player and the Stalker, the player proves victorious and subsequently encounters the Lotus in-person for first time. As the Lotus carries the Operator into the Somatic Link, the player regained their memories as a Tenno, remembering one of the five great schools that they once belonged to in the Orokin Age.

This is who you really are. A Tenno. More than human. but once a child like any other.

The War Within [ edit | edit source ]

A disturbance on Reservoirs in Lua prompts the Tenno to investigate the problem. Turns out Teshin has intruded Lua to lure the Tenno out, revealing that he is a double agent for the Grineer Queens. In pursuit of the truth, the Tenno follows Teshin's deployed Specters who leads them to a supposedly uninhabited asteroid field. Disabling the security matrix exposes the Kuva Fortress, the central base of Grineer operations and home to the Twin Queens. The Tenno realizes the base's mobile state prevented them from encountering it.

Infiltrating the fortress, the Tenno discovers the Queen's lair, along with Teshin, under control of Queens' Kuva Scepter due to his status as an Orokin Dax soldier. The Dax were biologically programmed to not disobey those with Orokin blood, Kuva. So, unrelentingly, Teshin has brought the Tenno to the Queens for Continuity, the ritual of transferring consciousness between bodies for everlasting life. Due to repeated cloning, the Queens' bodies had suffered the Cloning Decay Syndrome with each cycle of Continuity, so to preserve their immortality, they need a new, young body. Before they capture the Tenno, Ordis cuts off Transference, in an attempt to protect the Operator while leaving their Warframe behind. However, the Queens will start the process of Continuity, burrowing into the Tenno's mind through their Warframe surrogate.

After a transitional period into a vision, the Tenno, now in Operator form, appears on an mountain under a snowstorm. There they meet Teshin who instructs them through the mountain pass to regain their memories as a Tenno, which were suppressed by Margulis in an effort to protect them from the Void. The tragic Zariman Ten Zero incident becomes clearer to the Tenno as they regain their ability to manipulate the Void without the need to channel it through a Warframe.

Margulis lied to you, a lie of omission. She did not cure the Zariman children — she erased them. My only hope is that truth still lingers inside you, buried within your mind. The power and the misery. of the Void.

With their original powers back, the Tenno return back to the Kuva Fortress to save Teshin from the Queens. After a series of battle with the Queens' guards and Teshin himself, the Tenno finally circumvents the Queens' defense and steals their Kuva Scepter. Now vulnerable, the Tenno and Teshin kill the Elder Queen, leaving Worm Queen to escape the confines of death.

Back at the mountain pass vision, the Tenno decides what to do with the Kuva stolen from the Queens. Regardless of their decision, a mysterious figure whispers in their mind, foreshadowing the outcome of regaining their Void powers.

Chains of Harrow [ edit | edit source ]

Main article: Chains of Harrow For more backstory, see Rell (Webcomic).

The Tenno receives a strange transmission from an abandoned Steel Meridian ship that draws their attention. Upon arriving on this ship, they discover its crew murdered in cold blood. Odd messages written in blood are scattered throughout, haunting the Tenno as they track down the suspect. Here, they meet Palladino, the Holy Speaker of the Red Veil, who says that their syndicate is in shambles. Their sacred muse, a Tenno named Rell, abandoned his post in their temple, causing chaos throughout their organization. Unlike other Tenno, Rell did not go into cryosleep in the Lua's Reservoirs for he was cast out by Margulis and his fellow Tenno for having contact with The Man in The Wall, a mysterious manifestation of the Void. Instead, he sacrificed his life, bound his spirit to his Warframe, Harrow   Harrow , who became a resting vigil towards The Man in The Wall itself.

Requesting protection, the Tenno brought Palladino to the Steel Meridian base, Iron Wake, where she will be watched by Steel Meridian personnel. To contact Rell, Palladino asks the Tenno to bring back a sacred relic in order to complete her seance. Apparently, Rell still retains memories of his humanity despite having a manic episode that resulted from losing control over Transference. To resolve this, the Tenno captures Rell's manifestations of emotion, disturbances made of Transference energy, and return them to the Red Veil temple in the Void.

In order to end Rell's suffering, the Tenno frees Harrow   Harrow from his chains, allowing Rell to rest in slumber. However, with no vessel to protect against The Man in The Wall, the Tenno will have to deal with the consequences.

The Lotus' Disappearance [ edit | edit source ]

Apostasy Prologue [ edit | edit source ]

A faint purple orb at the end of the Orbiter's Personal Quarters beckons the attention of the Tenno. Upon interacting with it, the Tenno is transitioned to somewhere on Lua where they begin following a purple trail across the desolate Orokin architecture in search for the unknown. As they travel through, they experience the final moments of Margulis before her execution leading up to the discovery of Lotus' enclave at the end of the trail. There, Orokin Executor Ballas appears to apologize to the Lotus and promises to not abandon "Margulis" again. Holding hands, both Ballas and the Lotus disappear into a mysterious light, leaving the Tenno in their Operator form clutching at the remains of Lotus' helmet. The Lotus has left. The mother has abandoned her children.

The Sacrifice [ edit | edit source ]

The Tenno hears faint whispers of the recently abandoned Lotus. Her voice directs them towards her helmet within the Orbiter's Personal Quarters. As the Operator touches the helm, visions of a Warframe being restrained by Ballas and Sentient fighters flow in their mind, prompting them towards Earth to investigate.

The Warframe in question, Excalibur Umbra   Excalibur Umbra , was out of sight — only his remains survived his fight with the Sentients. Ordis attempts to recreate him in the Foundry based on scans of his remains but lacks sufficient data to do so. Trace minerals on Umbra's Skiajati   Skiajati Nikana suggest that more information can be found on Lua. A visit to Lua yielded a Vitruvian device found within a containment lab that belonged to Ballas. This Vitruvian contained recordings made by Ballas on his betrayal to the Orokin during The Old War and the origin of Warframes. Uploading the Vitruvian into the ship's mainframe gave the ability to craft Excalibur Umbra. Upon equipping him in the Arsenal, he immediately goes berserk, gaining sentience and pinning the Operator into a wall until they enter his mind using Transference. The Tenno learns of Umbra's origins as a test subject to Ballas' Warframe project. A bedridden, tortured Dax soldier subjected to injections of a Helminth Infestation strain to produce skin-grafted armor, akin to the modern Warframe.

The memory abruptly ends, and the Operator finds out that Umbra has escaped the ship, rejecting Transference. They chase down Umbra as more entries of the Vitruvian become unlocked by accessing his memories. He contains the key to the secrets of the Warframes themselves.

After multiple tries, the Operator eventually accesses Umbra's final memory: killing his own son Isaah when the Infestation takes complete control over his body. The Operator intervenes in this event, telling Umbra that he doesn't have to relive this event in solitude, instead, they will face this grief together through the duality of mind and body. Umbra as the hand, the Operator as the soul.

And it was not their force of will — not their Void devilry — not their alien darkness. it was something else. It was that somehow, from within the derelict-horror, they had learned a way to see inside an ugly, broken thing —

In this revelation, the minds of Umbra and the Operator are linked — Transference was successful. With this newfound power, the Operator and Umbra fend off a Sentient assault and return to Earth to face Ballas.

During the final confrontation, Umbra successfully stabs Ballas in the gut, defying Ballas' subjugation with the Operator's help. After questioning him on the whereabouts of the Lotus, she appears from the sky in her true Sentient form, taking Ballas with her as she returns back to her Mother. The Lotus is no longer the motherly figure that the Tenno once loved.

Amalgamation of the Origin System [ edit | edit source ]

Chimera Prologue [ edit | edit source ]

The Man in The Wall manifests itself in the Orbiter's Personal Quarters, luring the Tenno towards the Lotus' helmet, dropped during the events of Apostasy Prologue. When the Tenno touches the helmet, they are transported to Lua, where they begin to follow The Man in The Wall. The Man in The Wall leads the Tenno through the Resevoir, and into the Chamber of the Lotus. A portal at the end of the room transports the Tenno into a Sentient chamber that imprisons Ballas, now malformed with Sentient growth. Cursing the Lotus for deceiving him, Ballas discreetly constructs the "Sentient Slayer" away from Lotus' watchful eye. The Tenno grasps the image of the legendary Paracesis   Paracesis  , learning it's blueprint in the process. — The New War is coming.

Alad V's Amalgams [ edit | edit source ]

Alad V returned to work for the Corpus back on Jupiter, although due to the failure of the Zanuka Project and the Mutalist Incursion incident, along with Nef Anyo's Orb Vallis terraforming project winning the favor of Board of Director Frohd Bek, Alad's reputation has since severely diminished. He was approached by an old acquaintance, Regus, who offered him never-before-seen Old War tech. Alad immediately jumped the chance and begun investing, quickly signing a contract that Regus immediately agreed to despite Alad's attempts at manipulating loopholes. However, he soon came to realize something was very wrong when Regus flashed at him with an inhuman smile.

Alad realized too late that the Regus that approached him was actually a Sentient Mimic to his horror, he had entered an unwitting partnership with the enemy. Alad's attempts to defy submission instantly met in failure he had no choice but to comply with the Amalgam project and create soldiers for the Sentients, or the Ropalolyst would raze his gas city and his Corpus rivals would execute him for treason.

The Amalgam program turned out to be a success. As per agreements, the identities of his partners would be kept confidential, instating a strict no-fly zone on their craft. All while Alad V told to himself, "Life is Profit."

In addition to creating the Amalgams, Alad V also works to receive combat data against the Warframes and sends it over to his partners. However, his boasting about his "exciting new product line" is merely a facade, even encouraging and expressing gratitude to the Tenno when they fight the Ropalolyst.

Natah formed an unlikely partnership with Alad V, instructing him to create the Amalgams, Grineer/Corpus hybridized with Sentient powers. These new units, along with their combat data against the Tenno, would further serve the Sentients in their preparation for The New War.

During the mission to kill the Ropalolyst, Natah informs the Tenno them that the belief that she spared them as an act of mercy was false: rather that she was forced into doing so by the Orokin, and that they were both "imprisoned in Lua's belly", shedding light on the events of the Apostasy Prologue as a result. Natah also addresses that she "has seen the wall's other face", implying that during her time in her chambers on Lua, that the Void affected her as well with The Man in The Wall. Furthermore, she establishes the Tenno as the evil entity for the "destruction of my people" following the Ropalolyst's defeat, and foreshadows the events to come in The New War.

The New War [ edit | edit source ]

Erra [ edit | edit source ]

In preparation of The New War, the Tenno travels to the Veil Proxima with their Railjack crew, only to discover a Murex Ship. With their Paracesis   Paracesis in hand, they board the Murex to fend off the Sentient threat. Afterwards, they destroy a mysterious red crystal at the end of the Murex, which upon re-boarding the Orbiter reveals flashbacks about The Old War and Natah's brother, Erra. A vision of the Sentient Mothership exposes a meeting between Erra and Natah, hinting at an escalation of the war with Natah's war cry.

The Maker [ edit | edit source ]

Inside the Sentient mothership, Erra is telling Natah that their mother, who she wrongly believed to be alive, is dead and urges her to finish the war as "[she has] her fire". Natah notes that she remembers ordering the Tenno to attack Erra and that he was destroyed. Erra objects and states that she remembers wrong and will need time to completely heal from "what the Makers had done to [her]". Natah is not convinced and points at leashed Ballas asking if he is one of the Makers.

Erra suddenly grabs and throws Natah at the pedestal behind him, where she is trapped in a field of energy of unknown purpose. Erra tells her to "finish the war" and drops Ballas's leash. Ballas stands as he and Erra silently watch Natah.

Operation: Scarlet Spear [ edit | edit source ]

The Sentients are invading the Origin System—their first destination: Earth. Tenno must coordinate their efforts to fend off Sentient Murex warships in space and Condrix drop ships on the ground. Little Duck has set up a Scarlet Spear Flotilla Relay off Earth's atmosphere as the Tenno's primary base of operations during this invasion.

Angered by the presence of Sentient and Tenno alike, General Sargas Ruk of the Grineer faction tries to sabotage the Tenno's efforts in fending off Condrixes on the forests of Grineer-controlled Earth, believing that it is the Tenno's fault for the Sentient invasion.

Operation: Orphix Venom [ edit | edit source ]

Following the Tenno's victory and the Sentients' defeat in Operation: Scarlet Spear, Erra and the Sentients have retreated and gone into hiding. The second Sentient invasion in the Origin System thus begins, and the Orphix Sentient Units return, but this time they have been taught to override Warframes by deploying weaponized pulses cleverly designed to disable them, leaving the Necramechs as the Tenno's last option.

During the Operation, Natah transmits messages to the Tenno, revealing that she was the one who taught the Orphix to disable Warframes. Her messages about deploying the Orphix series, containing a letter followed by a number, reveal a code from ordering the numbers, which says: "I AM DYING".

The Elf Job in Miitopia

In order to get this job, players will have to have completed the game with their customized Miitopia Miis and unlocked the additional areas and stages after the final boss battle. This being said, this article will have some spoilers for the end of the game as well as post-game content.

Like this job in the original 3DS version of Miitopia, the Elf job cannot be unlocked until after the Dark Lord has been defeated and the additional, post-game areas have been unlocked. Players will then have access to the two secret jobs that are unlocked by finding charms: the Vampire Job and the Elf Job. The Elf job gives players an enchanted bow, and this job allows players to do anything any of the other jobs can do, just not as well. Elves are quite squishy, and will most likely need a lot of healing while in battle.

Neuroscientists Unlock the Secrets of Memory Champions

In five minutes, 32-year-old Boris Konrad can memorize more than 100 random dates and events. After 30 seconds, he can tell you the order of an entire deck of cards. During the 2009 German Memory Championships, Konrad memorized 195 names and faces in 15 minutes—a feat that won him a gold medal. What's it like to be born with a brain capable of such incredible feats? He says he wouldn't know.

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That’s because Konrad’s remarkable talent wasn’t innate it was learned. “I started with a normal memory and just trained myself,” he recalls. Konrad credits his subsequent success in the world of competitive memory sports to years of practice and employing memorization strategies like the ancient "Memory Palace" technique. In fact, Konrad says, any average forgetful Joe can use these same strategies to train their brains like a memory champion.

The idea that simple memory techniques can result in significant, lasting gains in the ability to memorize faces and lists may at first sound hard to believe. But a new brain imaging study that Konrad co-authored lends scientific support to the claim. Konrad, a world-ranked memory champ who has trained many memories himself over the years, teamed up with Martin Dresler, a cognitive neuroscientist at Radboud University Medical Center in The Netherlands, to delve deeper into the neuroscience behind these tried-and-true memory-boosting techniques.

For the first time, the researchers used brain imaging to reveal that practicing these kinds of mnemonic techniques can actually alter crucial connections to make memorizers’ brains more resemble those of the world's memory champions. The results, published March 8 in the journal Neuron, shed some light on why these techniques have such a strong track record.

In the study, 23 participants who spent 30 minutes a day training their memories more than doubled their abilities to remember lists in just 40 days. (For example, those who could remember an average of 26 words from a list were able to recall 62.) Perhaps best of all, it appears that these gains aren't short-lived and don't require continued training: Researchers invited the group back after four months and found that their memory performance was still high, even though they hadn't been training at all.

In recent years, Dresler and colleagues investigated 35 of those memory champions and found they share something surprising in common. “Without exception, all of them tell us that they had a pretty normal memory before they learned of mnemonic strategies and started training in them,” he says. “Also, without exception, they say the method of loci is the most important strategy.”

The “method of loci”—sometimes called the Memory Palace—is a systematic memory technique that dates back to the days of ancient Greece. The system remained prevalent through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Educators used it as did orators, the better to remember aspects of long speeches of a more attentive age.

In the 2011 UK Open Memory Championships held at MWB Business Exchange, competitors were tasked with remembering a 2,000 digit number and the running order of 12 packs of cards. (WENN Ltd / Alamy )

How does it work? Users create a visual map in the mind, like a familiar house or walking route, and then connect memorable, multisensory images to each location to retrieve them later. To remember a string of unrelated words, for example, Konrad might map the body starting with the feet, then moving to the knees, and so on. He then "places" two words at each location to memorize a list of unconnected terms.

For example, if the words for feet are "moss" and "cow," he might picture walking on a mossy field, getting bits of moss stuck on his socks and watching a smelly cow grazing on that moss. If the next location, the knees, is assigned the words "queen and bell" Konrad then imagines walking off the moss to sit on a stump. Suddenly the Queen of England promptly appears to sit on his knee. She then pulls from her pocket a bell which she beings to ring loudly.

Absurd? Of course. But memorable, Konrad, stresses. And that's the point. The system takes advantage of the memory's strong ability to store spatial locations and make associations. (See him walk though this and other examples in a TED talk.) 

Konrad wasn't surprised that the study results showed dramatic improvements for all the subjects who put in the training time. “As it was my training paradigm we used, and I have trained many groups with it before, I at least knew it does work—and work well," he says. "So I also had the hypothesis it would have a comparable effect in the brain as within the athletes." Moreover, previous studies have chronicled the success of these kinds of memory techniques.

But until now, researchers didn’t understand how they worked in the brain. So for this study, researchers decided to scan the brains of memorizers as they practiced tried-and-true memory techniques, to see how their brains changed in response to their training. They used fMRI scans to look at the brains of 23 memory competitors and 51 people who resembled them in age, health and intelligence but had only typical memory.

As far as brain structure and anatomy were concerned, the brains all looked basically the same, offering no clue to the memory mojo that some of them enjoyed. But when the average memory people divided into three groups and began to train their memories, something changed.

The control group that received no memory training, unsurprisingly, showed little to no gain in memory performance. The second group practiced memorizing challenges similar to the way one might when playing Concentration, finding and remembering locations of matching cards from a deck spread across a table. They'd recalled 26 to 30 words, on average, before training. After 40 days, they'd upped that by an average of 11 words.

But those who trained using the method of loci received the real boost. That third group used a public platform called Memocamp, which Dresler chose because it's used by many champion memorizers. They more than doubled their initial memorizing ability during the 40 days.

Not only had the group's memory abilities changed—so had their brains. The fMRI images mapped blood flow and brain activity for some 2,500 different connections, including 25 that stood out as most linked with the greater memory skills displayed by the competitors. Post-training scans showed that this group's patterns of connectivity had begun to rearrange themselves in a way that the memory champions functioned, but the others groups did not.

“I think the most interesting part of our study is the comparison of these behavioral memory increases with what happens on the neurobiological level,” he says. “By training this method that all the memory champions use, your changeable brain connectivity patterns develop in the direction of the world's best memory champions.” 

That result also says something about the origins of the champions' memorizing talent, says Umeå University neuroscientist Lars Nyberg, who wasn't involved in the study. “The finding that training can shape the brain in a similar way in non-experts supports the view that expert performance is really the result of training—not any particular abilities," he says.

Being able to memorize long lists of names and faces might seem like a novelty, but it can have some real world applications. Users might memorize grocery lists, for example, or learn to match faces and names, which is an event at memory competitions. But those hoping that practice will help them never miss an appointment should think twice.

Monica Melby-Lervåg, at the University of Oslo, has explored how working memory training might help the cognitive development of children and adults. So far, she notes, this kind of training hasn't been shown to impact more general cognitive or memory function. “The more critical thing here is how this transfer to tasks relevant for daily life (i.e. beyond a technical memory test), and the prospects for this do not look very good based on many previous studies,” she notes.

Indeed, even the superstars of memory sport admit to having the same day-to-day brain cramps as the rest of us, from forgetting their car keys to leaving their wallet at a restaurant. So far, it appears that if memory trainers like the method of loci are valuable tools, they only work for memorizing lists and only when people actively use them.

“You do have to apply this for it to work,” says Dresler. “Your memory doesn't just get better in general. So when you don't apply this strategy, probably your memory is only as good as it was before.” 

Unlocking the secrets to a long life, one comic at a time

At 32, Rebecca Roher is probably used to being the youngest person in the room by at least 60 years.

Roher's a Toronto artist, and in 2017 she won top honours at the Doug Wright Awards for her graphic novel Bird in a Cage, a tender memoir from her grandmother's final years. But for the last eight months she's been travelling Europe, interviewing senior citizens (aged 90 and up) for her latest comics project: One Hundred Year-Old Wisdom.

Anyone who's ever covered a 100-year-old's birthday — from the intern at your local cable access station to Ellen DeGeneres — is curious about the same biggie of a question: what's the secret to an unusually long life? Though if you've sat through any of those stories, the advice never seems to check out. Around the time she was developing Bird in a Cage, Roher was YouTube-ing loads of those videos."The secret to long life is often really funny, like 'I eat oatmeal every day!' or 'I stayed away from men!'"

It's an absurd question to ask, she says, but it's undeniably intriguing. To be mortal is to desperately want the secret. "What ARE the secrets to long life? I want to know what their answers are!"

"The history of what they've lived through — that's fascinating to me."

So since 2017, she's been seeking out the formula for herself, interviewing nonagenarians for a project that she ultimately plans to compile as a book. In the meantime, she regularly publishes short comics of the conversations. Painted in gouache and featuring Roher herself as an ever-observant reporter (for the make-believe TV station WCH TV), they've appeared in a variety of publications so far, including Taddle Creek and comics site The Nib. (Read them all via her website.)

In one comic, Lawrence, a 98-year-old from Toronto, says the secret to eternal-ish youth is drinking vodka. ("Anytime I like!") Joy, a 99-year-old from Nova Scotia, prefers rye, but she attributes her longevity to keeping busy. ("I leave my glasses upstairs for the exercise.")

Collecting everyone's "secrets to long life" is the hook of the whole project, says Roher. "I want to know their answer, or I want to get their take on it." But she's just as interested in documenting the ephemera of their daily lives.

Personal history drives the comics, and as she's met people in 10 countries around Europe — the U.K., the Netherlands, France, Denmark, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Greece, Germany and the Czech Republic — geography and culture is an unavoidable influence on their stories.

The experience of living through the Second World War couldn't be more different for two Jewish seniors she interviewed in London. Roher shared some sketches from those conversations on Instagram: "Sam survived the Warsaw ghetto, labour camps, Birkenau and a death march," she writes in the post. "Marion, who grew up in London, was evacuated to the countryside. Being Jewish hardly factored into her life at all."

And then there's her third big conversational topic: "What's it like as an elderly person above 90 existing in the world?" It's a simple question, but one that's arguably not asked all that much. It's actually part of the reason Roher started framing the comics as news reports.

"I was thinking about how we don't often put the elderly in the limelight in the media," she says. "We often shy away from old people and their stories. I think we kind of don't like to be reminded of our own decline, our death. It seems a bit strange for a reporter to interview an elderly person for their opinion." The comics, in their way, address that blind spot.

Since November, Roher's homebase has been the Maisons des auteurs, an artist residency tailored for cartoonists and animators in Angoulême, France. (One Hundred Year-Old Wisdom, which is supported by a Canada Council for the Arts grant, has been the focus of her residency.) Beyond trips to Ikaria, Greece and Sardinia, Italy — two of the world's so-called "blue zones," places where people live longer than anywhere else — Roher's found most of the interview subjects through friends. (She's found translators that way, too — including the 87-year-old grandmother of one pal, a former translator for the President of Spain.)

"There are a lot of organizations that exist in Europe that are about documenting the stories of people who've lived in the past 100 years that I've been able to connect with," she says, including Memoro and Memory of Nations. Those groups, plus various community centres and seniors residences, introduced her to folks outside her circles.

When she returns to Toronto later this summer, the chase will continue, with a particular interest in reflecting the cultural and racial diversity of the city. (If you know any interested 100-year-olds, send her an email.) Because even after all of her research, she hasn't cracked the formula for defying the average life expectancy.

"What is the secret to long life?" Roher laughs. "I've learned so much," she says, but she admits it's no one thing.

"I think the resounding theme that I see is that it's sort of like a stubborn spirit," she says. "It's this determined spirit. [The people I've interviewed] are determined to do what they've always done — they need to do it regardless of how old they are or how their body is changing, or failing, in different ways."

She remembers one woman she met in London, a former social worker named Grace. She never married she loved her job. "She was like, 'You know, I had boyfriends, but I didn't want to listen to their bad jokes for the rest of my life," laughs Roher. "I really appreciated hearing that — that unusual narrative from the one we predominantly hear from women. That validated my own experience. And I saw that patterned in people's attitudes — this determined spirit. It is very empowering."

"This whole project feels like a bit of a humanitarian effort — a way to bring humans together to have more understanding about themselves and each other," says Roher. "That's inspiring to me. It was confirmed over and over again — which makes me want to keep doing it."

Keep up with One Hundred Year-Old Wisdom on Facebook, Instagram and Rebecca Roher's website.


  1. Raphael

    I think you have misled.

  2. Weyland

    I think, that you commit an error.

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